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object in the most clear and direct way; but when its reference
is at all vague or indefinite, it governs the subjunctive. Qui
takes the subjunctive when it introduces the ground of the
assertion in the antecedent clause. Qui also governs the sub-
junctive, when we may substitute for it “although,
“because," "seeing that,” &c., with a personal pronoun, &c. &c.

““ since,"


8. What verbs take (a) Verbs of accusing, condemning, acquitting, &c., take a the (a) genitive genitive of the charge; as, proditionis accusare. and (b) ablative?

Satago, misereor and miseresco, govern the genitive; verbs of reminding, remembering and forgetting the genitive (or accusative), as misereri omnium.

These impersonals, pudet, piget, pænitet, tædet, miseret, take an accusative of the person feeling, a genitive of what causes the feeling; as, Ignavum pænitebit aliquando ignaviæ.

(h) Verbs of abounding, filling, loading, &c., and their apposites, such as verbs of wanting, depriring of, emptying of, govern the ablative; as, Pericles florebat omni genere virtutis.

Some verbs of freeing from, removing from, differing from, being at a distance from, &c., are sometimes followed by the ablative; as, Athenienses bello liberantur.

Fungor, fruor, utor (with their compounds), potior, vescor, dignor, glorior, take the ablative; as does also supersedeo, &c.

9. Write down the prepositions which govern the ablative case.

A, ab or abs, absque, coram, cum, de, ex or e, pra, pro, palam, sine, tenus, also in and sub, answering the question where, sometimes super and subter.

10. What is meant by the dativus commodi ? Construct examples in illustration.

The datirus commodi is the dative of limitation used with verbs which imply the question to or for what the thing is done:

Venus nupsit Vulcano.
Non scholæ discimus sed vitæ.
Imperat aut servit collecta pecunia cuique.

11. What verbs take a double accusative?

Verbs of asking, teaching and concealing have two accusatives, one of the person, and another of the thing; as,

Quis musicam docuit Epaminondam ?

Who taught Epaminondas music?
Transitive verbs that take tro nominatives in the passive take
two accusatires in the active, one being in a sort of apposition
to the other ; as,

Homines cæcos reddit cupiditas et avaritia.
Desire and avarice render men blind.

VII. French Language.
Yeux, væux, clous, animaux, joujoux, épouvantails.

1. How is the plural of the following nouns formed: æil, veu, clou, animal, joujou, épouvantail?

2. Give the femi- Ambitieuse, grave, gaie, protectrice, fausse, active. nine of ambitieux, grare, gai, protecteur, faux, actif. 3. What are the re- Chair (flesh), mal (evil, bad, badly), plutôt (rather), voie spective significa- (way, means, track, cartload), chaire" (pulpit), malle (trunk. tions of chair, mal, mail), plus tôt (sooner), voix (voice). plutót,voie,chaire, malle, plus tôt, roix? 4. Give the plu- Je m'étais-tu t'étais-il s'était-nous nous étions-vous vous perfect indicative étiez, ils s'étaient élevé, s. of the verb s'élever. 5. Give the infini. Décevoir, gésir, déchoir, bouillir, falloir, absoudre. tive of decu, git, déchusse, bous, faudra, absol

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L'éducation d'un homme pourrait se diviser en trois parties, qui sont toutes fort importantes à son bonheur, mais à divers degrés. La première partie c'est la culture de l'esprit. La deuxième partie de l'éducation consiste à acquérir les connaissances convenables pour conduire ses affaires. La troisième partie n'est pas moins précieuse que les autres: elle consiste à adopter la tenue et les manières calculées à vous faire respecter des étrangers.

7. Translate: The education of a gentleman may be divided into three parts, all of great importance to his happiness, but in different degrees. The first part is the cultivation of the mind. The second part of education is to acquire a competent knowledge how to manage your own affairs. The third part is perhaps not less in value than the others. It is how to practise those manners and that address which will recommend you to the respect of strangers.




HAVING lately written a great deal on the nature and extent of the Preliminary Examination for Solicitors, we have but a few additional remarks to make on these points. We trust we shall be forgiven if we venture to call the attention of our readers to the benefit that students have derived from the previous numbers of this Magazine. We think we can prove to demonstration, as the Attorney-General so frequently remarks in the course of his very elaborate and eloquent speech, that we had anticipated some of the most important questions. For instance, if our readers will refer to the second number of this Magazine, they will perceive that, in the Lecture on the English Language, we gave them an account, with dates, of the successive immigration into this country of Teutonic populations. Well, in the very next Examination the Examiners asked, in the history paper, for an account of these invasions—a question which has not been asked, if at all, for some years !--so that had students, and we hope many did, read this lecture, they would have been prepared to answer one of the most important points in the whole Examination. Again, it may be seen that, in the last question of the history paper this time, the candidate is asked to state what he knows of “one" of the following: -John Law, Warren Hastings or Addison. Well, our readers will perceive, on perusing our synopsis of leading authors, statesmen, &c., that “two" of these names figure in the list; and we are certainly not prepared to say whether they were ever included in a question before--indeed we are almost sure that they were not.

The above are but two of the many glaring instances (even apparent on the face of the Journal) of the way in which we anticipate questions. We will now proceed to discuss

each paper.

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Composition.] All the subjeets for the English theme naturally brought the abstract ideas of the candidates to bear upon them ; hence we think they were not so favourable as many that we have seen. In selecting one of the seasons for his theme, a candidate might have given his reasons for preferring it, viz., from the fact that that period is capable of affording him certain pleasures which in their turn he might have discussed.

We have written already many hints and suggestions, not only on composition generally, but as to the way in which candidates should- in legal phraseology-marshal their ideas—the most difficult point to those who have had little practice, for as a necessary consequence clearness of thought leads to clearness of expression—and what in a theme is more elegant and persuasive than what we call an“uninterrupted stream of phrases"(?) Students should not “run away" with the idea that we think a knowledge of intricate and polysyllabic words is necessary to attain this qualification. Indeed not, the more simple the words the clearer the reading. We, however, certainly admire classical words if they be employed with taste and skill -- but to a student we say do not attempt this at present, you will find that you will be able to express your thoughts in grander language by-and-by.

By way of supplement to the measures that we have recommended candidates to adopt in writing themes, we advise them to note down on paper the points on which they intend to write, and not to commence one subject or circumstance until they have worked out another. This method is perhaps unnecessary in the case of one who has had much practice and experience, but a very sure, and, to our thinking, an indispensable plan for students (whose thoughts seldom flow easily) to adopt.

English Language.] Although this paper is very similar to those recently set on this subject, the questions require shorter answers, and we are therefore very glad. This, however, is no criterion as to the difficulty of the questions, inasmuch as we frequently find the shortest questions prove themselves to he the most difficult. We take the opportunity to remark that we anticipated nearly all the questions. We do not, of course, mean to say that these were the only questions, but they were among those to which we called our pupil's attention; and, although it may appear somewhat remarkable, we can aver most positively that they declared, that had we known the questions previous to the Examination, it would have been almost impossible to prepare them with greater success. Are we allowed to make such remarks here? Perhaps not; but our readers will, we hope, kindly bear in mind that we cannot help exulting at our success. We now fully bear in mind the innumerable fables and quotations that "ambitious men,” &c., but we reply, with modesty, Est modus in rebus." We cannot do better than call the attention of intending candidates to the works which we have recommended in No. 2 of this Journal. We also take the opportunity to remark that candidates must not be discouraged on perusing our answers, for we are supposed to make them complete and intelligible in themselves; whereas if they show a “general knowledge” of the paper, it will be deemed sutticient.

English History) If the Examiners were to insist on candidates answering the questions thoroughly, we fear that a very much larger number would be rejected than there is usually. We do not of course include those who have paid some extra attention to the subject, or who have been specially prepared. We say this, becanse we have frequently heard new pupils who had failed before we knew them, remark, that they had no idea in the world they would be required to answer such questions as, “What do you know of the following, . Quo warranto?'" &c., or “What kings bore the following surnames?” &c. &c. Now, we find it absolutely necessary to regard these, as well as innumerable other points, with considerable jealousy, and we certainly think that it wonld be quite as absurd to send a pupil into the Examination hall without knowing them, as it would be for a man to go for a walk in the open air without his hat!

Geography.] The geography, and indeed all the papers, appear this time to be somewhat shorter, and not so general as usual, though, as we remarked before, not easier. If we regard language in its strict sense, we might extend the answers to a considerable length, but we have no doubt whatever, that when the Examiner asks candidates, say, -To describe the general configuration of the surface of Europe, he bears in mind that they will take care not to write too much--for a very simple reason (?)

With regard to this paper we think Question 2, as quoted above, is general, and admits of a very extended answer, and we therefore trust that every candidate availed himself of the advantage thus afforded to write as much in the time allowed for answering the questions as he possibly could. It must be borne iu mind that the answer to a general question is not, as a rule, appreciated as much as the answer to one which requires a candidate to supply certain information. Question 3 is about the easiest one that the Examiner could have asked, and althongh we have ever worked in the cause of candidates we are convinced they will not feel annoyed if we say that those who failed to answer this question ought certainly not to pass the Examination. It should be remembered that an acquaintance with the coast lines- i.e. the capes, the bays, the river mouths, the harbours, &c., is indispensably necessary. Well, this cannot be learnt merely from a book, but only in connection with maps. We cannot advise candidates too strongly to pay the greatest attention to their maps, for if at any time a point of difficulty arises their knowledge of the “configuration" of a conntry will very frequently be reproduced in their mind's eye. Ilow often do students forget the exact situation of a place, but when they endeavour to recall to mind the map showing where it is situated, it will come back to them in a remarkable degree. Geography learnt in this manner would not always be sufficient for the examination, for there are innumerable points common to this ordeal, which can only be found in certain books—hence thy require special attention. Candidates frequently lament over geography, because they think it is so very difficult, but they forget that they are nervous to fuce it. As, however, it is, above almost all other subjects, capable of demonstration, there ought to be no difficulty in the matter. We never knew a candidate fail to derive benefit if he studied with ordinary diligence. Indeed, it may be imagined we have had, so far as we know of them, sonic very backward and inapt scholars, and we found them progress more favourably in this than in most of the other subjects. This makes it none the less important ; indeed, we ought to rejoice that a study of such paramount importance and interest can be so easily accomplished. It may be useful to some of those who have not the advantage of special instruction to give them some idea as to the plan we adopt after a lecture. It is this: we inform our pupils that on a certain day we shall require them to learn, by means of a map, particulars, say- of France. Well, we have a "small" map on our desk and not a large one on the wall, so that anyone could see any place at a


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glance-for this is no test. We ask our pupils in turn to point out places, but we never allow them to grope about in search of them. They must be pointed out immediately they look at the map, otherwise their knowledge of the question is not deemed satisfactory. Hence candidates would find this a very sufficient plan if they were to set themselves to learn, by means of a map, say - certain mountains, capes, bays, &c., and then prevail upon a friend to ask them to point out places, which they ought to do, as suggested.

Arithmetic.) We have but few remarks to make on this subject. As we have so frequently said, the majority of these problems (?) appeal to the natural endowment of the candidate; and our remarks on this point will be appreciated when we say that we have frequently found students, when we first made their acquaintance, most defective in every respect except arithmetic. This we have attributed to their mental qualifications. An endowment of this kind may be accelerated to a remarkable extent. There are a great many points to be discussed on the question whether a mathematical or classical mind is superior ; but as we find our labours creeping upon us the more we proceed, we must postpone this interesting topic for some future time. Perhaps, however, these remarks may set candidates thinking.

Elementary Knowledge of Latin ]—The Latin ought to have presented no difficulty to students who were educated at the public schools and those who were especially prepared. Unless some measnres be adopted to secure a knowledge of the questions asked, candidates would have to be fairly acquainted with the language. Here again we cannot belp making a few personal remarks. We can safely say that we anticipated nearly all the questions. Our pupils were highly delighted, the more so because when we made a final effort on their behalf we gave them snch a few notes that they could scarcely believe so many of the questions could be answered with their assistance.

French Language.] – With the exception of the piece for translation, which is not more difficult than usual, we think this paper is tolerably easy. For the advantage of those students who can devote several weeks to the preparation of this subject, we furnish them with a few remarks on the study of French in Chapter III., which we trust will be found of practical ntility. In this, as in all other subjects, special measures ought to be adopted to secure a knowledge of the peculiarities of French grammar. sons discountenance any means of learning a subject except by studying subjects thoroughly; but they ought to bear in mind that there are some inapt scholars, who would never learn anything but for such a system. Indeed, we have often heard students remark, “I had no idea that it was so easy; but when I was at school we had to plod along day after day without receiving any explanations; but now I see what the study really is, I shall certainly continue with it;" and we have found many to carry out this assertion. If all the schools in England were to send their scholars up to the Local Examinations, their pupils would have every opportunity of comparing their respective abilities with one another - hence a feeling of emulation would be created – the effect of which must be apparent. Even in the course of our lectures we hold “test” Examinations, and by this means we not only raise our pupils to a certain standard within a stated period, but we are able, from our experience (like a person looking at the thermometer), to tell whether they have made satisfactory progress or not.

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The Editor will be glad to receire COMMUNICATIONS from students and others.

They must be addressed Care of the Publishers,and will, in every instance,

receive the attention they merit. M. D. (Chester).— The Law Society will recognize a certificate certifying that a candidate has passed the Examination in Arts of the College of Surgeons; but as the student to whom you refer does not intend to cnter the medical professiin, we would recommend bim to present himself at the Solicitors' “ Preliminary” to save time.

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