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Les dirers rangs et les divers ordres qui existent parmi les hommes peuvent se compare aux ruisseaux et aux ririères d'eau courante. Tous proriennent d'une petite source obscure : quelques-uns s'étendent plus que les autres, parcourent plus de pays et font plus de bruit dans leur cours, mais tous se dirigent également vers un océan toute distinction cesse alors, et les plus grandes et les plus célèbres rivières se perdent et s'absorbent tout à fait comme les cours d'eau les plus insignifiants et les plus inconnus.

7. Translate the following passage: The different ranks and orders of mankind may be compared to so many streams and rivers of running water. All proceed from an original, small and obscure source; some spread wider, travel over more countries, and make more noise in their passage, than others; but all tend alike to Ocean where distinction ceases and where the largest and most celebrated rivers are equally lost and absorbed with the smallest and most unknown streams.


Candidates who were examined in French were also required to translate passages from either of the following works:

Lamartine, Christophe Colombe; or Racine, Britannicus.



ENGLISH HISTORY. REMARKS on the May Preliminary Examination may appear unnecessary, but nevertheless we believe that past and intending candidates will be glad to know our opinion of the Examination, and to derive advantage from our experience. As long as we have been associated, if one may so term it, with the Examination, which is now about six years, we do not remember seeing more difficult questions. The answers sufficiently confirm this opinion. We shall treat of each subject separately. Without seeing the candidates' answers to the questions we imagine that few have answered them satisfactorily; but probably the Examiners are satisfied with a “general knowledge” of the various sabjects.

Composition.] – The subjects for the English theme were again extremely favorable for the candidates, and we, therefore, cannot commiserate with any one who failed to write one of the minimum number of pages. There were seven subjects named, in order to suit the various ideas of candidates. Some persons are better able to describe actual events than dwell on abstract ideas. Then those of the candidates who are endowed with great imagination might well have held forth “On the Power of Mystery” or “Utilitarianism;" while the younger candidates and those who are not so fortunately blessed had every opportunity of describing their “Course of Study” or “Some Incident of Travel or other Personal Adventure.”

We advise those students who desire to perfect themselves in composition, and to acquire a habit of writing easily on any subject, to practise much and read the best authors. They should select some favorite author and take his style as a model; but when we speak of favorite authors we by no means refer to works of a trashy description. Brougham, Burke, Jeremy Taylor, Dryden and Milton-all are worthy of being imitated.

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English Language.]— The English grammar paper still bears out our idea, that the papers set on this subject can scarcely be regarded as embracing English grammar. We think it is rather more difficult than usual ; indeed, it is, in our opinion, very similar to the English language papers set at the Matriculation Examination of the London University. If candidates will compare those set at this and the Legal Preliminary, they will not discover much difference. Whether candidates becoming Solicitors ought to be called upon to show as much knowledge as one who is desirous of passing an optional Examination for “honor” is a matter of opinion and for consideration. Speaking for ourselves, we admire the spirit of the Examiners, and trust, with their aid, we shall have, in a few years, men who will even command our greater respect and become ornaments to their profession.

Geography.]- The questions on this subject are well framed, and, what is far more important to candidates, they are general; thus giving every candidate an opportunity of showing what he knows of the geography of that division of the world in which he lives. We may, however, by the way remark that many candidates complain that having but two hours to answer the English History and Geography questions, they are compelled to leave many questions unanswered. Doubtless the Examiners make some allowance for this, and, as far as we know, we are not acquainted with any candidate who bas suffered in this respect. It would certainly be as well if the Examiners were to state how many of the eleven or twelve questions asked are to be answered, of course giving candidates the option of selecting those questions with which they may be most familiar.

Arithmetic.]—The arithmetic examples are rather complicated, although they may not appear so to ordinary readers. Our pupils, if we may be allowed to make personal remarks, found the paper very easy. We again assert that one who is by nature a good arithmetician will find no difficulty in working the examples.

Elementary knowledge of Latin.]- The elementary Latin paper does not appear to be more difficult than usual. Somo candidates on perusing the answers may be discouraged, but we would impress upon them that we none know what we can do until we try. This little word “ try” is the secret of all success. We have no cause to complain of the questions, for the note-books with which we supplied our own pupils contained more than sufficient to enable them to pass in this subject.

French Language.]— The French Examiner has recently asked many French grammar questions. We should therefore advise those candidates who select French as their " optional subjects” to fortify themselves with Fivas' French Grammar. There are also many points on this subject in our Guide; indeed, some of the questions asked this time may be traced to it.

Remarks on the Study of English History.]-Now that we are about to offer a few observations on the study of English history, we take advantage of our space to review the questions asked at the May Examination. We are always prepared, in addition to the ordinary questions, to see three or four peculiar points in this paper. wives had the husband of Mary, Queen of England ?" is undoubtedly a very“ sagacions” question; and, no doubt, when the Examiner conceived the-shall we say-happy idea of asking it, he smiled to himself, while, from his large experience, he probably said “here is a catch for some one." The questions are well framed, and are peculiarly searching. We can feel for candidates who have been sent up from schools, but those who have been specially prepared would not, indeed, thank us if we were to commiserate with them, for they have probably answered the questions very fairly.

Well, in our last number we promised that, at some future time, we should offer a few suggestions as to the study of English History. As our remarks may be useful to students now preparing for Examination, we shall not delay carrying out our promise. They must, however, excuse us for not entering very fully into the matter, as we have so much to think of.

It will be admitted that the study of English history is most important to every one, and especially to lawyers, for upon it depends their future studies; and how much better able will they be to appreciate the various acts of Parliament and principles of law which it is incumbent on them to study without delay immediately on their being tested and approved by the Preliminary Examiners.

Now students must remember that few things can be easily accomplished. Hard work produces profitable results: easy work is invariably useless. Still if a course be marked out to a student, he may be greatly relieved of any labor and a favorable result will

“ How many ensue. “There is no royal road to learning,” and there is but one great way of accomplishing things in this life. If, however, there be found some who, by their experience and particular mode of instruction, may in a great measure manage to guide the student over “ shoals and sand banks,” and convert laborious work into interesting pastimes, we ought readily to accord him our support.

First of all, we should recommend the student to learn the opening and closing dates of the periods and the names of the sovereigns, in proper succession. Many students, when asked a question, are unable to assign an event to its proper reign. It must be borne in mind, that as history greatly depends on chronology and genealogy, these portions of English history ought to receive primary attention. Now, although we are aware that it is no easy matter for many students to remember dates, yet we are of opinion, that if they would but lay down some rule in order that they may acquire a knowledge of this subject, they would improve very rapidly. Unfortunately, candidates view every subject in its entirety, and they are therefore either dismayed, or do not care to proceed with the work. Let the candidate commence with the Roman period, and note down in his pocket-book the leading dates, and commit a few to memory every day. He should make up his mind to learn, say fifteen or twenty dates daily, and he will find this very easy indeed. He should also take care not to set himself more to do than he can really accomplish. We make these remarks for the benefit of those who wish to come under the denomination “self-taught;” but unfortunately there is a great drawback to many of this class of students, who have little determination of purpose, – for, having no fixed time to work, they become careless, and omit to continue their exertions.

Having learnt the leading dates, the student should, after reading a period once or twice, take notes of all the battles and the circumstances connected with them; then the treaties, and so on. We have recommended works on this subject in Chapter I. The student should also take notes while he is reading, not merely

the name of an event or battle, but brief particulars, for he will find that outlines of English History are comparatively useless. We have long since compiled nofe-books on English History, and indeed on all the subjects of Examination, for the use of our pupils, and we may ere long allow others to have the benefit of that which has done incalculable good to many who are now in the walk of life and others who are just entering it.



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The Editor will be glad to receire COMMUNICATIONS from students and others.

They must be addressed Care of the Publishers," and will, in every instance,

receive the attention they merit. S. E. L. (Bristol).—The English possessions in Asia are:-Ceylon, India or Hindostan, West part of Further India, Malacca, Penang and Wellesley Province, Hong-Kong, Singapore and Aden,

STUDENS.—You may present yourself for Examination until you do succeed. F. C. (Nottingham).-Similar papers are set for the London and country candidates. We believe that the gentlemen who conduct the Examinations in the country are merely “presiding Examiners.” They have nothing to do with the result of the Examinations, except, perhaps, the “ Reading."

G. A. W.-'Eupnxa (pronounced Heureka) is an expression meaning “ I have found it." vale GEAUTOY (Gnothi seauton), Know thyself.

R. T. (Bourton-on-the-Water). The phrase brutum fulmen, as employed by Mr. Disraeli, in his speech in opposition to the Budget, means an impotent threat;" a loud but harmless threatening.

CHICHESTER.–William Turton, M.D., wrote a natural history, works on medicine and a conchological dictionary. You probably know that conchology is the doctrine or science of shells and the animals that inhabit them.

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JUNIUS.—The letters signed “Junius " appeared in the “ Public Advertiser," from January, 1769, to January, 1772. The interest attached to these celebrated productions owed its origin to several causes:- they attacked, indiscriminately, some of the highest persons in the realm; they were deemed, at the time, models of style; they were intensely bitter and personal, and they were anonymous. At the time they were attributed to various persons; but the secret never came out. Most writers now attribute them to Sir Philip Francis, who at one time held a clerkship in the War Office; but who, in 1773, was appointed one of the Council of the Government of Bengal. A work solving the mystery has recently been published by Mr. Murray.

Exam.—If you have obtained a first-class certificate of the College of Preceptors, you will be entitled to exemption.

J. P. (Darlington).- It is a good book, but hardly fit for your purpose. See our “Remarks on Educational Works."

INQUIRER (Bolton).- The Madjicosima Islands form an archipelago in the Pacific between Formosa and the Loo-Choo Islands. They are all subject to Loo-Choo.

M. E. G.–The Medical Preliminary Examinations of the Royal College of Surgeons are held twice in each year, viz.—June and December. The Preliminary Examinations for Solicitors are held four times a year, viz.—February, May, July and October.

S. G. K. (Brixton).— Ought is the past indefinite of one ; ought is now equivalent to should. It was formerly employed as in the following sentence :—“You ought him a thousand pounds.”Shakespeare.

E. B. (Norwich).—" Stump-orator” is a man who harangues the populace from the stump of a tree or other elevation. This word was first used in America.

INQUISITOR.—The wife of Oliver Cromwell was Elizabeth Bouchier, daughter of an Essex gentleman. We cannot agree with you that it is an unreasonable question to ask.

A. C. (Brighton).—We would advise you to learn the irregular Greek verbs in addition to what you have mentioned.


LAW DEGREES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. A Course of Twenty Lectures on Jurisprudence, Roman Law, and Constitutionat History, in preparation for the First LL.B. Examination of the University of London, will be delivered by Professor CUTLER on Tuesdays and Thursdays, at 5 p.m., commencing with Tuesday, May 2nd.

Fee for the Course £5:58., payable in the College office on entrance.
For further Information apply at the Secretary's office.

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS FOR SOLICITORS, FOR THE BAR, AND THE COLLEGE OF SURGEONS. The Author of “ The Student's Guide," and Editor of “The Preliminary Examination Journal and Student's Literary Magazine” (formerly of King's College, London), whose pupils have always met with greater success than those instructed by any other tutor, PREPARES CANDIDATES of defective knowledge very speedily and for Moderate Fees. References to Members of the Incorporated Law Society, Barristers, Clergymen, Doctors, and others, whose sons have passed after short periods of tuition, having previously failed three and four times with other tutors. For Syllabus (30 pages) of Testimonials and Opinions of the Law Journal, Law Times, Standard, Law Examination Reporter, Law Magazine and Review, The London Review, &c. &c., address Mr. J. ERLE BENHAM, care of Messrs. Butterworth, 7, Fleet Street, London, Her Majesty's Law Publishers.

London : Printed by C. Roworth & Sons, Newton Street, High Holborn, W.C.

The Preliminary examination Fournal







Preliminary Examination for Solicitors. PURSUANT to the Judges' orders, the next Preliminary Examination in General Knowledge will take place on Wednesday the 25th, and Thursday the 26th of October, 1871. In addition to the ordinary subjects (including an elementary knowledge of Latin), the Special Examiners have selected the following books in which candidates will be examined :

In LATIN. . Sallust, Catilina; or, Horace, Odes, Books I. and IV.
In GREEK . Homer, Iliad, Book I.
In MoDERN GREEK Βεντοτής Ιστορία της Αμερικής βιβλίον ζ.
In FRENCH Erckmann-Chatrian, Histoire d'un Conscrit de 1813;

or, Racine, Bajazet. In GERMAN Lessing, Minna von Barnhelm; or, Schiller, Die

Jungfrau von Orleans. In SPANISH Cervantes, Don Quixote, cap. xv. to xxx, both in

clusive; or, Moratin, El Sí de las Niñas. In ITALIAN Manzoni's I Promessi Sposi, cap. i. to viii. both in

clusive; or, Tasso's Gerusalemme, 4, 5 and 6

cantos; and Volpe's Eton Italian Grammar. Each candidate will be examined in one language only, according to his selection. Candidates will have the choice of either of the abovementioned works.

The Examination will be held at the Incorporated Law Society's Hall,
Chancery Lane, London, and at some of the following towns:-








York. Candidates are required by the Judges' orders to give one calendar month's notice to the Society, before the day appointed for Examination, of the language in which they propose to be examined, the place at which they wish to be examined, and their age and place of education.


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