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Archdeacon of Sudbury and Dean of Ely; his principal and most erudite work is “ De Legibus Hebræorum Ritualibus et earum

Rationibus.” THOMAS FAIRFAX (Lord): born about 1630 A.D.; when the disputes

between Charles I. and the parliament terminated in open rupture, he espoused the cause of the latter; he was reconciled to Charles II, on his accession. He left behind him a volume of poems and mis

cellapies; died 1671 A.D. JOHN DRYDEN: one of the most celebrated English poets; was born

at Aldwicke, Northamptonshire, in 1631 A.D. On the death of Crom-
well he wrote his well-known stanzas on that event. At the resto-
ration he greeted Charles II. with a poem entitled “Astraea Redux.”
In 1661 he produced his first play, “The Duke of Guise.” In 1667
he published “ Annus Mirabilis;" and was appointed poet-laureate
and historiographer royal. In 1681 he commenced his career of poli-
tical satire; and at the express desire of Charles II. composed his
famous poem of “ Absolom and Achitophel;” also “ The Medal,”
“ "
"A Satire on Sedition,” “Mac Flecknoë,” “Religio Laici.” His


chief poem is “ Alexander's Feast;” died 1700 A.D. and was buried

in Westminster Abbey. SIR THOMAS OSBORNE (EARL OF Danby): lord treasurer under

Charles II. ; was born about 1631 A.D. He was knighted by Charles II., created Viscount Latimer in 1673, and in the following year was appointed lord treasurer and created Earl of Danby. In 1678 he was impeached by the Commons, and, though pardoned by the king, was committed to the Tower and was released in 1684;

died 1712. JOHN LOCKE: one of the most eminent philosophers of modern times;

was born at Wrington in Somersetshire in 1632 A.D. In 1672, when Lord Shaftesbury was appointed lord chancellor, he made Locke secretary of Presentations, and, at a later period, secretary to the Board of Trade. His great work is the “ Essay on the Human Understanding,” in which he endeavours to show that all our ideas are derived from experience. His other works are the “ Treatises on Civil Government," “ Letters on Toleration,” “ On the Conduct of the Understanding,” “ Vindication of the Reasonableness of

Christianity," &c.; died 28th October, 1704 A.D. SAMUEL PEPYS: secretary to the Admiralty in the reigns of Charles II.

and James II.; was born at Bampton in Huntingdonshire in 1632 A.D.; he was well informed in history, painting, sculpture, architecture, &c., and in 1684 he was elected president of the Royal Society. His " Diary,” which is very amusing and instructive, has been pub

lished; he died in 1703 A.D. SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN: the celebrated architect; was born at

East Knoyle in Wiltshire, 1632 A.D. He was appointed professor of astronomy at Gresham College in 1657 A.D. In 1663 he received a commission to produce designs for the restoration of St. Paul's Cathedral, then one of the most remarkable Gothic edifices in the kingdom; but while his designs were under consideration the cathe

dral was destroyed by the fire of 1666. He was then commissioned to design and erect the present cathedral. He designed many other churches. In 1680 he was chosen president of the Royal Society. In 1685 he was elected M.P. for the borough of Plympton and in 1700 for Weymouth. Over his tomb was placed the appropriate inscription, “ Si monumentum quæris circumspice;" died February

25th, 1723, aged 90, and was buried at St. Paul's Cathedral. ROBERT HOOKE, a mathematician and natural philosopher, was born at

Freshwater, in the Isle of Wight, in 1635 A.D. In 1664 he became professor of mechanics to the Royal Society, and Gresham professor of geometry. In 1665 appeared his “Micrographia." His scientific and mechanical inventions and discoveries were numerous and valuable, but he was continually engaged in controversies with his

fellow philosophers ; died 1703 A.D. SIR FRANCIS NORTH (BARON GUILDFORD), lord-keeper of the great seal under Charles II. and James II., was born in 1637 A.D.

He entered the Middle Temple, and, being called to the bar, became solicitor-general in 1671, when he received the honor of knighthood; in 1673 he was made attorney-general; the next year chief justice of the common pleas; and in 1683 he was appointed lord-keeper and raised to the peerage. He was the author of a philosophical essay

on music; he died 1685 A.D. LORD WILLIAM RUSSELL, a distinguished supporter of constitutional

liberty, was born 1639 A.D. In 1679 he was appointed a member of the privy council. His fear of a catholic succession induced him to take decisive steps for the exclusion of the Duke of York. He was accused of having engaged in the “Rye House Plot,” and, on this pretext, he was committed to the Tower, tried, condemned, and

executed in July, 1683 A.D. WILLIAM CAVENDISH (first Duke of DEVONSHIRE): was born

1640 A.D. He was attendant on James Duke of York; he gave evidence in favor of Lord William Russell. In 1684 he succeeded to the title of Earl of Devonshire, and became a favorite at the court of William III., and his earldom was raised to a dukedom; died 1707

A.D. GEORGE JEFFREYS (Baron Wem, commonly known by the name of

Judge Jeffreys): was born at Acton, in Denbighshire, about 1640 A.D. He studied at Westminster and the Inner Temple. He was successively recorder of London, a Welsh judge, chief justice of Chester, and finally he attained the dignity of chief justice of the King's Bench. On the accession of James II. he became one of the advisers and promoters of the oppressive measures of his reign, and for his sanguinary proceedings against the adherents of Monmouth was appointed lord high chancellor in 1685. In the reign of William III, he was committed to the Tower, where he died April

18th, 1689 A.D. GILBERT BURNET: bishop of Salisbury; was born at Edinburgh,

1643 a.d. He was a friend of Lord William Russell, and accompanied him to the scaffold. His great works are the “History of

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the Reformation of England,” in 3 vols. folio, and the “ History of his own Time." He wrote also an account of the Life and Death of the Earl of Rochester ; “Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England,” and the Lives of Sir Matthew Hale and

Bishop Bedell; died 1715 A.D. WILLIAM PENN: the founder and legislator of Pennsylvania ; was born

in London, 1644 A.D. He was educated at Christchurch, Oxford, and there became a Quaker. In the twenty-fourth year of his age he appeared as a minister and author, and on account of his second essay, entitled “Sandy Foundation Shaken,” he was imprisoned in the Tower. He also wrote “No Cross, no Crown,” “Innocency with her open Face.” In 1681 Charles II. granted to Mr. Penn and his heirs, by letters patent, the province lying on the west side of the river Delaware, in North America, and made them absolute proprietors and governors of that country, afterwards called Pennsyl

vania ; died 1718 A.D. JOHN MILL: a learned divine and biblical critic; was born at Shap, in

Westmoreland, 1645 A.D. He became rector of Bletchington, in Oxfordshire ; prebendary of Canterbury, and chaplain in ordinary to Charles II. His valuable edition of the Greek Testament appeared

in 1707 ; died 1707 A.D. DANIEL FINCH (EARL OF NOTTINGHAM): was born 1647 A.D. In

1680 he was appointed first lord of the admiralty. He held the office of secretary of state under William III. and Mary, and for a short time under Queen Anne ; soon after Anne's death he was made lord president of the council, but in 1716 he was dismissed and condemned for high treason. He devoted his remaining years

to literary pursuits; died 1730 A.D. THOMAS OTWAY: a dramatic poet; was born at Trotten, in Sussex,

1651 A.D. After having made some attempts as an actor, he became a writer for the stage. In 1675 he produced his first tragedy of “Alcibiades,” and in the following year “Don Carlos." His other works are “Venice Preserved,” “Orphan,” “Caius Marius;" died

” 1865 A.D. WILLIAW FLEETWOOD (Bishop of Ely): was born in 1656 A.D.; chaplain under William III, and Mary.

He was

an eminent scholar and was the author of "Insciptionum Antiquarum Sylloge," “ Chronicon Pretiosum,”

," " A Plain Method of Christian Devotion,” “An Essay on Miracles,” &c.; died 1723 A.D. ROBERT HARLEY (EARL OF OXFORD): a distinguished statesman; was

born 1661 A.D. In 1701 he was chosen Speaker of the House of Commons, which office he held while Secretary of State; but resigned the latter place in 1708. In 1710 he came into office as Chancellor of the Exchequer. He was stabbed by the Marquis of Guiscard, a Frenchman, but he recovered from his wound. The collection of manuscripts in the British Museum known as the Harleian Collection was formed by him and his son Edward; died 1724 A.D.

JOSEPH ADDISON: the celebrated essayist and miscellaneous writer,

was born, in 1672 A.D., at Milston in Wiltshire. In 1704 he produced his poem entitled the “Campaign." Addison contributed to the “Tattler” and the “Spectator;" these publications were succeeded by the “Guardian.' In 1713 his tragedy of “Cato” was brought upon the stage. In 1717 he became Secretary of State. In his retirement he wrote “A Defence of the Christian Religion,', and also laid the plan of an English Dictionary upon the model of the Italian Della Crusca; died June 17th, 1719 A.D.

(To be continued.)

CHAPTER IV.

THE QUESTIONS ASKED AT THE PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION HELD ON THE

12TH AND 13TH DAYS OF JULY, 1871, WITH THE ANSWERS.

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I. English Composition. Candidates were requested to write an essay, not less than two pages in length, on one of the following subjects :

(1.) The character of the Duke of Marlborough.
(2.) Electric Telegraph.
(3.) On the choice of a profession.
(4.) In the late war show and discuss the different traits of character

exhibited by the French and Germans.
(5.) Any personal adventure.
(6.) On the English historians who have flourished in the present

century.
(7.) Vote by ballot.

II. English Language. 1. State the rules The plural is generally distinguished from the singular by the for the formation addition of certain suffixes. In A. S. the suffix of the nominaof the English plu- this became es.

tive plural in a certain class of nouns was-a8. In later English

In modern English the vowel is lost. Hence rals, and note the

the ordinary rule for the formation of the plural of nouns in principal excep- English is by adding 8. tions.

Exceptions : nouns ending in s, sh, ch (soft), x or o form the ney-8," "

plural by adding es (the original suffix); as misses, brushes, boxes, churches. The "s" is added to those of foreign origin, as "canto-s, grotto-s.” When "o" final is preceded by a vowel it takes "g” only; as “ folio-s."

If a noun end in “y” preceded by a consonant, “es” is added and the “y” is changed into “i”; as “ladi-es.” After a vowel those in “y” follow the general rule, i.e. take “g”; as “chim

money-s." Nouns in f or fe of Anglo-Saxon origin add "es" to the singular and change f into v: of those in f, the exceptions are, those which end in ff, rf and f when preceded by two vowels; as roof, reef: of those in fe; fife, strife : all which take s.

Several conform to the general rule: as loa., loaves; thief, thieves.”

Some plurals are formed from singulars by changes to be found only in words of Anglo-Saxon origin, e.g.:

a. By suffixing “en” (A.S. an) to the sing.: as oxen.
b. By modifying the root-vowels : as man (mennen), men ;

cow (cn), kine (obsolete); geese, &c.
c. By adding “er” (A. S. "ru" or "ra") to the sing. : as

child-er, child-er-en, children, which is also the double

form.
Again, plurals are formed by adopting those of the language
whence the singulars are taken: as-

Hebrew, seraph, seraphim.
Greek—xpornpoor, criteria.
Latin–formula, formulæ ; memorandum, memoranda,
Italian-bandit, banditti.
French-beau, beaux.

&c. &c.
Some of these words have two plurals.
In words like deer, sheep, salmon, &c., the same form is used
in both numbers: as sing. sheep; pl. sheep, &c., &c.

Some words have both a plural and a collective form: as fish, fishes; die, dies (for stamping); die, dice (for gaming); shot, shots, &c., &c.

Many sing. nouns admit no plural forms, and there are also others (plural) which admit of no singular. Of the former we may notice gold, silver, envy, &c.; of the latter, ashes, pincers, &c. The plural form is used in these to change the meaning altogether, such as iron, irons; domino, dominoes.

Some plurals are really singular: as “alms” (A.S. ælmesse), “ riches" (Fr. richesse).

Some really plurals are used as singular or plural: as news, pains, means, &c.

Some sing, in form have a collective meaning, and are used in both numbers : as “crowd," "cattle,” “navy," &c.

In forming the plurals of proper names the spelling is generally preserved. We say " the three Marys;" “ the family of the Henrys,” except when through frequent usage they have become class or common nouns: as “the Pharaohs."

The plural of compounds, generally, is formed by adding "g" to the noun which gives a description of the person or thing: as "son-s in law," "maid scrvant-s.” Where the sense is incomplete without the addition, the “g” is added to the end.

2. Define an adjective. Into how many classes may adjectives be di

An adjective is a word used with a noun to express some peculiarity of time, place, number, quality or quantity: “The early bird,” “The neighbouring hills,” “ The six muses,” “The tepid lake.” Hence adjectives may be classified as temporal, local, numeral, qualitative and quantitative.

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