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three miles from Dublin, his whole army was surprifed and routed, by Michael Jones, governor of that city for the parliament, on the 2d of August, 1649. “ Jones, according to the Marquis of Ormond's account, flew fix hundred in that engagement; some upon the spot, and in the pursuit ; but the greatest part after they had lain down their arms, upon promife of quarter, and had been, for almost an hour, prisoners ;' and divers of them were murdered, after they were brought within the works of Dublin.” This sudden and unaccountable defeat at Rathmines, renewed, in the Irish, all their former fufpicions, that his excellency had still fome private understanding with the English rebels ; and these fufpicious were increafed, by the constant ill fuccefs of all his fubfequent undertakings against their partizans in Ireland. To these misfortunes was foon after added a general panic, occasioned by the unparalleled cruelties of Oliver Cromwell, who landed at Dublin,4 on the 15th of that month, with eight thousand foot, and four thousand horse, two hundred thoufand pounds in money, and a vaft quantity of ammunition, and all kind of neceffaries for war. " With these forces, he on

the

3 Cart. Orig. Pap. vol. ii. P. 397.

4 Carte's Orm. vol. . f. 83. b« Fifteen hundred private foldiers, and three hundred officers, were made prisoners ; about fix hundred flain ; many of these, to the disgrace of the conquerors, when they had accepted quarter, and laid down their arms." Lel. Hift. of Irel. vol. iii. p. 346.

€“ Soon after this defeat," says Borlase, “ Jones was writ to by his excellency, to have a list of the prisoners he had taken from him: to whom it was replied, "My lord, since I routed your army, I cannot have the happiness to know where you are, that I may wait upon you. Michael Jones." Irish Rebel. fol. 280.

à Borlafe informs us, " that this defeat at Rathmines altered the result of councils at court, till then very strong for his majesty's repair into Ireland, the Scots having given ill proof of their integrity and faith. And certainly,” adds he, “ the Irish were, at that time, so disposed, as properly they would have submitted to his majesty, whatever afterwards might have been the result of their compliance.” Hift. Ir. Reb. f. 280.

the 3d of September, besieged and took Drogheda by storm. And although all his officers and soldiers, had promised quarter to such of the garrison, as would lay down their arms; and performed it, as long as any place held out, which encouraged others to yield; yet when they once had got all in their power, Cromwell, being told by Jones that he had now the flower of the Irish army

in his hands, gave orders that no quarter should be given; so that many of his soldiers were forced to kill their prisoners.”f

The Marquis of Ormond, in a letter to Lord Byron on this occasion, says,

6 “ that Cromwell exceeded even himself, for any thing he had ever heard of, in breach of faith and bloody inhumanity; and that the cruelties exercised there, for five days after the town was taken, would make as many several pictures of inhumanity, as are to be found in the book of martyrs, or the relation of Amboyna. In this carnage, out of three thousand, he left only about thirty persons alive; and these he sent to Barbadoes.

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5 Carte's Orm. vol. ii. fol. 44. Lel. Hift. vol. iii. p. 350.

• Cart. Collect. of Orig. Pap. vol. ii.

e « Cromwell marched from Dublin to Drogheda, on the 30th of August, 1649, with an army of nine or ten thousand men.” Borl. Irish Rebel. f. 282.

“ Cromwell, they fay, made his soldiers believe, that the Irish ought to be dealt with as the Canaanites in Joshua's time.” Dr. Anderson's Royal Genealogies, p. 786.

* « The brave governor Sir Arthur Afton, Sir Edmund Verney, the Colonels Warren, Fleming and Byrne, were killed in cold blood; and indeed all the officers, except fome few of the least consideration, that escaped by miracle." Carte's Orm. vol. ii. fol. 84.

And yet, in the Journals of the Irish Commons, an. 1697, we find recorded, « the very great and fignal services done by this Lieutenant General Jones, in reducing Ireland to the obedience of England " i. e. to the rebel parliament of England. Com. Journ. vol. ii. f. 864.

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Cromwell's policy to reduce Ireland. CROMWELL

OMWELL having soon after repeated the same cruelties in the town of Wexford, which was betrayed to him by one Stafford, increased the general terror to such a degree, “ that towns fifty miles distant from him,' declared against the Marquis of Ormond ;"

which

· Cart. Collect. of Orig. Papers, vol. ii.

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a Stafford was governor of the castle of Wexford; “ which Cromwell having thus gained, advanced his flag upon it, and turned the guns against the town. Fear seized the townsmen, and the soldiers in confusion quitted their posts. Cromwell's soldiers perceiving this, presently clapped scaling ladders to the walls, and entered without resistance, into the town; wherein all found in arms were put to the sword, to the number of two thousand." Borl. Irish Rebel. f. 284.

“ Though Colonel David Synod, governor of the town, had confidence by the propositions he fent:

ist, That the inhabitants of the town should exercise, without disturbance, the Roman catholic religion.

2d, That their religious orders and priests should enjoy their monasteries and churches.

3d, That Nicholas (French), Bishop of Ferns, and his fucceffors, should have the undisturbed jurisdiction of their diocefles.

4th, That their officers and soldiers should march out with flying colours, and the other punctilios of honour.

5th, That whoever of the inhabitants should hereafter defire to depart the town, should have whatever was theirs with them.

6th, That all freemen should have their liberties and immunities hitherto enjoyed, they adhering to the state of England.

7th, None to be disturbed in their possessions, &c.

« All which (says Borlase) Cromwell accounting impudent, had no effect.” Hift. Irish' Rebel. fol. 284-5. Though he had just before (fol. 284.) faid, that “ Synod's commissioners, treating with Cromwell, had procured the safety of the inhabitants of the town, and preservation of it from plunder, as well as leave for the soldiers to depart every one to their own

homes,

which provoked his excellency to say, doubtless with more anger than truth, “ that the Roman catholics, who stood so rigidly with the king upon religion, and that, as they called it, in the splendor of it, were then with difficulty withheld from sending commissioners to intreat him to make stables and hospitals of their churches." But if, indeed, these people were at first so much terrified by this monster's unparalleled cruelties, they foon resumed sufficient courage to reject several more advantageous conditions, from his favourite and confident, Ireton, even in point of religion, than the Marquis of Ormond could ever be prevailed upon, by the most urgent necessity of his majesty's affairs, to allow them. For when that regicide, in his march to Munster, fent proposals to the citizens of Limerick, offering them the free exercise of their religion, enjoyment of their estates, churches and church-livings, a free trade and commerce, and no garrisons to be pressed upon them, provided they would only give a free passage to his forces into the county of Clare; these citizens absolutely rejected the

overture.

But Oliver Cromwell, besides his execrable policy of facilitating the conquest of Ireland, by the fame of his cruelties, had taken care, before he left Dublin, to publish a * proclamation forbidding his foldiers,

on

Id. ib. 3 Cart. Orm. vol. ii. fol. 123. Lel. Hist. vol. iii. P: 370. 4 Cart. Orm. vol. ii. f. 9o.

homes, they engaging not to bear arms against the states of England ; and lastly, of life to the officers.

Yet (adds my author) in great consternation, fear having surprized the townsmen and citizens before the commissioners return, they endeavoured to pass over the water for the safety of their lives ; which Cromwell's soldiers perceiving, clapt scaling ladders to the walls, and entered the town without any

resistance; wherein all found in arms were put to the sword, to the number of two thousand ; among whom Sir Edmund Butler was killed, before he had been two hours in the city. Cromwell, in the interim, not losing twenty men in the whole fiege.” Id. ib.

on pain of death, to hurt any of the inhabitants, or take any thing from them, without paying for it in ready money. This was so strictly executed, that even in his March from Dublin to Drogheda, where he was guilty of that horrid butchery, and breach of faith before-mentioned, he ordered two of his private foldiers to be put to death, in the face of the whole army, for stealing two hens from an Irishman, which were not worth sixpence.

Upon this strict observance of the proclamation, together with pofitive assurances given by his officers, as that they were for the liberties of the commons, that every one should enjoy the freedom of his religion, and that those who ferved the market at the camp, should pay no contribution, all the country people flocked to them, with all kind of provisions ; and due payment being made for the fame, his army was much better supplied, than even that of the Irish ever had been.”

On this occasion, a congregation of twenty catholic archbishops and bifhops having on the 4th of December 1649, afsembled, of their own accord, at Clonmacnoise, published a declaration, wherein “ they admonished

all

s Doctor Gorges's Letter to Colonel Hamilton. Append. to Lesley's Anf. to King's state of the Protestants under K. James.

6 Carte, ubi fupra.

b“The whole Irish party, (says Leland) was anxious for the event of this self-appointed council

, and looked for nothing less important than a violent proteftation against the government of Ormond. Happily the temper of one of their bishops, Ever Mac Mahon, the Romish prelate of Clogher, disappointed these expectations. From the time of the accommodation between Ormond and O'Nial, in which Mac Mahon had been instrumental, the marquis frequently conversed with him on public affairs, and inspired him with an high opinion of his talents for government, and his zeal for the interests of Ireland ; with these fentiments he entered the aflembly of his brethren, where he had the confequence naturally derived from fuperior abilities. He filenced the factious, he encouraged the moderate, he defeated all the secret practices of Antrim ; and at length, with difficulty, prevailed on the prelates to declare, by a formal instrument, that no fecurity for life, fortune or religion, could be expected from

Cromwell,

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