History of Europe from the Fall of Napoleon in 1815 to the Accession of Louis Napoleon in 1852, Volume 2

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W. Blackwood, 1856 - Europe
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Contents

The physical circumstances of Spain favoured commerce but not manufac tures
10
Effect of the longcontinued hostility with the Moors
11
Impolitic laws of Spain in regard to money
12
Important effect of the Romish faith
13
Difference of the towns and country in respect of political opinion
14
Disposition of the army
15
The church
16
State of the peasantry
17
State of the nobility
19
Huge gap in the revenue from the loss of the South American colonies
20
how it was formed
21
Its extreme democratic tendency
22
Utter unsuitableness of the constitution to the generality of Spain
23
Universal unpopularity of the Cortes and constitution
24
Influence of the Cortes on South America
26
effect of the removal of the seat of government to Rio Janeiro
27
Its general adoption of English habits and ideas
28
Character of Ferdinand VII
29
Decree of Valencia
31
Cortes
32
VOL II
33
king
34
Ferdinands despotic measures Reestablishment of the Inquisition
35
Discontent in various quarters
36
Revolt of Mina in Navarre
37
Fresh arbitrary decree of Ferdinand
38
Further violent proceedings of the king and Porliers revolt
39
Invasion of France and retreat of the Spaniards Fresh tyrannical acts
40
the king
41
Change of inisters and policy at Madrid
42
Restoration of the Jesuits and other despotic measures
43
Double marriages of the royal families of Spain and Portugal
44
Creation of the kingdom of Brazil
45
Abortive conspiracy in Barcelona and death of General Lacy
46
Papai bull regarding the contribution by the Spanish church
47
Treaty regarding the Queen of Etruria ib 49 Treaty for the limitation of the slavetrade
48
its army and navy
49
Division of parties in the Assembly after M Decazes fall
50
Extreme penury of the finances of Spain Decree April 3 1818
51
Disastrous fate of the first expedition to Lima ib 54 Fresh revolt at Valencia which is suppressed
52
Causes of the revolt in the Isle of Leon ib 56 Efforts of the Cadiz Liberals to promote it
53
Insurrection at Cadiz
54
The conspiracy is at first arrested by dAbisbal
55
DAbisbal is deprived of the command of the expedition
56
Result of the debate
59
Revolution attempted by Riego
60
Vigorous measures adopted against the insurgents
61
Capture of the arsenal and expedition of Riego into the interior
62
Its defeat and failure
63
Perilous position of Quiroga in the Isle of Leon ib 69 Insurrection at Corunna and in Navarre
64
the king accepts the constitution
65
Reflections on this revolution
67
Rapid advances of the revolution
68
Reception of the revolution at Barcelona Valencia and Cadiz ib 74 Massacre at Cadiz
69
New ministry at Madrid
70
First measures of the new government
71
Legislative measures
72
its composition
73
Disorders in the provinces
74
Murder of one of the bodyguard and reward of the murderers ib 82 Opening of the Cortes
75
its leaders
76
Establishment of clubs in Madrid and other revolutionary measures
77
Suppression of the Jesuits and measures regarding entails 86 Financial measures
78
Tumult at Madrid and dismissal of Riego
79
Closing of the session and rupture with the king
80
Reception of the decree against the priests in Spain
81
Illegal appointment of General Carvajal by the king
82
Return of the king to Madrid
83
New society for execution of lynch law ib 94 Identity of recent history of Spain and Portugal
85
Revolution at Oporto
87
Establishment of a joint regency at Lisbon
88
Return of Marshal Beresford who is forced to go to England
89
Effect of the banishment of the British
90
Reaction and adoption of more moderate measures ib 101 Commencement of reforms in Italy
91
Breach of the kings promise of a constitution
92
Progressive but slight reforms already introduced
93
Origin of secret societies
94
Their origin and previous history ib 106 Commencement of the Neapolitan revolution
95
Defection of General Pepe and the garrison of Naples
96
The king yields and swears to the constitution
97
Causes which prepared revolution in Sicily
99
Revolution in Palermo
100
Ill Frightful massacre in Palermo ib 112 First measures of the new junta
101
Failure of the negotiations with Naples
102
Suppression of the insurrection in Palermo
103
Renewal of hostilities
104
Meeting of the Neapolitan parliament
105
Insurrection of the galleyslaves in Civita Vecchia
106
Commencement of the revolution in Piedmont
107
Revolt in Alessandria and Turin
108
The king yields and accepts the constitution
109
General character of the revolutions of 1820 ib 123 What caused their speedy overthrow
111
What should the military do in such circumstances ?
112
CHAPTER VIII
113
Increase of Russia by the treaties of 1814 and 1815
114
Important acquisition of Russia in the grandduchy of Warsaw
115
Statistics of the grandduchy of Warsaw
116
Establishment of the kingdom of Poland ib 6 Biography of the Grandduke Constantine
117
His character
118
His first acts of administration and training of the army
120
Great increase of its military strength
122
Failure of the representative system in Poland
123
Great influence of Russia
124
Great wisdom of its external policy
125
Their unity of purpose
126
its population
127
Great rapidity of increase of the Russian population
129
Great room for future increase in its inhabitants ib 18 Unity of feeling in the whole empire
130
Reason of this unity Their Asiatic habits and religious feelings
131
Unity of interest in the empire
132
General insufficiency of the schools to produce enlightenment
133
The clergy
134
the Tchinn
135
Great power given by the Tchinn
136
Caste of the nobles
137
Of the bourgeois and trading classes
138
The serfs their number and condition
139
Privileges and advantages they enjoy
140
its advantages and evils
141
Way in which it is carried into effect
142
Contrast of English and Russian cultivators
143
Opinion of Mr Haxthausen on the serfs and their enfranchisement
144
Evils of the Russian serf system
145
Foreign conquest ever forced upon Russia by its climate
146
Fear the universal principle of government in Russia
147
General use of corporal chastisement
148
Character which these circumstances have imprinted on the Russians
149
Causes which have led to this character
150
Great effect of the distances in Russia
151
Civilisation depends entirely on the higher ranks
152
Strong imitative turn of the Russians
153
Military strength of Russia
154
The military colonies
155
The Cossacks
157
The admirable discipline and equipment of the army
158
Russian navy
159
Positions of the principal armies
160
General corruption in Russia
161
Enormous abuses which prevail
162
Striking instances of this corruption
163
Emigration in Russia is all internal
164
Great impulse to agricultural industry in Russia from free trade
166
What is the destiny of Russia ? ib 55 Two different people in Russia
168
Liberal ideas with which the troops returned from France and Germany
169
First steps of Alexander on his return to Russia in 1814
170
His beneficent measures
171
Incessant travels of Alexander from 1815 to 1825
172
Various beneficent measures introduced by him
173
His arrival at Warsaw in 1818
174
Alexanders memorable speech to the Diet
175
Journey of Alexander to his southern provinces ib 65 His efforts for the enfranchisement of the peasants
176
Transactions of 1819
177
Expulsion of the Jesuits
178
Great changes in the emperors mind from the revolution of 1820
179
Violent scene and dissolution of the Polish Diet
180
Congress of Troppeau
181
its resolutions
182
Congress of Laybach
183
Reflections on the division among the allied powers
184
Limits of the right of intervention
185
What share had the Holy Alliance in this?
187
Attitude taken by England on the occasion ib 77 War declared against the revolution in Naples
188
Unresisted march of the Austrians towards Naples
189
Subjugation of Naples and return of the king
190
Movement of the insurgents in Piedmont
191
Meeting of the Allies and fresh revolution in Genoa
192
Increasing difficulties of the insurgents
193
Total defeat of the insurgents at Agogna
194
Submission of the capital and termination of the war
195
Violent reaction in Italy
196
Reaction in Piedmont and treaty with Austria
197
Revolt in a regiment of guards at St Petersburg
198
Alexander refuses to support the Greeks
199
Extension of the Russian empire in North America
200
Suppression of freemasons and other secret societies
202
General failure of the emperors philanthropic projects
203
Dreadful flood at St Petersburg ib 9394 Description of the situation of St Petersburg 204205
204
America
208
her birth parentage marriage and character
209
Amours of the Czar
210
Death of Alexanders natural daughter
211
Reconciliation of the emperor and empress
212
Solemn service in the cathedral of Notre Dame de Kazan
213
His departure from the cathedral
214
His arrival at Taganrog
215
His last illness
216
And death
217
And funeral
218
Death and burial of the empress
219
Details on the conspiracy
228
Information given of the conspiracy to Alexander
229
120121 Plans of the conspirators 230231
230
A revolt is decided on by the conspirators
231
Commencement of it
232
Heroic conduct of Nicholas on the occasion
234
Nicholas advances against the rebels
236
Death of Milaradowitch
237
The Archbishop also fails in reducing the mutineers
238
The emperor gains the victory
239
Seizure of the leaders of the conspiracy and generous conduct of Nicholas to the privates
240
Appointment of a commission of inquiry
241
Its composition and report
242
Leaders of the revolt in the army of the south
243
And in that of the west
244
Arrest of the Mouravieffs and outbreak of the conspiracy in the army of Poland
245
Its suppression ib 137 Sentences on the conspirators
246
Their conduct on the eve of death
247
Their execution
248
Reflections on this event
249
Noble conduct of the Princess Troubetzkoi and the other wives of the convicts
250
Condition of the exiles in Siberia
251
Generous conduct of the emperor to the relatives of the convicts
252
Expiatory ceremony on the Place of the Senate
253
Great reforms in all departments introduced by the emperor
254
Great legal reforms of the emperor
255
Crime of the insurgents
257
Coronation of the emperor and empress at Moscow
258
Character of the Emperor Nicholas and parallel between him and Peter the Great
259
He is essentially Russian
260
His personal appearance and failings
261
CHAPTER IX
263
Rapid flow of prosperity which succeeded them in the next year
264
Brilliant appearance of Paris
265
Exports imports and revenue of France during this period ib 5 Thorough establishment of representative institutions in France
266
Which have no effect in conciliating the Liberal party
267
Popular acts of the new ministry ib 8 Return of Maret and many other of the proscribed to France
269
Increasing strength of the Liberals and resistance to the Government
270
Debate on the return of the proscribed persons
271
Speech of M de Serres on the subject
272
Immense sensation produced by this debate
273
Increasing violence and exasperation of the press
274
Budget of 1819 27
275
election of the Abbé Grégoire
276
Biography of the Abbé Grégoire
277
his biography
278
de Serres
279
His character ib 22 Conversation of Louis XVIII and the Count dArtois on the election
281
Change in the ministry
282
Violent attacks on the new ministry by the press
283
Kings speech at opening the session
284
Comparative strength of parties in the Chamber
285
Designs of the Liberals in Paris ib 28 New electoral law proposed by the Government
286
Electoral law finally agreed on by the Government
287
Violent opposition of the Liberals
288
Rupture with the Doctrinaires
339
Ordonnance regarding public instruction
345
Result of the elections favourable to the Royalists
347
Effect of the change in the Assembly
348
Accession of Villèle c to the ministry
349
Speech of the king and answer of the Chambers
350
Measures of the session fixing the boundaries of the electoral districts
351
Law for additional ecclesiastical endowments
352
Modifications in the cornlaws ib 102 Law for the indemnity of the Imperial donataries
353
Law regarding the censorship of the press
354
Speech of M Pasquier on the occasion
355
Increasing irritation of parties and difficulties of the ministry
356
Rupture with the Royalists and fall of the Richelieu ministry
358
The new ministry
359
Reflections on this event
360
Great effects of the change in the electoral law
361
Defects of the representative system in France
362
Undue ascendancy of the PartiPrêtre ib 112 Cause of the reaction against Liberal institutions
363
Death of Napoleon
364
Reflections on his captivity
365
Great exaggeration regarding the English treatment of him
366
Lamartines account of his exile
368
Irritation between him and Sir Hudson Lowe
369
All parties were wrong regarding his treatment at St Helena
371
Change on Napoleon before his death ib 120 His death
372
His funeral
373
Immense sensation it excited in Europe
374
He was the last of the men who rule their age
375
CHAPTER X
376
Difference in the causes which produced discontent in the two countries
377
Great effects of the change in the monetary laws
378
Mr Smiths views on this subject
379
Great effects of any variation in the value of the standard of value ib 6 Examples of this from former times
380
Discovery and wonderful effects of a paper currency
382
Advantages of a paper circulation duly limited
383
What is the standard of value ?
384
Vast effect of variations in the currency
385
When this effect takes place
386
Vast importance of an inconvertible currency as a regulator of prices
387
True system
391
Rapid increase of disaffection in the country
401
Difficulties of this subject and necessity of an assessment
439
Effect of education in leading to the dispersion of mankind
442
Disfranchisement of Grampound and transfer of its members to Yorkshire
443
Rise of freetrade ideas among the merchants and Lord Lansdownes declaration on the subject
444
6567 Lord Liverpools memorable speech in reply 445447
445
Appointment of a committee to inquire into agricultural distress
448
7274 Answer by Mr Ricardo 450452
450
Additional facts since discovered on this subject
453
Commencement of the troubles about the queen
454
Sketch of her life prior to this period
455
Her conduct abroad and proceedings in consequence of it
456
Omission of the queens name in the Liturgy and her return to England
457
Her landing in England and enthusiastic reception
458
Views of the Radical leaders on the occasion
459
Enthusiastic reception of the queen at Dover and in London
460
Failure of the negotiations and commencement of the inquiry
461
Scene which ensued on the trial
462
Progress of the trial and its difficulties
463
Peroration of Mr Broughams defence
464
Queens defence and failure of the bill
465
General transports of the people
467
Rapid reaction of public opinion ib 90 Consternation of the Ministry who resolve to remain at their posts
468
Return of popularity of Government and causes of it
469
Meeting of Parliament and first proceedings
470
Debates on foreign affairs
471
Sir James Mackintoshs efforts to improve the criminal law ib 95 Mr Cannings striking speech on Catholic emancipation
472
Answer by Mr Peel
473
Which is carried in the Commons and lost in the Peers
474
Lord John Russells motion for parliamentary reform
475
Appointment of a committee to inquire into agricultural distress
476
Bank Cash Payment Bill
477
Vehement demand for a reduction of taxation
479
Agricultural committee reports and state of the consumption of articles of luxury
480
Increase of the desire for reform among the agriculturists
482
Coronation of George IV
483
Ceremony on the occasion
484
Aspect of Wellington Londonderry and George IV
485
her death
486
Kings visit to Ireland ib 111 Funeral of the queen
487
Dismissal of Sir R Wilson from the army
488
Changes in the Cabinet
489
Retirement of Lord Sidmouth who is succeeded by Mr Peel as Home Secretary
490
Lord Wellesley appointed Viceroy of Ireland and change in the govern ment there
491
Cause of the wretchedness of Ireland
492
What would have relieved the country and its neglect
493
Ruinous effect of the contraction of the currency upon Ireland
494
Progress of the agrarian disturbances in Ireland
495
Lord Wellesleys able conduct and impartiality
496
Dreadful examples in the disturbed districts
497
Dreadful famine in the south and west of Ireland ib 123 Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act and Insurrection Act
499
Divisions on the Catholic claims
500
Increasing strength of the minority on parliamentary reform
501
Peroration of Mr Cannings speech
502
Sir James Mackintoshs motion regarding the criminal law
503
Great fall in the price of all sorts of produce
504
Measures for the relief of the agricultural classes
505
Detailed measures of Government for the relief of the agriculturists
506
Motion of Mr Western on the currency
507
132135 Mr Huskissons arguments in support of the existing system 507509
510
Repeated defeats of Ministers in the House of Commons
515
Great reductions of taxation introduced by Ministers
516
The budget
517
Reduction of the Five per Cents
518
Equalisation of the Dead Weight and military and naval pensions
519
Details of the measure
520
Its provisions
521
15 Six acts relating to commerce and navigation
522
Visit of the king to Edinburgh ib 153 Particulars of the royal visit
523
Death of Lord Londonderry
524
His character
525
Its indomitable firmness
526
His policy in domestic affairs
527
Political changes in progress from the resumption of cash payments ib 160 Lord Londonderry was the last of the real rulers of England 528
528
Increased ascendant of the rulers of thought
530
Simultaneous outbreak of the revolutionary spirit in different countries ib 163 Different characters of the revolts in the different states
531
CHAPTER XI
533
Peculiar causes which augmented this divergence
534
Character of Mr Canning
537
His peculiar style of eloquence
538
Viscount Chateaubriand
540
His peculiar turn of mind and course of policy
548
Rise of the Carbonari and secret societies in France
555
Reflections on these events
561
Attempted restoration of the royal authority at Madrid
567
Institution of the Order of the Hammer
573
Riegos plot at Saragossa and his arrest
579
Irresolute conduct of the king and Royalist insurrection in the north
585
His execution
705
Triumphant return of the Duke dAngoulême to Paris
711
Recognition of the South American republics by Mr Canning
717
Meeting of the Chambers and measures announced in the royal speech
723
Statistics of France in this year
729
It had nearly established the throne of the Restoration
735

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Page 465 - ... from the roots and the stem of the tree. Save that country, that you may continue to adorn it; save the Crown, which is in jeopardy, the aristocracy, which is shaken; save the altar, which must stagger with the blow that rends its kindred throne!
Page 720 - You well know, gentlemen, how soon one of those stupendous masses, now reposing on their shadows in perfect stillness — how soon, upon any call of patriotism, or of necessity, it would assume the likeness of an animated thing, instinct with life and motion — how soon it would ruffle, as it were, its swelling plumage — how quickly it would put forth all its beauty and its bravery — collect its scattered elements of strength, and awaken its dormant thunder.
Page 465 - Save the country, my lords, from the horrors of this catastrophe ; save yourselves from this peril ; rescue that country of which you are the ornaments, but in which you can flourish no longer, when severed from the people, than the blossom when cut off from the roots and the stem of the tree.
Page 465 - My lords, I pray you to pause. I do earnestly beseech you to take heed. You are standing on the brink of a precipice — then beware ! It will go forth your judgment, if sentence shall go against the Queen. But it will be the only judgment you ever pronounced, which, instead of reaching its object, will return and bound back upon those who give it.
Page 525 - OH, Castlereagh ! thou art a patriot now ; Cato died for his country, so didst thou : He perished rather than see Rome enslaved, Thou cutt'st thy throat that Britain may be saved ! So Castlereagh has cut his throat ! — The worst Of this is, — that his own was not the first. So He has cut his throat at last ! — He ! Who ? The man who cut his country's long ago.
Page 635 - ... opinion, that to animadvert upon the internal transactions of an independent state, unless such transactions affect the essential interests of his Majesty's subjects, is inconsistent with those principles on which his Majesty has invariably acted on all questions relating to the internal concerns of other countries ; that such animadversions, if made, must involve his Majesty in serious responsibility, if they should produce any effect ; and must irritate, if they should not...
Page 635 - The origin, circumstances, and consequences of the Spanish revolution, — the existing state of affairs, in Spain, — and the conduct of those who have been at the head of the Spanish government may have endangered the safety of other countries, and may have excited the uneasiness of the governments, whose ministers I am now addressing; and those governments may think it necessary to address the Spanish government upon the topics referred to in these dispatches.
Page 720 - The resources created by peace are means of war. In cherishing those resources, we but accumulate those means. Our present repose is no more a proof of inability to act, than the state of inertness and inactivity in which I have seen those mighty masses that float in the waters above your town is a proof...
Page 414 - ... with the peaceful habits of the industrious classes of the Community ; and a spirit is now fully manifested, utterly hostile to the Constitution of this Kingdom, and aiming not only at the change of those Political Institutions which have hitherto constituted the pride and security of this Country, but at the Subversion of the Rights of Property and of all Order in Society.
Page 464 - Such, my Lords, is the case now before you ! Such is the evidence in support of this measure — evidence inadequate to prove a debt — impotent to deprive of a civil right — ridiculous to convict of the lowest offence — scandalous if brought forward to support a charge of the highest nature which the law knows — monstrous to ruin the honour, to blast the name, of an English Queen...

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