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in the water; that done, pull back that part of which was slack when you did put your hook into the minnow the second time; I say, pull that part of your line back, so that it shall fasten the head, so that the body of the minnow shall be almost straight on your hook: this done, try how it will turn, by drawing it across the water or against the stream ; and if it do not turn nimbly, then turn the tail a little to the right or left hand, and try again, till it turn quick; for if not, you are in danger to catch nothing: for know, that it is impossible that it should turn too quick. And you are yet to know, that in case you want a minnow, then a small loach, or a sticklebag, or any other small fish that will turn quick, will serve as well. And you are yet to know that

now that you may salt them, and by that means keep them ready and fit for use three or four days, or longer; and that, of salt, bay-salt is the best. And here let me tell

old anglers know right well, that at some times, and in some waters, a minnow is not to be got; and therefore, let me tell you, I have, which I will shew to you, an artificial minnow, that will catch a Trout as well as an artificial fly: and it was made by a handsome woman that had a fine hand, and a live minnow lying by her : the mould or body of the minnow was cloth, and wrought upon, or over it, thus, with a needle ; the back of it with very sad French green silk, and paler green silk towards the belly, shadowed as perfectly as you can imagine, just as you see a minnow : the belly was wrought also with a needle, and it was, a part of it, white silk ; and another part of it with silver thread: the tail and fins were of a quill, which was shaven thin : the eyes were of two little black beads: and the head was soʻshadowed, and all of it so curiously wrought, and so exactly dissembled, that it would beguile any sharpsighted Trout in a swift stream. And this minnow I will now shew you ; look, here it is, and, if you like it, lend it you, to have two or three made by it ; for they be easily carried about an angler, and be of excellent use : for note, that a large Trout will come as fiercely at a minnow as the

you, what many

that gave

highest-mettled hawk doth seize on a partridge, or a greyhound on a hare. I have been told that one hundred and sixty minnows have been found in a Trout's belly : either the Trout had devoured so many, or the miller

it a friend of mine had forced them down his throat after he had taken him.

Now for Flies; which is the third bait wherewith Trouts are usually taken. You are to know, that there are so many sorts of flies as there be of fruits: I will name you but some of them ; as the dun-fly, the stone-fly, the red-Ay, the moor-fly, the tawny-fly, the shell-fly, the cloudy or blackish-fly, the flag-fly, the vine-fly; there be of flies, caterpillars, and canker-flies, and bear-fies; and indeed too many either for me to name, or for you to remember. And their breeding is so various and wonderful, that I might easily amaze myself, and tire you in a relation of them.

And, yet, I will exercise your promised patience by saying a little of the caterpillar, or the palmer-fly or worm; that by them you may guess what a work it were, in a discourse, but to run over those very many flies, worms, and little living creatures, with which the sun and summer adorn and beautify the river-banks and meadows, both for the recreation and contemplation of us anglers; pleasures which, I think, myself enjoy more than any other man that is not of my profession.

Pliny holds an opinion, that many have their birth or being, from a dew that in the spring falls upon the leaves of trees; and that some kinds of them are from a dew left upon herbs or flowers; and others from a dew left

upon coleworts or cabbages: all which kinds of dews being thickened and condensed, are by the sun's generative heat, most of them, hatched, and in three days made living creatures: and these of several shapes and colours; some being hard and tough, some smooth and soft ; some are horned in their head, some in their tail, some have none; some have hair, some none: some have sixteen feet, some less, and some have none: but, as our Topsel hath with great diligence observed, those which have none, move upon the earth, or upon broad leaves, their motion being not unlike to the waves of the sea. Some of them he also observes to be bred of the eggs of other caterpillars, and that those in their time turn to be butterflies; and again, that their eggs turn the following year to be caterpillars. And some affirm, that every plant has its particular fy or caterpillar, which it breeds and feeds. I have seen, and may therefore affirm it, a green caterpillar, or worm, as big as a small peascod, which had fourteen legs, eight on the belly, four under the neck, and two near the tail. It was found on a hedge of privet ; and was taken thence, and put into a large box, and a little branch or two of privet put to it, on which I saw it feed as sharply as a dog gnaws a bone : it lived thus, five or six days, and thrived, and changed the colour two or three times, but by some neglect in the keeper of it, it then died, and did not turn to a fly: but if it had lived, it had doubtless turned to one of those flies that some call Flies of

prey, which those that walk by the rivers may, in summer, see fasten on smaller flies, and, I think, make them their food. And 'tis observable, that as there be these flies of prey, which be very large ; so there be others, very little, created, I think, only to feed them, and breed out of I know not what; whose life, they say, nature intended not to exceed an hour; and yet that life is thus made shorter by other flies, or accident.

'Tis endless to tell you what the curious searchers into nature's productions have observed of these worms and flies: but yet I shall tell you what Aldrovandus, our Topsel, and others, say of the Palmer-worm, or Caterpillar : that whereas others content themselves to feed on particular herbs or leaves (for most think, those very leaves that gave them life and shape, give them a particular feeding and nourishment, and that upon them they usually abide), yet he observes, that this is called a pilgrim, or palmer-worm, for his very wandering life, and various food ; not contenting himself, as others do, with any one certain place for his abode, nor any certain kind of herb or flower for his feeding, but will boldly and

disorderly wander up and down, and not endure to be kept to a diet, or fixt to a particular place.

Nay, the very colours of caterpillars are, as one has observed, very elegant and beautiful. I shall, for a taste of the rest, describe one of them; which I will, some time the next month, shew you feeding on a willow tree; and you shall find him punctually to answer this very description: his lips and mouth somewhat yellow ; his eyes black as jet ; his forehead purple ; his feet and hinder parts green; his tail two-forked and black; the whole body stained with a kind of red spots, which run along the neck and shoulderblade, not unlike the form of St Andrew's cross, or the letter X, made thus crosswise, and a white line drawn down his back to his tail ; all which add much beauty to his whole body. And it is to me observable, that at a fixed age this caterpillar gives over to eat, and towards winter comes to be covered over with a strange shell or crust, called an aurelia ; and so lives a kind of dead life, without eating, all the winter. And as others of several kinds turn to be several kinds of Aies and vermin, the Spring following, so this caterpillar then turns to be a painted butterfly

Come, come, my scholar, you see the river stops our morning walk : and I will also here stop my discourse : only as we sit down under this honeysuckle hedge, whilst I look a line to fit the rod that our brother Peter hath lent you,

I shall, for a little confirmation of what I have said, repeat the observation of Du Bartas :

God, not contented to each kind to give
And to infuse the virtue generative,
Made, by his wisdom, many creatures breed
Of lifeless bodies, without Venus' deed.

So, the cold humour breeds the Salamander,
Who, in effect, like to her birth's commander,
With child with hundred winters, with her touch

Quencheth the fire, tho' glowing ne'er so much. 1 View Sir Francis Bacon, exper. 728 and go in his Natural History.

1

So of the fire, in burning furnace, springs
The fly Pyrausta with the flaming wings :
Without the fire, it dies: within it joys,
Living in that which each thing else destroys.
So, slow Boôtes underneath him sees,
In th' icy islands, goslings hatch'd of trees ;
Whose fruitful leaves, falling into the water,
Are turned, 'tis known, to living fowls soon after.
So, rotten planks of broken ships do change
To barnacles. O transformation strange!
'Twas first a green tree; then, a broken hull ;
Lately a mushroom; now, a flying gull.

[Sixth Day of Du Bartas.) VENATOR. O my good master, this morning walk has been spent to my great pleasure and wonder : but, I pray, when shall I have your direction how to make artificial flies, like to those that the Trout loves best; and, also, how to use them ?

PISCATOR. My honest scholar, it is now past five of the clock : we will fish till nine ; and then go to breakfast. Go you to yonder sycamore-tree, and hide your bottle of drink under the hollow root of it; for about that time, and in that place, we will make a brave breakfast with a piece of powdered beef, and a radish or two, that I have in my fish-bag: we shall, I warrant you, make a good, honest, wholesome hungry breakfast. And I will then give you direction for the making and using of your flies : and in the meantime, there is your rod and line; and my advice is, that you fish as you see me do, and let's try which can catch the first fish.

VENATOR. I thank you, master. I will observe and practise your direction as far as I am able.

Piscator. Look you, scholar ; you see I have hold of a good fish : I now see it is a Trout.

I pray, put that net under him; and touch not my line, for if you do, then we break all. Well done, scholar : I thank

you. Now for another. Trust me, I have another bite. Come, scholar, come lay down your rod, and help me to land this as you did the other. So now we shall be sure to have a good dish of fish for supper.

i View Gerard's Herbal and Camden.

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