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Intermediate Examination, under 23 & 24 Vict. c. 127, s. 9. The elementary works, in addition to book-keeping (mercantile), selected for the Intermediate Examination of persons under Articles of Clerkship executed after the 1st of January, 1861, are

Chitty on Contracts, chapters 1 and 3, with the exception, in chapter 3,

of section 1, relating to Contracts respecting Real Property. 7th

or 8th edition. Williams on the Principles of the Law of Real Property. 7th or 8th

edition. J. W. Smith's Manual of Equity Jurisprudence. 8th or 9th edition. The Examiners deal with the subject of mercantile book-keeping generally, and do not in their questions confine themselves to any particular system. Candidates are not examined in the method of book-keeping by double entry.

Candidates are required by the judges' orders to give to the Incorporated Law Society one calendar month's notice before the commencement of the term in which they desire to be examined. Candidates are also required to leave their Articles of Clerkship and Assignments (if any), duly stamped and registered, seven clear days before the commencement of such term, together with answers to the questions as to due service and conduct up to that time.

Candidates may be examined either in the term in which one half of their term of service will expire, or in one of the two terms next before, or one of the two terms next after one half of the term of service under their articles.

The Examinations are held in the hall of the Incorporated Law Society, Chancery Lane, London, in Hilary, Easter, Trinity and Michaelmas Terms.

The next (Michaelmas Term) Intermediate Examination will take place on the 9th of November, 1871.

Final Examination.
Candidates are usually examined in-

Common and Statute Law, and Practice of the Courts.
Equity, and Practice of the Courts.
Bankruptcy, and Practice of the Courts.

Criminal Law, and Proceedings before Magistrates. Candidates are required to give notice of their intention to present themselves for examination in the term previous to that in which they wish to be examined.

The next (Michaelmas Term) Final Examination will take place on Tuesday the 7th and Wednesday the 8th of November, 1871.

Preliminary Examination of the Royal College of Surgeons. The next Preliminary Examination for the diplomas of MEMBER and FELLOW of this College will be held on or about Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, the 19th, 20th and 21st of December, 1871.* Candidates desirous of presenting themselves for this Examination must signify their

. The exact dates have not yet been fixed by the council.

intention of so doing to the secretary (at the College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn Fields) on or before the 30th of November next.

Full particulars of this Examination, as well as a review of the June Examination papers, were published in the last July number of this Magazine.

Preliminary Examination for the Bar. The Preliminary Examinations for the Bar are usually held every Saturday during each legal term, and once in the week next preceding each legal term. By the Consolidated Regulations of the Four Inns of Court, it is provided that no Examiner shall attend unless two clear days' notice prior to the day appointed for his attendance shall have been given to the secretary of the Board of Examiners, by at least one candidate, of an intention to present himself on that day for Examination. The subjects of Examination are-(a) The English language; (b) The Latin language ; and (c) English history. No Latin works are named by the Examiners in which candidates will be examined—hence it is necessary that they should be tolerably well acquainted with the Latin language. Candidates are, however, usually required to translate passages from the works of Sallust, Cicero, Virgil, Horace, &c.





lr is, perhaps, of the utmost importance to a person, when seeking to enter one of the learned professions connected with the law, to ask himself this question. It is true that most persons follow the dictates of their own fancy, and we are not prepared to say that this is wholly unwise, inasmuch as we are aware that when a man takes especial interest in any profession or other vocation, he will, as a rule, excel, or succeed very well indeed. But we cannot help thinking that there are many who desire to embrace a profession solely with the view of holding a superior position in life, and who think it is a matter of choice—not the amount of ability required – as to the profession they ought to adopt. This is all very well when they do not intend to practise; but if they do, they should cast aside any ambitious feelings, and ask themselves calmly whether they are endowed with the necessary mental qualifications, so as to justify their embracing a branch, say, of the law.

We think it is extremely absurd for a parent to say, “My son shall be a barrister, a solicitor, or a doctor,” as the case may be; and although we often attribute this to the father, our experience has inclined us to think that it is invariably the lady who says, without a real knowledge of her son's abilities, “I should like John to be a barrister.” Well, if John possess ability, nothing could be better ; but if not, he or his father ought to be blessed with a tolerably large fortune. It is decidedly a most glorious profession, but we fear that unless a man possess some of the recognized endowments, he will never taste any of the innumerable glories which may be achieved! We all have seen that many talented beings have been, as it were, hurled from society, because they were originally placed in a sphere wholly unsuited to their mental qualifications. Different soils are admirable for different plants. A man may evince the most consummate ability and ingenuity in one profession, and yet be absolutely out of his equilibrium in another. We have not sufficient space here to enumerate cases in illustration ; but our argument, we presume, is so apparent, that it is one of those instances where theory and illustration apply equally well.

We can quite understand a man's ambition to enter a profession, but if his object be to reap benefit from his labor, let him ask himself the question, “Am I endowed with the necessary mental qualifications ?” Now, we do not mean to say that there are not numerous exceptions to this rule, for instance, where a parent has established a business as a solicitor, it is only right, whether his sons possess the necessary qualifications or not, and, perhaps, would strike out more brilliantly in another profession, that they should step in when their parent has ended his labor and left a flourishing business, and maintain his, let us hope, well-earned reputation, and, above all, the sweets to be derived therefrom. Some parents, however, insist on their sons commencing business for themselves with but slight assistance; and we have even heard them say that unless their sons show an ordinary amount of diligence, and reap some benefit thereby, they would not leave them their hard-earned possessions. Here, then, it is apparent that if a “gold mine" stares a man in the face, it is not necessary he should possess so much ability nor work as hard as the one who has to explore an unknown tract. This is obvious enough, and there are besides numerous instances which we will not discuss, but they furnish the exceptions to the rule. Are there many rules without exceptions ?

Having opened with these prefatory remarks, it is our duty to proceed with the question at issue. Before doing so we propose, for the information of our younger readers, to tell them what we conceive to be the true interpretation of the word "endowment;" for, regarding it in its primary sense, they are apt to mistake the word and think we are speaking of “educational” qualifications, and that we employ it as in the case of the endowment of a church, of a hospital, or of a college. Well, “endowment” is that which is given or bestowed on a person or mind by the Creator, Natural vigor of intellect is an endowment of the mind. We know that Chatham and Burke possessed uncommon endowments of mind, which implies that, apart from their attainments, their mental qualifications were of no mean order.

Resuming our argument, we must say that it requires some ability, and moreover experience, to discern the mental endowments of a youth. They are matured at different times in different persons; for we have sometimes seen that the dullest boy has made a bright man and vice versâ, althcugh we invariably find that, if there be any talent in a person, it will evince itself at an early age and, like port wine, will be sure to improve in course of time. It is, however, a question at what age are we to determine mental endowments. To this we reply-educate your children until they are sixteen years of age, giving them a sound training in every elementary subject of education, and especially the Latin language, and then you will



A man

be able to see what they possess. We have drawn a line at the age of sixteen; but in some instances talent does not evince itself until a much later period. It is, however, of importance that some definite rule should be laid down. Some parents are dissatisfied if their sons do not evince some ability at ten or twelve years of age, and others mistake the most puerile actions for ability. It is, therefore, impossible to determine the nature of a capacity until a youth has received a fair share of education in order to bring out his good qualities, if he have any, and has attained the age of sixteen or seventeen. Surely, if a man is not supposed to attain true wisdom until fifty or sixty, like some of our judges who are elevated to the judicial bench at about this period of life, allowance ought to be made for the young. We can quite understand a tradesman wishing to know his son's mental qualifications at an early age; but if it be sought to make him a barrister, a solicitor or a doctor, surely two or three years ought, as a rule, to make little difference, for very frequently great changes are wrought in a short period. There are, of course, exceptional cases.

Now, those who wish to go to the bar ought to be able to speak fluently and easily. They may certainly improve themselves in this respect, but we fear that the combined talent of all the most eminent elocutionists will fail to grant them an endowment which is admitted to be the greatest. can never become an orator unless he possess not only a clear delivery and fine-toned voice, but feeling to realize any fact. He who cannot be aroused at any circumstance is what we call “cold,” and he surely cannot give utterance to his ideas in such a way as will impress his audience very forcibly with his arguments. We know that the time for impassioned harangues is passing away rapidly. Why is this? Because there are few, who, like the Roman orators, could realize a fact and allow their ideas to go straight to “men's heads and hearts." We must not be mistaken; we do not refer to thundering declamations, but elegant and pathetic appeals. In addition to a flow of language, one who is aspiring to become a barrister ought to be endowed with indomitable perseverance; that is, if he wishes to vie with the greatest men. A taste for his profession is of primary importance ; also acuteness, so as to be able to read human nature. This qualification may, however, be accelerated by experience, or by studying such a work as Locke's “ Essay on the Human Understanding,” in which he endeavours to show that all our ideas are derived from experience, that is, through the senses, and reflection on what they reveal to us. add that he also investigates the general character of ideas, the association of ideas, the reality, limits and uses of knowledge, the influence of language, and the abuses to which it is liable. Some, of course, without any aid whatever, possess this endowment in a greater degree than others. Great avidity for the interests of those whom a barrister may be called upon to protect is necessary, and, above all, “calmness of demeanour.” Now this is a qualification which some of our greatest advocates possessed. So soon as an advocate loses his temper or becomes excited he will very probably injure the interests of his client. It is, however, only right to observe, that a man may improve by age, for we know that some of our greatest advocates when young were most reckless and excitable—it was, perhaps, nothing more than the petulance of youth—but in course of time and by experience they became most ingenious, deliberate and temperate beings.

It is doubtless unnecessary to urge, that "energy” is essential, so as to be

We may

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prepared without much, if any, consideration for points not anticipated. Great inclination to study is absolutely essential as well as a good memory; indeed, this is one of the most valuable endowments—so much so, that very frequently memory is mistaken for ability. How often do we find that the-shall we say, dullard — has an extraordinary advantage over an acute and energetic man in consequence of his brilliant memory. Memory is a marvellous and rare gift, but if a man possess only a fair share of this endowment with some ability, we prefer him undoubtedly; for we have also seen, when memory was the only might, that the boy, who was first in his class, fared very badly in the world, and that the “moderate scholar and acute boy" afterwards held some positions of eminence. Do not let idle boys, from our remarks, feel rejoiced at this, for they are not all acute, and do not even come under the denomination “ moderate scholars.” Indeed, those eminent persons who have declared that they were idle when young, tell us, that they worked very assiduously between the ages of seventeen and twenty-one, at a period when they were able to appreciate the value of learning. We could mention the names of many gentlemen now holding high positions in their respective professions who have informed us that they studied more diligently between seventeen and twenty-one years of age than at any other period of their lives.

Now, in justice to many nervous individuals, we wish to offer a few remarks. Because a youth may be timid in society, having an extremely nervous temperament, but possessing many admirable mental qualifications, his parents perhaps will not allow him to study for the Bar, although he may feel inclined to embrace that profession. They ought to be aware that some persons possess a wonderful amount of confidence to address an assembly, whereas they would probably be nervous to converse with only two or three persons. Our experience has shown us that very frequently the noisy babbler in society is but a timid being in public. A quiet, deepthinking individual, when “put to the test,” will very likely become amazingly eloquent, and, with practice, he may reach the summit of his profession. It would occupy too much of our space to mention the names of many noted men who have declared that, although they were timid in society, they were “giants” in public.

We fear that we are travelling somewhat out of the question, but in order that our argument may appear lucid, we subjoin the following table. Those aspiring to become barristers ought to be endowed with

1. A taste for that profession.
2. Fluency of speech.
3. Indomitable perseverance.
4. A good memory:
5. Confidence (which may be improved by practice and experience).
6. Energy.
7. Acuteness.

8. Great avidity.
We now arrive at the concluding part of our question, “What endow-
ments are essential to those aspiring to become solicitors ?” As we have
treated of this subject generally, we must ask our readers to be satisfied
with but a few additional remarks. What we have already written will,
we hope, interest the embryo solicitor as well as the embryo barrister.
We venture to give our opinion, while regarding the subject in a general

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