The Diplomacy of Liberation: The Foreign Relations of the ANC Since 1960
After the Sharpeville massacre of 1960 precipitated a popular uprising and the subsequent arrest of the ANC's military wing, organized opposition to apartheid within South Africa was eliminated. For 30 years the ANC led a shadowy existence in exile and its most basic problem was one of survival. This book offers and explanation of how the foreign relations of the ANC contributed to its survival and looks at the closely related issue of how the ANC's alliance with the South African Communist Party and the support of the Soviet Union solved the problem of how to continue financing the armed struggle.
Examining the ANC's diplomacy in action, Thomas shows how the liberation movement attained its main diplomatic objectives - the mobilization of international support for mandatory sanctions; the arms embargo and the diplomatic isolation of South Africa; and the translation of international opposition to apartheid into support for the ANC as the sole legitimate representative of South Africa's oppressed people.
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Early ANC Strategy and Structure
The External Mission and Early ANC Diplomacy
Strategy Structure and International Relations
The Organisation of African Unity
The NonAligned Movement
The United Nations
The Communist Powers
AAPSO Africa Confidential Africa Contemporary Record Africa Research Bulletin African Communist African liberation movements African National Congress Afro-Asian alliance ANC and PAC ANC diplomacy ANC's Angola anti-apartheid apartheid armed struggle Assembly became Cairo campaign communist front organisations Cultural Series Dar es Salaam delegation Democratic diplomatic economic sanctions exile External Mission foreign policy FRELIMO Front Line Ghana groups guerrilla Ibid independence inside South Africa Johannesburg July June Khartoum Klerk leaders legitimacy Liberation Committee liberation struggle London Lusaka Mayihuye meeting military Minister Morogoro Moses Kotane Mozambique MPLA national executive National Liberation Movements Nelson Mandela Nkrumah Non-Aligned Movement non-racialism OAU's October Oliver Tambo PAC's participated Party Political Social recognised relations Revolution revolutionary Rhodesia Rivonia role SACP Salaam Sechaha Security Council Sharpeville Solidarity South Africa South African liberation Southern Africa Soviet Union Soweto uprising strategy Summit SWAPO Third World U.N Yearbook Umkhonto united front United Nations unity Western ZAPU