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all their people, not to delude

to delude themselves with vain expectations of conditions to be obtained from that merciless enemy.

And they besought the gentry, and the rest of their countrymen, for God's glory, and their own safety, to contribute, with patience, to the utmost of their power, towards the fupport of the war against him. They, particularly, exhorted those who were enlisted in the army, to perfevere constantly in their opposition to the common enemy, as they expected the blessing of God upon their endeavours.", The Marquis of Ormond, in a letter to the king, observed, « that, in this assembly there were divers speeches made, tending to the fatisfaction of the people, and to incline them to obedience to his majesty, and amity among themselves, in opposition to the rebels.” It must be, therefore, observed, in justice to these bishops, that it was in this letter to the king that the marquis first asked his majesty's permission to leave the kingdom, as being absolutely indefensible against the rebels, by what powers he could then command. So very distant from truth is that general assertion of our historians, that it was the refractoriness, disobedience, and even rebellious disposition of the Irish clergy, that first made him resolve upon quitting the government of Ireland at that juncture.

CH A P.

i Borl. Irish Rebel. fol. 290.

Cart. Coll. of Orig. Par.

Cromwell, to express their deteftation of all odious distinctions and animofities between old Irish, Englifh and Scottish royalists, and their resolution of punifhing all the clergy who should be found to encourage them.” Leland's Hift. vol. iii. p. 359.

“ It cannot be denied (fays Borlase from Clarendon) that the conclufions which were made there, feemed full of respect for the king's service, and wholesome advice and counfel to the people.” Irifh Rebel. fol. 293.

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Owen O’Nial submits to the peace; Inchiquin's

forces revolt to the rebels. OWEN O'Nial, who commanded an army of five thousand foot and five hundred horse, having been incensed beyond measure at the assembly's proclaiming him a traitor; and at the same time flattered by Sir Charles Coote and Colonel Monck, with hopes of a toleration of his religion, and the restitution of his estate, had entered into a treaty with the latter, and' relieved the former, when closely besieged in Derry, the only place of strength that was then in the rebels possession in the province of Ulster. But the English parliament soon after condemned his treaty with Monck, and rejected his further service."

This

Cart. Orm. vol. ii. fol. 77.

2

“ Invited by Sir Charles Coote with an offer of 5000l. for that service.” Cart. Orm. vol. ii. fol. 76.

Owen O'Nial was in great want of ammunition; to procure a supply, he sent Hugh M Patrick Dubh M‘Mahon to make a treaty with Monck, who readily entered into an agreement with him, engaging to supply him with the necessaries he wanted.” Id. ib. fol. 73.

Monck’s proposals to O’Nial were: ift. Liberty of conscience to all his party and their issue. 2d. A competent command to O'Nial himself in the rebel army. 3d. An act of oblivion for all they had done since 1641. 4th. His party to be restored to all the lands they possessed before that time. 5th. That O'Nial be put into possession of his ancestors estate. 6th. That O'Nial shall be provided with a convenient sea-port in Ulster, and his army provided for in all points, as the rest of the

army

shall be."' Hift. of Independency, p. 237.

b Sir Charles Coote in a letter to the council of state in England, August 15th, 1649, informs them, “ that O'Nial freely offered him his assistance, professing much affection to the parliament of England, and earnest desire to maintain their interest; that he had found O'Nial and his army very punctual and faithful in all their promises and engagements; and he made no

doubt

This is commonly thought to have been the cause of his quitting that party, and seeking an alliance with the Marquis of Ormond,“ to whom two blanks had been fent, about that time, under his majesty's hand and seal, to be made use of in any treaty or transaction with him."

Wherefore, through the agency of colonel Daniel O’Nial, that general's nephew, whom the Marquis of Ormond sent to folicit him for that purpose, “ Owen O’Nial, on the 12th of October 1649, concluded and signed an agreement, on certain conditions, with his excellency; which, though himself lived not to accomplish, dying at Cloughouter-castle, in the county of Cavan, in the beginning of December, was shortly after performed.” Vol. II.

C

Mr.

2 Cart. Collect. of Orig. Pap. vol. ii. p. 317.

3 Cart. Orm. vol. ii.

doubt but they would continue so to the end. But after all, in the cant of the times, desires them to call to mind, that it is no new thing with the most wise God to make use of wicked instruments to bring about a good design for the advancement of his glory." Hift. of Independency, p. 245-6.

« Many were of opinion (fays Borlase) that all that was done both by Sir Charles Coote and by Monck (with O'Nial) was transacted by the privity, if not confent, of the grandees in England ; but the grounds to fasten this upon them could never be found, though the business hath been narrowly searched into: known it was, that there was a person sent over, and many overtures made by a priest, O'Reilly, to the committee of Derbyhouse, but with what reception, the certainty yet remains in the elouds.” Irish Reb. fol. 276.

There is a very different cause assigned for this accommodation of O'Nial with Ormond, in a letter from Secretary Nicholas to Ormond himself, which he says came from a very good author, Lord Brudenell. It is there expressly faid, “ that O'Nial had written to Cromwell to thank him for the care he had taken of himself and his army ; but desired him withal to consider, that his promise (to assist him) was but conditional, as presupposing the Pope's approbation, which he could never obtain ; but, on the contrary, had received a peremptory command from him, to do nothing prejudicial to the crown of England.” Cart. Collect. of Orm. Orig. Papers, vol. i. p. 298.

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Mr. Belling informs us,“ “ that when the news came of Ormond's being routed by Jones at Rathmines, O'Nial afsembled the chief officers of his army and addressed them thus. “ Gentlemen, to demonstrate to the world, that I value the service of my king, and the welfare of my nation, as I always did, I now forget and forgive the supreme council, and my enemies their ill practices, and all the wrongs they did me from time to time, and will now embrace that peace which I formerly rejected out of a good intent.” He fent his forces to Ormond, under Ever M‘Mahon, bishop of Clogher, to whom the Marquis had given a commission to command them. “ It must be acknowledged,” says Borlase, from Clarendon, “ that this bishop performed and observed the conditions very justly, as he was punctual in what he promised, and applied himself with all dexterity and industry to the advancement of his majesty's interest ; so that, during his time, he restrained the clergy from making any acts, which might discourage the people from their obedience to the king's authority."'s This bishop was afterwards taken prisoner in an engagement near Ènniskillen, after having received many wounds; and ignominiously put to death, by the positive order of Sir Charles Coote, whom, within less than a year, he had relieved when in great extremity.'

The Marquis of Ormond had received frequent warnings of the infidelity of Inchiquin's officers; and some probable reasons for withdrawing his confidence from Inchiquin himself. His excellency, in a letter to that lord, November 16th, 1648, on occasion of the before-mentioned mutiny of these officers, told him plainly, “ that? he was very unwilling to have any thing to do with them; and seemed to think that they had but delayed their design, waiting for a more hopeful opportunity to accomplish their end, which he understood to be, to betray his lordship and himself to the independents.”

The

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+ MSS. Hiftory.
5 Hift. of the Irish Rebel. fol.

313 * Id. ib. fol. 312. Clarendon. Irish Rebel. ?Cart. Orm. vol. ij.

The defection of these officers soon after to the parliament, to which Lord Broghill's “ treachery and artifice not a little contributed, fufficiently justified these suspicions. For in this favourable conjuncture of the accession of O'Nial's forces, the distress of Cromwell's army, and the probability there was, by the advantage of a pass, of cutting off his provisions, and of making his retreat to Dublin very difficult, without losing a good part of his men; in these circumstances, I say,

on a sudden, and altogether, all the considerable places in the province of Munster, as Cork, Youghall, Kinsale, Bandon-bridge, Moyallo, and other garrisons, C 2

under

8

8 Clarend. Cart. Lel. Hist. vol. iii. p. 357.

* In an engagement near Clonmell, “ this Lord Broghill had taken the titular bishop of Ross prisoner, and promised to spare his life on condition that he should use his spiritual authority with the garrison of a fort adjacent to the field of battle, and prevail on them to surrender. For this purpose he was conducted to the fort ; but the gallant captive, unshaken by the fear of death, exhorted the garrison to maintain their post resolutely against the enemies of their religion and country, and instantly resigned himself to execution. His enemies," adds my author, “ could discover nothing in his conduct but insolence and obstinacy; for he was a papist and prelate.” Lel. Hift. of Irel. vol. iii. p. 362-3

Broghill's chaplain and panegyrist, Mr. Morrice, informs us, that while his lordship was engaged in a battle against the king's forces in Ireland, “ orders were once given by himself to the chief commanders, to give no quarters that day to any in arms.” Broghill's life prefixed to Orrery's State Lett,

“ These garrisons (says Cox) by the means of Lord Broghill, &c. revolted all at once.” Hift. of Irel. p. 12,

“ Dungarvan was delivered up to Cromwell the 3d of De. cember, 1649, where he found my Lord Broghill, who partly by his own interest, and the disaffection in the soldiers to Lord Inchiquin, had gotten in all the towns in Munster, that had formerly been under the parliament ; a service most considerable, and such as was of very great advantage to Cromwell, who was now in great straits where to take up his winter quarters for his sick and distressed regiments. His army, partly by leaving garrisons in several places he had taken in, being so much weakened and impaired, so as he brought not, of all the men he

carried

e

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