« PreviousContinue »
5. The demonstrative pronouns: as this, that, such, the “You” was formerly considered as in the plural only; but in modern English it is used in the singular as well as in the plural. You is properly the accusative; but is also used in the nominative.
As thou in Shakespeare's time acquired a tone of familarity or contempt, " you” has taken its place in addressing anyone.
"You” is used, like on in French, for anyone: as, “This, at a distance, looks like a rock; but as you approach it, you see a little cabin."
6. Explain etymologically the following forms :first, rather, wiser, twice, to-day, worse, other, enough, either, shamefaced, plenteous.
First, from the root " for," was a Saxon superlative form; in old English forest, contracted into first.
Rather, from the positive rathe (in Milton and Tennyson). A. S. hræth, quick; superlative “ rathest,” in Chaucer.
Wiser is from the German “ wisen,” “ wissen,” to know, connected with the Gothic ritan, the Latin rid, and the Sanskrit rid; er is the comparative termination which was formerly “re."
Trice is twi with the suffix ce, which was formerly es, and and the e dropping out, was written twise (twice).
To-day - to in this word has the sense or force of this; it is a form of the demonstrative pronoun.
Worse. This is derived from the Anglo-Saxon reor bad. The se is another form of re, the old comparative termination.
Other. A. S. a-ther. O. E. oder is the and the suffix ther. It is both a noun and an adjective.
Enough is derived from the Anglo-Saxon genog; genoh, is sufficient.
Either is from the Anglo-Saxon ægther, egther. This word seems to be compounded, and the first syllable to be the same as each. Either refers to one of two, whoever
Shamefaced (A. S. seam-fæst) is shame-fast, i. e. protected by shame.
Plenteous is derived from plenty-from the Latin plenus, full ; ous is derived from the Latin adjectives in osus ; as, copiosus.
Than is a conjunction, and has the same case after it as before it :
He is wiser than they (Nom.).
7. Give rule for construction of than in comparative sentences. Illustrate the rule by examples.
8. Classify the conjunctions.
Conjunctions are either co-ordinate or subordinate.
Co-ordinate conjunctions are connective, alternative, negatire, adrersative or illative. Subordinate conjunctions refer to time, place, manner or causation.
Sometimes conjunctions are classified as copulative and disjunctire.
9. Give a logical What stronger breast-plate- is the predicate; (is) is the analysis of the fol- copula; than a heart untainted, is the extension of the prelowing passages :
dicate ; (There) is the subject.
He is the subject, is is the copula; is thrice armed is the “What stronger predicate; “ that hath his quarrel just” is an attributive phrase breast-plate than a qualifying the subject.
heart untainted ?" “ Thrice is
he armed that hath his quarrel just," “and he but naked is though locked in steel, whose conscience with injustice is corrupted."
“And he but naked is though locked in steel, whose conscience with injustice is corrupted,” is co-ordinate with the first sentence. “ Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted” is an attributive phrase qualifying the subject he; in this sentence conscience is the subject, is corrupted is the predicate, and with injustice is a prepositional phrase qualifying the predicate.
1. Write a life of one of the following persons :- -Canute, St. Dunstan, Anselm, Alfred.
III, English History. Dunstan was born of noble parents at Glastonbury, and received the rudiments of his education at its monastery. His uncle, Athelm, archbishop of Canterbury, introduced him to the court of Athelstan, from which he was driven on a charge of sorcery. Being unsuccessful in a love affair, and reduced by a serious illness, he was prevailed upon to become a monk, and soon distinguished himself by his austerities. By Edmund he was appointed to be abbot of Glastonbury, and by Edred entrusted with his conscience, his treasures, and his authority. It was now that he resolved to enforce the Benedictine rule, and bring all the clergy more completely under the direct supremacy of the Pope. A party soon grew up against the reformer, and his insult to Edwy furnished an occasion to procure his banishment. His absence from the kingdom was of short duration, and under Edgar we find him in full power as Archbishop of Canterbury. Upon his return, so absolute did his influence over the king become, that he was enabled to give the Romish see an authority and jurisdiction, of which the English clergy had been before, to a considerable degree, independent. Dunstan, supported by Edgar's authority, overpowered the resistance which the country had long maintained against the papal dominion, and gave to the monks an influence, the baneful effects of which were experienced in England till the Reformation."
The Saxon and Norman sovereigns were first united by the marriage (1100 A.D.) of Henry I., surnamed Beauclerc, with Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III., by Margaret, sister of Edgar Atheling, the representative of the Saxon dynasty.
2. When and in what persons were the Saxon and Norman sovereigns first united? 3. State what you know of the following persons : the Empress Maud, Edmund Crouchback, Queen Philippa, Fair Maid of Kent, Cardinal Pole, Elizabeth Woodville.
The Empress Maud was the daughter of Henry I. of England, and wife of Henry V., the Emperor of Germany. On his death she married Geoffrey Plantagenet, and had a son, Henry II. of England. On the death of Henry I., Stephen seized the English crown, to which her father had named her successor. She defeated Stephen at the battle of Lincoln, but was afterwards obliged to leave the kingdom. She died in 1165, aged 67.
Edmund Crouchback was son of Henry III. He was born in 1245 A.D. Many titles were conferred on him, including those of Earl of Chester, Earl of Leicester and Earl of Lancaster. In 1257 the Pope gave him the throne of Italy, from which he was deposed. He died at Guienne in 1296 A.D.
Queen Philippa of Hainault was the wife of Edward III. of England, and the daughter of William III., Count of Holland and Hainault. She displayed great activity in the government of England during the king's absence in France. It is said that,
having hurried over to France with the tidings of the battle of Nevil's Cross, she saved the lives of the six citizens of Calais.
Elizabeth Barton was a servant girl at Aldington, Kent. She became subject to trances, in which she uttered things which were considered supernatural. Archbishop Warham pronounced them come from God. She became a tool in the hands of the priests, worked miracles and entered the convent of Canterbury. She pronounced an audacious sentence on the divorce of Catherine, and by degrees involved herself in treason. She was tried and convicted in the Star Chamber, and with the parish priest and five monks suffered death at Tyburn.
Cardinal Pole (son of Margaret, Countess of Salisbury, who was the niece of Edward IV.), was born at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire. He obtained preferment in the Church, and went abroad for some time to Italy. On his return, by his opposition to the king's divorce from Catherine of Arragon, he mortally offended the king. He left England and became cardinal in 1536, and had the offer of the Popedom on the death of Paul III. Henry put his mother and other members of his family to death after his departure from England, for corresponding with him. He became nuncio and president of the Council of Trent. In Mary's reign he returned to England as legate. He became Archbishop of Canterbury on the day on which Cranmer was burnt. Soon after he became chancellor of both universities, and survived the queen but one day: died 1558. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral.
Elizabeth Woodville was the widow of Sir John Grey and the wife of Edward IV. She was the mother of Elizabeth, the wife of Henry VII.
Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, was the first and Margaret, the Countess of Salisbury, was the last of the Plantagenet line. She was beheaded in 1541 A.D.
He had four wives: first, Mary of Portugal, his consin; secondly, Mary of England; thirdly, Elizabeth, daughter of Henry II. of France; fourthly, Anne, daughter of Maximilian II. He remained in England about fifteen months from July, 1554
4. Who were the
He had Henry, who died at the age of eighteen, 1612 A.D.; Charles I., King of England, who was executed 1649 A.D.; Elizabeth, who married the Elector Palatine; Robert, Margaret, Sophia and Mary, who died young.
The Orerbury Case was the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, implicating the Earl and Countess of Somerset, several accomplices of a lower rank in life, and perhaps even the king (James I.). Robert Carr had been loaded with favours by the king and created Viscount Rochester. Having fallen in love with the wife of the Earl of Essex, he conceived the plan of obtaining a divorce for her from her husband. This plan was opposed by Overbury, the tutor and counsellor of Carr. *Overbury, declining to go to Russia, was committed to the Tower, and then, by the king's assistance, a divorce was obtained, and Cart was made Earl of Somerset. The countess, desiring revenge on Overbury, engaged her uncle, the Earl of Northampton, and her husband, in the design of poisoning Overbury, who died suddenly. His sudden death, and the haste with which he was buried, attracted much suspicion. The truth did not come out for some time, till disclosed by an apothecary. The accomplices were all brought to trial and condemned. The earl and countess, after some years' imprisonment, were released with a pension, and passed the remainder of their lives in infamy and obscurity.
The Rye House Plot (Charles II.), so named from a farm called the Rye House, belonging to one of the conspirators, was a plot to stop the king's coach, on his return from Newmarket, by overturning a cart at the farm. The conspirators were to fire at the king from behind the hedges, and then make their escape by bye-lanes. The king disconcerted them by leaving Newmarket eight days earlier than he had intended. Some of the conspirators betrayed the plot, and several were condemned and executed. Howard, in hope of a pardon and reward, revealed all to the king. The trials and deaths of Lord Russell and Algernon Sidney soon followed.
The Septennial Act was one of the immediate consequences of the Jacobite rebellion of 1715, as it would have been dangerous to dissolve Parliament in the present state of the kingdom, because a Jacobite majority might have been returned. It provided, that Parliaments should sit for seven instead of three years.
The Star Chamber was of extremely ancient origin. It was originally composed of the members of the king's consilium ordinarium, and derived its name from the Camera Stellata in which it sat. In the reign of Edward III. statutes were made to restrain its jurisdiction, and its power diminished till the time of the Tudors. Henry VII. created a new court out of the ruins of the old, which however was not strictly the Star Chamber, though distinct from the ordinary council. Its object was to restrain and punish illegal combinations, such as the giving of liveries, maintenance, sheriffs forming partial panels and making untrue returns, riots, &c., and it had the power of punishing offenders. Late in the reign of Henry VIII., the court, with its ancient jurisdiction, was revived, perhaps by Cardinal Wolsey. Offenders against the act of proclamations were to be tried by this court. It was the criminal jurisdiction which rendered it odious. It took cognizance of perjury, forgery, libel and conspiracy, and all offences not brought under the law. The accused were examined, tortured and sentenced without any formal trial. It could inflict any sentence short of death. The fines imposed were often ruinous. It afterwards sentenced to the pillory, whipping, cutting off the ears. In the reigns of James and Charles I. it was used for the undue extension of the royal prerogative. The Long Parliament abolished it early in
its session. 8. What periods The Tudor and Stuart periods ;--principally in the reigns of in English history the following sovereigns, were most remark. Henry VII. able for coloniza
James I. tion ?
Charles I. ; also in the Commonwealth-thence until the pro
sent time. 9. What do you An address from the principal members of the Catholic body know of the Lord led to the introduction of a bill in 1778, proposing to relieve George Gordon
Roman Catholics from certain penalties. This measure of relief defence of the Protestant interest. During the year 1779 these associations increased in number and strength, and selected Lord George Gordon as their chief. To conciliate the Protestants they were relieved from subscription, still they continued unappeased, and Lord Gordon found it easy to persuade them to get up a monster petition against popery. As many as 120,000 signatures or marks are said to be appended. To make the greater impression, the petitioners were instructed to meet in St. George's Fields (June 2), which they did to the number of 60,000, or, as some say, 10,000. There they formed a procession, and marched over London Bridge, proceeded by way of Temple Bar to Palace Yard, Westminster. Lord George Gordon moved for its immediate consideration, but only eight members supported it. The rabble, now greatly increased by the scum of London, soon grew unmanageable, and, as no excesses had been anticipated, no precautions had been taken for public protection. First the Catholic chapels of the foreign ministers in the metropolis were attacked, then Newgate was broken open and fired, and Chief Justice Mansfield's house gutted and everything burnt. The other prisons were forced and the prisoners released, and several attempts were made on the Bank of England. As many as thirty-six fires were blazing at one time. The magistrates appeared panic stricken, and the military, although increased to the number of 10,000 men, were unable to act, on account of a too liberal interpretation of the Riot Act, which, by giving an hour's grace, gave time for the incendiaries to escape. However, on the evening of the 7th of June, the soldiers commenced their work, and before morning 500 persons were killed or wounded. This severe proceeding put an end to the outbreak. Several of the ringleaders perished on the scaffold; but Lord Gordon, the prime mover, was acquitted, the charge of high treason which had been brought against him not being sustainable.
gave great offence to the more violent Protestants, more partiRiots ?
cularly in Scotland, and associations began to be formed for the
10. Enumerate the chief victories achieved by the Duke of Wellington.
The following were the chief victories achieved by the Duke of Wellington:Assaye
September 23rd, 1803 A.D. Vimiera
August 21st, 1808 Douro
May 12th, 1809 Talavera
July 27th, 1809 Badajoz
April 7th, 1812 Salamanca
July 22nd, 1812 Vittoria
February 27th, 1814 Toulouse
April 10th, 1814 Quatre Bras
June 16th, 1815 Waterloo
.. June 18th, 1815
Act for the Abolition of Slavery..
1806 The Six Acts
1819 Repeal of Test and Corporation Acts
1828 Catholic Emancipation Bill
1829 Reform Bill..
1832 Act for the Abolition of Slavery in the British Colonies 1833 Sir Robert Peel's Bank Bill
1844 Total Repeal of the Corn Laws
1846 Repeal of the Navigation Laws
1847 Act passed establishing a General and Local Board of Health
1848 The India Bill passed (by which the East India Company ceased to have a political existence)
1858 Bill passed for the Admission of Jews into Parliament.. 1858 The Great Reform Bill
1867 The Bill for the Disestablishment of the Irish Church.. 1869