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under Lord Inchiquin, revolted to the English parliament; and thereby gave them a safe retreat, free paffage, and necessary provisions of all they wanted; as likewise harbours for their ships, to bring every thing to them they could desire. This defection, in so fatal a juncture of time, when the straits Cromwell was in by the winter, and want of provisions, had raised the spirits of men; and when they looked upon themselves as like to have at least, fome hopeful encounter with him, was not (adds my author) a loss, or a blow; but a dissolution of the whole frame of their hopes and designs ; and confirmed that spirit of jealousy and animosity in the army, which no dexterity nor interest, of the lord lieutenant could extinguish or allay.

This general defection of Inchiquin's forces seems to have given the first rise and occasion to the obnoxious proceedings of the congregation of bishops at Jamestown, they looking upon it, as a new and corroborating proof of Ormond's being privately connected with the English rebels. For, although his excellency had been fully apprised by the confederates, of the ill affections, and actual revolt of several of the officers of these garrisons,' before the general treachery now mentioned; yet he readily agreed to Inchiquin's suspicious ftipulation, “ that " these garrisons should be entirely


9 Cart. Orm. vol.ii. fol. 101-2.

19 Id. ib.vol. ii. fol. 102.

carried over with him, above five thousand horse and foot to Dungarvan.” Borl. Irish Rebel. fol. 289. From Clarend.

Yet, “ the above-mentioned revolting garrisons had been fupplied by the Irish during the whole preceding summer, to their excessive charge.” Orm. Lett. to the king. Carte's Collect. of Orig. Papers, vol. i. p. 419.

fTo screen Inchiquin, these revolting officers seized and made prisoners of his wife and children, whom, (adds my author) not without much difficulty, he got re-delivered to him.” Borl. Irish Rebel. fol. 287.

And Ormond's afterwards shewing particular favour and friendship to Inchiquin, was one of the causes of the people's dislike and suspicion of him. “ Some of the principal persons (among the confederates) and with them fome of the bishops, left to his own disposal ; nor could Inchiquin ever after be prevailed upon to admit any of the Irish forces, though actually in the king's service, into them.”


Before the peace of 1648 was concluded, the Marquis of Ormond, in order to induce the Prince of Wales to come over to Ireland, to take upon him the command of that army, told his highness, “ that in all their judgments, his speedy access was become so absolutely necessary, that there appeared little hopes that without it that army could be long contained from seeking its own security in a fubmission to the prevalent party in England; but that if his highness arrived speedily, the awe of his person might confirm such as were wavering."" And not long before the marquis's return to Ireland, as lord lieutenant, about the end of September, 1648, Lord Inchiquin, by means of two of his colonels, Townshend and Derby, was said to have sent over to the committee at Derby-house, some propositions for the surrender of the towns in Munster; upon which the committee at Derby-house, says Borlase, sent back Colonel Temple with power to treat with the Lord Inchiquin ; but before his arrival there, Sir Richard Fanshaw, the prince's secretary, was come


" Cart. Orm. vol. iii. fol.


under shew of great confidence and trust, repaired to the lord lieutenant at Limerick, 1649, and declared unto him, that all that indisposition and waywardness of the people proceeded from the prejudice they had against Lord Inchiquin, who had always, they said, prosecuted the war against them with the utmost rigour and animosity, and the places and persons which had been most at his devotion, having treacheroully revolted to the parliament, the people were not confident of him, and jealous that the marquis had too great a confidence in him ; so that if he would difmiss that lord, and discharge the troops that yet remained under his command, of which some frequently ran away to the parliament, not only that city (Limerick) but the whole nation, would, as one man, be at his disposal.” Borl. Irish Rebel. fol.

303. From Clarendon. See what follows, ib. fol. 304. Some leading persons applied to Inchiquin to take the command on him, as being of their ancient families ; but 'tis certain that there hated both Inchiquin and Ormond, but on account of the former's family, would make choice of him as the leffer evil.

from the prince to Inchiquin, with a declaration of the prince's design to send the Duke of York into Ireland with such of the revolted ships as remained in Holland, and to let him know the hopes he had, that by his assistance and the army under his command, both he and his father might be restored. This (adds my author) so puffed up Inchiquin, that he would hear of no overtures from Derby-house, and made him absolutely difavow that he had any knowledge of the propositions sent over, though he was said with his own hand to have interlined and approved them in several places.

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The Marquis of Ormond desires leave to quit the

kingdom. His excellency, so early as December 24th, 1649, had requested, and shortly after obtained the king's permission, to withdraw both himself and his majesty's authority out of the kingdom, if he should fee occasion." And the better to secure his retreat on all sides, from a people whose lofses under him, and jealousies of him, were daily increasing, his friend ? Dean Boyle, privately procured him a pass from Oliver Cromwell ; which being afterwards discovered, by the ungenerous use that regicide made of it, his lordship returned it by a trumpet, with a letter informing him, that it was officiously fought for and obtained by the Dean, without either his consent or privity:

His excellency's desire to withdraw himself out of the kingdom proceeded not, as has been already hinted, from the supposed refractory and disloyal behaviour of the Irish clergy, but from his own consciousness of the people's great mistrust of him, and their consequent aversion to his government. For, as he himself justly


12 Borl. Hist. of the Irish Rebel. fol. 254-5.

a Cart. Orm. vol. ii. fol. 121.

· Cart.

observed on that occasion, " these people believing themselves betrayed, would think it vain to be persuaded into action, which might render them incapable of conditions from the enemy. Or if they should be

got forth, perhaps with church censures, it would be with despair, not hope of success; whilst they sufpected their leader of having made conditions for him. self, upon their ruin."

Another of his reasons for desiring that permission was, “ that it appeared every day more evidently than other, and would soon be visible to those of the shortest forefight, that upon any thing Ireland could afford, it would not be possible to make any resistance against the rebels; who then had the whole coast towards England, Waterford excepted, ready to receive their forces; commodious harbours for their shipping, and garrisons from whence they would immediately be in the heart of his best countries, and at the walls of his remaining towns.”

After which he thus proceeds, “ what thoughts of submission (to the rebels) this may produce in these people, or the greater number of them, I know not; I therefore humbly desire that your majesty would be pleased to send me your commands to withdraw myself hence.”

Nay, his excellency seemed in some measure, to apologize for these people's aversion to his government, and their desire to get rid of it ;s“ for many of the Irish,” says he,“ having promised themselves many advantages by their coming under his majesty's obedience, as the assistance of the army formerly under Lord Inchiquin's command, and the advantage of trade with the towns possessed by him; that his majesty would be able, in part; to ease them of the burden of the

war, by supplies of money, arms, and ammunition, and that whilst the rebels forces were bent against them, occasion would be taken to raise fome diversion in England or out of Scotland ; and finding Lord Inchiquin's forces, which, to their excessive charge, they had


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3 Cart. Collect. of Orig. Pap. vol. ii. 450.

4 Id. ib. s Id. ib. p. 419, 420.

supplied all the summer, now turned against them, and the towns become garrisons to their enemies, from whence to annoy them by sea and land ; no sapplies at all from abroad, and no diversion in England, though Cromwell and Ireton, the supposed heads of the rebels, were removed from thence ; all these disappointments of their hopes, aggravated by the enforced spoil of a successless army, began to breed in them such aversion," fays he, “ to his majesty's authority, and to myself, to whom all their misfortunes, the negligence, cowardice, and treachery of others, are attributed, that I am told, it was in agitation with the violent party of the clergy, and others set on by Lord Antrim, to procure a protestation against my government.” This letter is dated December 15, 1649, and the clergy's censure and declaration were not published till September following ; so that it could be no such surprise upon his excellency, as is pretended.

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The king is invited to go to Scotland. ABOUT this time, the king was proclaimed in Scotland ; and commissioners were sent from thence to invite him over to that kingdom; but upon such conditions, as were utterly inconsistent, not only with the dignity and good faith of a king, but even with the honour and integrity of a gentleman.

“ Thefe 'commiffioners were the Earl of Cassels, two burgesses, and four presbyterian divines. To give the better afsurances of their good intentions to his fervice, immediately before their coming out of Scotland, the Marquis of Huntly was put to death, for no other crime but his loyalty to the king.

The Marquis of Ormond, still in Ireland, was consulted upon this, as indeed, he was upon every other important concern of his majesty. But that he did not always deliver his opinion, with such candour and fincerity as were suitable to the confidence reposed in him, is but too apparent, from his own letters on that

occasion Cart. Collect. Orig. Pap. vol. i. p. 268.


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