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THOMAS WALSINGHAM: a Benedictine monk of St. Albans (flourished

about 1410); wrote a History of England from 1273 A.D. to the death

of Henry V. (1422 A.D.) JOHN CAPGRAVE (1393 A.D.—1481 A.D.): was a celebrated divine and

historian. SIR JOHN FORTESCUE: chief justice, and a distinguished writer ;

he studied at Lincoln's Inn and was called to the bar; chief justice of the court of Queen's Bench; he was attainted by parliament for his devotion to the cause of Henry VI.; and fled with Queen Margaret to Flanders, where he wrote his well-known work “De Laudibus

Legum Angliæ"The Praises of the Laws of England. SIR THOMAS LITTLETON: born at Frankley in Worcestershire 1421

A.D.; wrote a work on “ Tenures” in Norman-French ; regarded as the principal authority for the law of real property in England; a

judge of the court of Common Pleas; died 1481 A.D. WILLIAM CAXTON (1410 A.D.—1491 A.D.): native of Kent; he was

the earliest English printer; went to Flanders, where he acquired a knowledge of the art; returning to England, he established a printing press in Westminster Abbey 1471; in 1477 he issued the “Dictes and Sayings,” the first book printed in England ; wrote a great many

works, of which little is known. JOHN MORTON: born at Bere in Dorsetshire 1410 A.D.; in 1485 ap

pointed Master of the Rolls, and in 1485 was made Archbishop of Canterbury, and in the following year Lord Chancellor ; died 1550

:

A.D.

(To be continued.)

CHAPTER IV.

THE QUESTIONS ASKED AT THE PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION HELD ON THE

15TH AND 16TH DAYS OF FEBRUARY, 1871, WITH THE ANSWERS.

I. English Composition.
II.

Language.
III.

History.
IV. Geography of Europe and of the British Isles.

V. Arithmetic.
VI. Elementary Knowledge of Latin.
VII. French Language.

I. English Composition. Candidates were requested to write an essay or letter, &c., not less than two pages in length, on one of the following subjects :

(1.) Milton.
(2.) The war of 1870 between France and Germany.

(3.) School life.
(4.) The choice of a profession.
(5.) Our national defences.
(6.) Some incident of travel or personal adventure.
(7.) On the dignity of work.

[See Chapter VI. for remarks on this subject.]

1. Enumerate the elementary sounds of the English language and classify them according to the organs of speech affected.

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II. English Language. There are forty-two elementary sounds of the English alphabet.

Trelve are simple vowel sounds; that is to say, they can be pronounced by themselves:

1. The sound of a in father.
2.

a in fat.
3.

a in fate. 4.

a in fall. 5.

o in not. 6.

o in note. 7.

e in bed. 8.

i in pit. 9.

ee in feet. 10.

u in bull. 11.

oo in fool. 12.

u in duck. Four are diphthongal sounds:

13. The sound of ou in house.
14.

ew in new.
15.

oi in oil. 16.

i in bite. Two are semi-vowel sounds:

17. The sound of w in wet.
18.

y in yet.
Sixteen are mutes and semi-vowels:-
19. The sound of p in pate.

in ban. 21.

f in fan,

v in van. 23.

t in tin,

d in din. 25.

th in thin. 26.

th in thine. 27.

k in kind. 28.

g in gun. 29.

s in sin. 30.

z in zeal. 31.

sh in shear. 32.

z in azure, glazier. 33.

ch in chest. 34.

j in jest. Four are liquid sounds:

35. The sound of l in let.
36.

m in man,
37.

n in not. 38.

rin run. There are also the four following:

39. The sound of r in work.
40.

ng in king.
h in hot.
woh in why.

20.

»

22.

24.

»

>

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41. 42.

>>

Classification according to the organs of speech affected:

Labials (labia, the lips), P, B, F, V, M.
Dentals (dentes, the teeth), T, D, TH (2), s, z (2), SH, CH.
Linguals (lingua, tongue), L, N, R (run).
Palatals (palatum, palate), G, R, J.
Gutturals (guttur, thrvat), K, R, H (2).

2. How has the English alphabet been criticised ?

There are two and forty sounds for six and twenty letters. It has been suggested that the original alphabet consisted of sixteen letters, that the rest are variations of these, and that a, e and o are the three principal vowel breathings. The alphabet is not full enough, since many single articulate sounds have no corresponding signs whereby they may be expressed. It is uncertain, inconsistent, erroneous, deficient and redundant. The f in fan and the v in van (sounds in a certain degree of relationship to p and b) are expressed by a sound as unlike as f is unlike p, and as v is unlike b. The sound of the th in thin and th in thine, the sh in shine, similarly related to t, d and s, are expressed by signs as like t, d and s respectively as th and sh.

The i in bite is considered as the long (independent) sound of the i in pit; whereas it is a diphthongal sound.

The u in duck is looked upon as a modification of the u in bull; whereas it is a specifically distinct sound. There are numerous other examples showing the incomplete state of the alphabet. Q is superfluous, cw and kw being its equivalent. X also is superfluous, ks, gz or z being equivalent to it, &c., &c.

2. How are the English plurals formed ?

The ordinary rule for the formation of the plural of nouns in English is by adding the letter s to the singular.

These are the exceptions :-Nouns ending in 8, X, sh, ch soft and o take es ; as, losses, foxes, fishes, churches and potatoes. If a word ends in o preceded by a vowel it takes only s: folios. Nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel take only s, as boys;

y but if the y be preceded by a consonant it is changed in i and es is added ; as, flies.

Most nouns ending in f and fe form their plural in res; as, calf, calves; knife, knives. A few nouns, as grief, hoof, stuff, &c., simply take the s. A few

nouns of Saxon origin form their plurals by changing the vowel sound of the singular ; as, man, men; goose, geese; tooth, teeth, &c.

A few nouns take an ending :-Ox, oxen ; child, children; brother, brethren, &c.

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Past Tense.
laid
breathed
hanged or hung

4. Give the past tense and perfect participle of the following verbs : lay, breathe, hang, forego, engrave, spring, load, climb, freeze.

Present Tense.

lay
breathe
hang
forego
engrave
spring
load
climb
freeze

Perfect Participle.
laid
breathed
hanged or hung
foregone
engraved or engraven
sprung
loaded or laden
climbed
frozen

engraved
sprang
loaded
climbed
froze

5. What is the be- The ablative of the demonstrative :fore a compara

The more, the merrier." tive? 6. What is the It has the force of a relative pronoun :force of as when

Such stuff as dreams are made of.” preceded by such? 7. Give the his. We find in A. S. the infinitive was inflected; as, nom. and tory, formation acc. writ-an, to write ; dat. to writ-ann-e, for writing, and this and use of the

dative is usually called the gerund.

The nom, and acc. writ-an afterwards assumed the forms gerund in English. writ-en, writ-in and finally writing, and this form of the infini

tive is also known to modern grammarians as the gerund. In 0. E. we occasionally find at instead of to before the infinitive, hence the similarity of the forms writing and to write.

We also find that the old infinitive suffix -an becomes -ingwriting. Where the old infinitive suffix -an and the dative case-ending -e are lost-to write, this is also known as the gerund.

The gerund in -ing is frequently found with the old preposition on, an or a prefixed-a-writing, a-building.

To, in to write, is a dative case governed by the preposition to, and means for writing. This form must be distinguished from the ordinary infinitive (to) write; as, He came to learn (for learning, gerund). He likes to learn (infinitive).

A common use of the gerund with to is to express a purpose. The gerund with to is found in connection with adjectives and nouns: “ 'Tis time to sheathe the sword and spare mankind.”

In modern English the gerund represents an action without reference to the agent or the time of the action. Sometimes this form is found : "He is a-coming." A is derived from the prepositions on and an. Sometimes the preposition in is found with the gerund in ing, as—“ He took time in doing the work.”

As our space is limited, we cannot extend this answer any further.

8. How are conjunctions classified ? What do they conjoin?

Conjunctions are classified thus :-
Co-ordinate are those which couple independent propo-

sitions.

Subordinate join a dependent to a principal sentence. Conjunctions unite propositions, or the different parts of an extended sentence.

9. Explain the construction of than in comparative sentences.

Than is a conjunction, and has the same case after it as before it :

He is taller than she (Nom.).

.

10. Is there a case absolute? If so, what is it?

Yes. It is the Dative Absolute :

This done, he went out." Some grammarians say that this is the Nominative Absolute.

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11. Parse the words in italics : (a) How do you do? (b) Me thinks. (c) It is done to a turn. (d) We are to blame. (e) To

(a) The first do is the second person plural of the auxiliary verb " do” employed interrogatively; the second do is derived from the verb dugan, fare."

(b) The me in me thinks is a personal prononn, third person singular, dative case. The subject is expressed in the words that follow the verb.

(c) The preposition to is used to express what is called a dative relation; the expression has the form of an adverb; a is an indefinite article, turn is a noun, singular number, dative

(d) To blame (i. e. to be blamed) is the gerund with to, used in a passive sense.

(e) The to in to-morrow is a form of the demonstrative pronoun.

(f) But is an adverb in this sentence. Not but is equivalent to two negatives and is a weak affirmative a concession,

morrow.

(f) Not

case.

but that it may be true.

1. Give a succinct account of the Roman invasions with dates. Mention the most important monuments of their rule which remain to this day.

III. English History. Julius Cæsar first invaded Britain August 20th, 54 B.C., and landed near Dover in Kent; but part of his fleet being shattered, he returned to Gaul, having been absent about a month. Cæsar made a second invasion in the following year (55 B.C.), but was opposed by Cassivelaunus, chief of the Trinobantes (counties of Essex and Middlesex), who ultimately submitted and paid hostages to the Romans.

The Romans, led by Aulus Plautius, returned in the reign of Claudius, and were opposed by Caractacus, chief of the Silures (South Wales). Plautius was assisted by Vespasian, who, it is said, fought more than thirty battles before he could subdue the Britons. Plautius was succeeded by Ostorius Scapula (50 - 53), who attacked Caractacus and took him prisoner, and sent him to Rome, where, on account of his manly bearing, the Emperor Claudius ordered his release.

(53 to 57.) Aulus Didus was the next Governor of Britain, and was chiefly employed in replacing Cartismandua in the government of the Brigantes, from which she had been expelled for giving up Caractacus to the Romans.

(58 to 68.) Suetonius Paulinus, a most distinguished Roman general, was the next governor of Britain. His first act was to attack the Druids who encouraged the Silures and Ordovices to oppose the Romans.

He next defeated (61 A.D.) Boadicea, queen of the Iceni, under the following circumstances : Prasutagus died and left his property to be divided between the emperor and his daughters, but the imperial procurator seized all, and when Boadicea expostulated, she was ordered to be imprisoned. The Iceni, assisted by the Trinobantes, then attacked the Romans on their colony of Camalodunum (Colchester), which was reduced to ashes. Paulinus then gave the Britons battle, and about 80,000 were slain. Boadicea, unwilling to survive their defeat, ended her life by taking poison.

Julius Agricola (78–84) may be said to have completed a conquest which had somewhat dimmed the Roman arms. He first marched into the mountains of the Ordovices and put nearly the whole tribe to death, for having destroyed a troop of cavalry

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