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Shelley is thus personally described .
"We now come to another epoch in the life of the poet-Shelley, at Oxford:
"lle was matriculated, and went to the l'nirersity College at the commencement of Michaelmas term, at the end of October i 10. The choice of this college (though a respectable one, by no means of high repute) was made by his father for two reasons-first, that he had himself, as already mentioned, been a member of it, -and secondly, because it numbered among its benefactors some of his ancestors, one of whom had founded an Exhibition. I had left the l'niversity before he entered it, and only saw him once in passing through the city. This rooms were in the corner, dext to the hall of the principal quad. rangle, on the first floor, and on the right of the entrance, by reason of the turn in the stairs, when you reach them, they will be on the right hand. It is a spot, wł ich, I might venture to predict, many of our posterity will hereafter reverently visit, and reflect an honour on that college, which bas nothing so great to distinguish it.' The portrait of him, drawn by his friend, from whom I have borrowed largely, corresponded with my recollection of him at this interview.
llis figure was slight and frngile, and yet his bones and joint were large and strong. He was tall, but he stooped so much, that he seemed of low stature.' De Quincey says, that he remembers seeing in London, a little Indian ink sketch of him, in his academical costume of Oxford. The sketch tallving pretty well with a verbal description which he bad heard of him in some company, viz., that he looked like an elegant and slender flower, whose head drooped from being surcharged with rain Where is this sketch How valuable would it be! His clothes, Mr. II. adds, were expensive, and, accoruling to the most approved mode of the day, they were tumbled, rumpled, unbrushed. His gestures were abrupt, sometimes violent, occasionally even Awkward, yet more frequently gentle and graceful. His complexion was delicate, and almost ferninine, of the purest red and white, yet he was tanned and freckled by exposure to the sun, having paused the auiumn, as he said, in shooting ;' and he said rightly, for he had, during September, often carried a gun in his father's preserves; Sir Timothy being a keen sportsman, and Shelley himself an excellent shot, for I well remember one day in the winter of 1109, when we were out together, his killing at three successive shots, three snipes, to my great astonishment and envy, at the tail of the pond in front of Field Place, • Ilis features, his whole face, and his head were particularly sinall, yet the last appeared of a remarkable bulk, tor his bair was long and bushy, and in its of absence, and in the agonies (if I may use the word), of anxious thought, he often rubbed it fierce'y with his hands, passed his fingere swiftly through his locks, unconsciously, so that it was singularly rough and wilu-a peculiarity which he had at school. His features were not symmetrical, the mouth perhaps excepted, yet was the effect of the whole extremely powerful. They breathed an animation,-a firean enthus asm-a vivid and preterpatural intelligence, that I never met with in any other countenance. Nor was the moral expression less beautiful than the intellectual, for there was a softness and delicacy, a gentleness, and especially though this will surprise many) an air of profound veneration, that characterises the best works, and chietly the frescoes (and into these they infused their whole souls) of the great masters of Rome and Florence.'
* * I observed, too, the same contradiction in his rooms, wiich I had often remarked in his person and dress. The carpet, curtain, and furniture were quite new, and had not passed through several generations of students on the payment of the thirds, that is, the third price last given. This general air of treshness was greatly obscured by the indescribabl. confusion in which the various objects were mixed. Scarcely a single article was in its right place-books, boots, japens, shoes, philosophical instruments, clothes, pistols, linen, crockery, ammunition, and pbiais innumerable, with money, stockings prnts, crucibles, bags, and boxes, were scattered on the floor in every place, as if the young chemist, in order to analyze the mystery of creation, bad endeavoured first to reconphilus, bishop of Antioch, about the year 170, in his paschal letter, and for the first four centuries it was far from being universally celebrated. It is even a niatter of great uncertainty when it should be kept, and Cassian tells us that the Egyptians observed the Epiphany, the Nativity, and Baptism of Christ on the same day; while modern chronologists, at the head of whom is Scaliger, agree that Christ was born at the end of September or the beginning of October, about the time of the Jewish Feast of the Tabernacles.
“In the earlier ages this day was called in the Eastern Church the Epiphany, or Manifestation of the Light, a name which was subsequently given to Twelfth Night. On this occasion it was used allusively to the birth of Christ, and hence also came the custom, which prevailed in the ancient church, of lighting up candles at the reading of the gospels even at mid-day, partly to testify the general joy, and partly to symbolize the new light that was shining on mankind. The fact is incidently mentioned by Jerome while defending the worship of relicks and dead men's bones against the attacks of Vigilantius, who, it seems had loudly protested against any such practice on the heretical plea that the intercession of the saints was useless. But Vigilantius was altogether a doubtful character; he maintained that it was idle to burn wax-tapers by day-light, that alms ought not to be sent to Jerusalem, that clerical celibacy was abominable, and the retirement of monks into the deserts and solitudes was no better. No wonder that the wrath of the mild and gentle Jerome should blaze forth as it did against such doctrines as these; a saint may be provoked, if we can believe the proverb.
“ This day was also called Theopany, which means much the same thing as Epiphany, but which can hardly be traced beyond the time of St. Basil.
“Christmas would also appear to have been called Noel or Nowel, though this latter word was used with three or four very different meanings.
“First, it signified the season of Christmas, that is to say the time of the festival commemorative of Christ's nativity; thus in the old French proverb, on a tant crie Noël qu'en fin il est venu_literally, we have cried out Christmas so) long that it has come at last—but meaning to imply we have talked of a thing so long that at last it has happened.
“Secondly, it signifies a carol, when that word is restricted in its use to a song, or hymn upon the nativity, but, as we shall presently see, the carol was sung at other seasons also ; thus for example, Les Noëls du Sieur François Colletet sont de plaisans Noëls. “ Thirdly, it signifies news or tidings; as for instance,
46"I come from Heaven to tell
The best nowellis that ever befell;
To you this tythings trewe I bring.' “ Fourthly, it was used merely as an exclamation of joy, if, indeed, it would not still seem to be employed as before, News! news! thus,
"Nowell! nowell! nowell ! nowell!
Who ys ther that syogyt so, nowell ! nowell ?' But though this would appear to be one and the same word, only used in different senses, I cannot help suspecting that we have two words sprung from very different roots and corrupted by time into the same mode of writing and pronouncing. Noël, when signifying 'tidings,' is likely enough to have come from the French nouvelles, though I would not venture to atfirm it; but in the other cases, I have no doubt whatever as to its origin; and in detiance of so many opposite derivations assert that Noël is neither more nor less than a corruption of Yole, Yule, Gile, or Ule, for it was written in all these ways; the addition of N to words beginning with a vowel is so compion in our old writers that few can be ignorant of it, and the phrase is just as applicable to Christmas as it was to Midsummer, seeing that at either time it bore a reference to the solstice. From having been used to desiguate Christmas, we may easily imagine how it came to be applied to the songs of the season, and even from frequent repetition to become a mere cry of joy. I ain the more contirined in
my notion by the fact that yol, or yule, so repeatedly occurs as a simple exclamation, either to express boisterous mirth or as an accompaniment to some superstitious ceremony. As to Todd's derivation of the word from the Hebrew GNOUL, a child, it is too absurd for argument.
"Among the Anglo-Saxons this day was the beginning of the year ; and in the shows of a later, but still remote, time, Christinas was personified in his pageant by an old man hung round with savoury dainties.'
“No sooner had midnight passed, and the Day of the Nativity commenced, than the people hastened to welcome it with carols, and these, as Bourne tells us, were . generally sung with some others from the nativity to the Twelveth Day, the continuance of Christmas.' In the present day, the place of the carols is supplied amongst the higher and middling classes by tunes played just before midnight by the so-called Waits, whilst the carols themselves are annually published in the humblest form, and with the coarsest wood cuts, for amusement of the people,
“On the Christmas Day these carols used at one time to take the place of psalms in the churches, and more particularly at the afternoon service, the whole congregation joining in them. At the end of the carol the clerk would declare, in a loud voice, his wishes for a merry Christmas and a happy new year to all the parishioners.
“ Carol-singing was, and still is, a custom on the continent, as we find mentioned in Lady Morgan's ITALY; and, though now it is confined with us to the humbler classes, yet in former times it amused the highest. At the table,' says Leland, 'in the medell of the hall sat the Deane and thoos of the king's chapell, whiche incontynently after the king's furst course singe a carall.'
“In conclusion, so far as regards this part of my subject, I am tempted to say a few words upon the etymology of CAROL. Johnson would seem to be unquestionably right in deducing it from the Italian, carola, though carola does not mean a song, but a round dance accompanied by song,' being itself derived from the Greek yopós or the Latin chorus, both of which equally signified mixture of song and dance. It is true that carol is restricted in its meaning to song only, but precisely the same limitation of sense has happened with the word chorus, which has been borrowed from the same original, and which yet, with us, excludes all idea of dancing. The only thing that appears to militate against the supposition is, that we have in the middle-age Latinity the word carola with four very different meanings. In the barbarous language of the cloisters, it signified :- 1st, a balustrade or railing—2ndly, a procession around chapels enclosed within railings-3rdly, a chest to hold writing materials, with a lock and key, such as was forbidden to be kept in the monks' dormitories without especial permission of the Abbot—and lastly, it was used for some smaller specimens of gold or silver work, but of what particular kind it is impossible to say. Now the connexion between this word and our carol is by no means evident, and yet, the two being so exactly similar in sound and spelling, one cannot altogether get rid of the idea of their somehow being the same, though to all appearance so completely sundered by difference of meaning.
" The earliest known collection of carols supposed to have been published is only known from the last leaf of a volume, printed by Wyakin de Worde in 1521. It is now in the Bodleian Library, and has two carols upon it; the one . a caroll of huntynge' reprinted in the last edition of Juliana Berners' • Boke of St. Albans ;' the other, a “Caroll on bringing up a bore's head to the table on Christmas Day,' which is given by Ritson in the second volume of his Ancient Songs, p. 14. The carol, however, as it is now heard at Queen's College, Oxford, differs much from the old version, and is sung every Christmas Day in the Hall to the common chaunt of the prose version of the psalms in Cathedrals.* * The Carol (as given by Ritson.)
Caput apri defero
The bores-heed in hand bring I,
Qui estis in convivio.
Servite cum cantico.
The bores-heed with mustarde.
The boar's-head in hand bear I,
Caput Apri defero
Reddens laudes Domino.
Caput Apri defero
Reddens laudes Domino.
Caput Apri defero
Anderson, Mrs. Mary, of Belle Vue,
('oupar Angus, co, Perth, widow of Dr.
John Anderson, 2nd Nov. Ashwell, Mrs. James, of Tonbridge Wells,
13th Nov. Attwood, W., Esq., of Brompton Row,
1st Nov., aged 65. Bailey, Thomas, Esq., of Limehouse, Sur.
geon, 10th Nov., aged 59. Banks, Lydia, wife of W. II. Banks, Esq.,
R.N., 29th Oct., at Gosport. Barlow, Geo. Francis, E.4., of the Manor
House, Brompton, 6th Sov., aged 74. Bassan, Mrs. Ann, widow of Joseph Bas
san, Esq., Surgeon, R. X., 4th Nov. Becket, Charles, only son of C. A. Becket,
E-, of Gravesend, 9th Nov. Beddington, Mrs. Exlward, of Stockton
Court, co. Worcester, 4th Nov., aged
Begbie, Mary Tlamilton, wife of Major
Thomas Stirling Begbie, 29th Oct.,
aged 56. Berkeley, Mary, reliet of the late Row
land Berkeley, Est, of Benefield, co.
Northampton, 3onh (kt, aged ol. Betterworth, James Trevannion, E-,
A.D.C. to Major Gen. Bambriage,
C.B., 14th Nov. Blankett, Powell (Charles, Esq. Surgeon,
R.N., 6th Nov., aged 60. Bolland, the Rev. Wuliam, 29th May, at
New Plymouth, New Zealand, aged 27. Brahant, Catherine Mary, dan. of W. H.
Brabant, E-., 25th Oct., aged 5. Brenchley, John, E-, of Wanlass How,
co Westmoreland, Toth Nov., aged 64. Brereton, Mrs. Sarah, of Richmond Ter.
race, l'addington, 23d Ort. Brooks, Thomas Beedle, E... of the In
ner Temple, Barrister-at-law. 15th
Nov. Brown, John, Esq.. of Sulbury Hill
Hlouse, Ilarrow, 27th Oct., ap. 2. Brown, Thomas, E., late Surgeon at
Berkhampstead, 3th Now. Burn, licnry, E., ot Braxton, 9th Nov.,
Aged 60. Barton, Lieut.(ol of the Royal Marines,
26th Oct., aged 63. Butler, Hartutt, widow of Colonel R. W.
Butler, Bengal Artillery, 1- Suv Butler, Thomas, only son of the late The
Butler, E . of Trinity Square, 13th Nor.
Byng, Mise, elder sister of the late Geo.
Byng, Esq., M.P., 29th Oct. Chambers, William, E- Com. R.X.,
27th Oct., aged 45. Captain Chambers was eldest son of the late Sir Sa. muel Chambers, of Bredgar House, Kent, by Barbara, his wife, Tau. of the Hon. Philip Roper, and nephew of Mr. Chambers, the Banker, of Bond-street,
whose misfortunes are so well known. Chinenhale, John Chisenhale, Eq. Ar
ley Hall, Lancashire, 27th Oct, aged 58. Thiy gentleman, whose patruny. mic was Johnson, assumed the surname of Chisenhale on succeeding to the ex. tates of his maternal ancestors, one of whum was the famous Colonel (hin'li. hale, so distinguished as one of the de. fenders of Lathom House, under the
beroic Countess of Derby. Chisholm, Alexander, Es, ('or, Mem.
FS A., Sc., at Rothaay, Isle of Bute. Clarke, Charlotte, relict of William
Stanley Clarke, E- 12th Nov., at
Lätherhead, aged 70. Cochrane, Maria, relict of James (och
rane, Esq., at Wilton-street, 7th Nov. Cole, Lady Frances, relict of the late
Gen. the Ilon. Sir I. Lowry Cole, ist Novi, aged 64. Her Landschip was re. lict of the late eminently distinguished otheer, Sir Galbraith Lonry Cole, and second dau. of James, Ist Earl of Malmesbury, the celebrated diplomatist of the reign of George III. Lady Frances was born 22nd of August, 17*4, and married 13th June, 115. She leaves three sons (the eldert, Arthur Lanty Cole, a Captain in the 69th), and tour
daughter Coleman, Mathew Leonard, Exq., of the
War oftice, 23d (nt, aged 67. (oller, Christopher Ihr ophilus, E . of
Magialen Hall, (x0n.. fourth won of the late Rev, Robert Collett, M.A., of
Westerham, Kont, 191h Ct, ked 22. Cooper. Maior-Gen. George, command
ing the Duranore division of the Ben.
gal Army, 27th Ang, aged 67. Cornwallıs, the (untess of, 41h Nin..
kid 37. The death of the estimable la ly took place at St. Leonard's-1Sea, after a lengthened illness, at the early age of thirty-seven. ller Ladi. słup was fourth daughter of Thus