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with Noah the perpetual symbol of the rainbow.-5. There still remains another preliminary stage: there must be nations in the world before there can be a chosen nation. The symbolism of Babel is just suited to emphasize diversity of language as the main factor underlying differences of nations. With this the Preface terminates, and the Call of Abraham follows immediately.

Page 9. The Creation of the World.—This Story of the Creation reads like a chant, with refrains repeated, one at the beginning and one at the end of each ‘day'; thus:

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A glance at the above scheme shows how the Creation thus described falls into two similar parts, the first day corresponding with the fourth, the second with the fifth, the third with the sixth. The impression left upon our minds is (1) that the whole universe is one harmonious plan, (2) that each portion of this universe is God's own work, (3) that an evolution runs through the whole, from the single creation of light to a climax in man, the image of the Creator.The closing paragraph, with its six days of work and one of rest, brings out the great law of life which we call the week.-A firmament ... let it divide the the waters from the waters. The word firmament means barrier: the rain clouds (waters above the firmament) float upon the expanse of air, the seas and rivers (waters under the firmament) are below it.

Page 12. Story of Babel.—They found a plain in the land of Shinar: this was the old Jewish word for what the moderns would call Mesopotamia.And the Lord came down to see the city . . . and the Lord said, Behold, they are one people, etc. This is an example of a type of phraseology which is found in various parts of the Bible, the misreading of which has been the cause of grave errors of interpretation. The constant thought of the Bible is that a personal God is the sole ruler of the universe, as against the conception of other literatures which, besides personal deities, recognized impersonal forces like Destiny, Fate, Chance. It follows that anything appearing in the constitution of the

world can be referred to God as its sole origin, occurring by his action or his permission. Similar phraseology is seen where it is said that God “hardened Pharaoh's heart”; or where, in the Call of the Prophet Isaiah (above, page 181), God says to him, “Make the heart of this people fat, and close their eyes, etc.” Modern speech would express this by saying how it is a “law" of psychology that resistance to spiritual appeals hardens the heart. Whatever is a “law” in the constitution of God's universe the Bible refers to as the action of God. The misinterpretation lies in treating as if it were a direct act of God something which merely follows from the freedom of the will which God has made part of the constitution of his world. The present case is an extreme example: the gradual divergences in the language of mankind, inherent in the constitution of man, are symbolically presented as brought about by God.—Therefore the name of it was called Babel,' because the Lord did there'confound.' The 0. T. is full of this etymological play upon words; in the present work quotation marks are used to indicate the exact point. [‘Babel' ... 'confound').- This Story of Babel has in the New Testament its counterpart in the Incident of Pentecost: the varied nations are to be drawn together again, not to uniformity of language, but to a spiritual unity transcending linguistic and national differences. (N. T. Volume, page 250.]

Page 13. The Patriarchs.—As long as the descendants of Abraham are an aggregation of families the constitution of the Chosen People is ‘patriarchal.' This implies two things: (a) the single family under headship of a father represents local government; (b) beyond this there is an advance to what in the end will be national government by the recognition of Abraham, or his oldest representative, as exercising a vague authority over all other families.

Page 13. Wooing of Rebekah.—Two points should be considered in reference to each Bible story: (1) its position in the Historic Outline; (2) how it is a reflection of manners and life. The second is very obvious in the Wooing of Rebekah. The connection of this with history is the care exercised in guarding the purity of the coming race; for the first mother that has to be chosen they go back to the country from which Abraham had migrated.

Page 17. The Intercepted Blessing.–The Patriarch, or nearest representative of Abraham, transmits his authority by the "blessing of the first born." In the present case this is intercepted by the fraud of Jacob. Jacob becomes the next ancestor in the descent of the Chosen People. But races that will in future encounter this Chosen People as neighbors or rivals are derived from other descendants of Abraham. Esau is the ancestor of the Edomites. Compare Book of Obadiah, page 267.) The Ishmaelites (a name for various Arabian tribes) are descended from the son of Abraham by his slave wife Hagar. The Moabites and Ammonites are descended from Lot, a kinsman of Abraham who joined his mission.

Page 18. And he called the name of that place Beth-el. The word means House of God.'

Page 18. Israel. In primitive life when names were supposed to describe personalities it was natural for some spiritual experience to lead to a change of

name. ‘Abram'='lofty father'; ‘Abraham'='father of a multitude of nations.' Jacob'='supplanter'; Israel'='one who has striven with God.' The reference is to a vision in which this Jacob wrestled with an angel representative of God, and prevailed in obtaining a blessing. From this ‘Israel' the Chosen People come to be permanently named: the 'Children of Israel.'

Pages 19 to 34. Story of Joseph and his Brethren.—This is one of the most beautiful stories in all literature. (1) It has an important place in history, Joseph being a link between the Children of Israel and the empire of Egypt. (2) Note the character of Joseph, how he makes an impression on all with whom he comes into contact. (3) Note also the sketches of varied life which make a background to the story as it moves along-such as glimpses of wandering shepherd life, trading caravans, palace life in Egypt. (4) There is the interest of dreams, five in all, mysterious foretellings which gradually become clear as they are fulfilled. (5) At last we have a double, or, as it is called, “ironic' situation, when Joseph recognizes his brethren but is not recognized by them. This situation of affairs, when it has once arisen, is prolonged to the utmost length by Joseph's conflict of feelings, between resentment and family affection. A climax is found when, among the very men who once united to enslave their brother Joseph, one is now found consenting to be a slave in order to deliver their brother Benjamin. (6) Beyond all other interests there is that of the providential overruling of human events; see page 31: And God sent me before you to preserve you a remnant in the earth . . so now it was not you that sent me hither, but God. What we call ‘Plot' in art is the reflection of Providence' in real life.

Page 22. Do not inter pretations belong to God? In the Book of Ecclesiasticus (above, page 422) there is a short essay on Dreams, warning against them as mere vanities. But an exception is made: “If they be not sent from the Most High.” As Providence can bring about its purposes by what seem small'accidents,' so God can use the vanities of dreaming as means of communicating truth to favored souls. The same idea is found in Daniel (page 116).–Page 26. Joseph made himself strange unto [his brethren). The word strange means foreign (French étrange). Joseph spoke through an interpreter, etc.—Page 30. Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, and whereby he indeed divineth? . . . Know ye not that such a man as I can indeed divine? Joseph's steward in his simplicity, and Joseph himself speaking ironically, are talking from the Egyptian standpoint. The cup was no doubt carved with idol images, by which according to Egyptian magic future events could be guessed.-Page 33. They came into the land of Goshen. A district of the country lying between Egypt and Canaan.

Page 34. The Exodus.—Books of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers.The reader must distinguish “The Exodus” from the Biblical Book of Exodus. The former describes an era of more than forty years, during which the Chosen People were passing through the wilderness, and were gradually being consolidated into a nation. This covers three Biblical books: Exodus, Leviticus,

Numbers. What appear as the first five books of the Bible are often called The Pentateuch. In the original Hebrew Bible all this was continuous, and known as The Law, or Law of Moses. The division into five books comes from the ‘Septuagint,' the translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, at a time when Greek was the literary language of Jews and Gentiles. (N. T. volume, page 7.] Accordingly, the titles of the separate books are Greek. Genesis = origin. Exodus remigration. Numbers = statistics. Deuteronomy=second law (for the special significance of this see below, page 471). Leviticus is so called from its containing much about duties of the Levites. The tribe of Levi was different from the other tribes: no land of its own was assigned to it, but it was to be spread through the whole of the Holy Land, for the purpose of religious duties. One family of this tribe, the descendants of Aaron, constituted the priesthood. The rest of the tribe, under this name of Levites, had minor religious duties, especially duties of police and singing. (Compare page 133.)

Page 35. Story of the Plagues of Egypt. This emphasizes the beginning of the Exodus, presenting the Children of Israel as slaves; the Story of Balaam illuminates the completed process by which they have become one of the formidable nations of the world.—The plagues of Egypt strongly affected the imagination of ancient Israel. Besides the epic description of them here in the Book of Exodus, they are lyrically presented in two of the National Anthems (pages 54 and 98). They appear again at length in the Wisdom of Solomon, It is a very interesting literary exercise to compare the different treatments of the same matter. Thus, the account in Exodus contains a very striking phrase (in reference to the Plague of Darkness): darkness which might be felt." In the book of Wisdom this idea is, by a process of imaginative analysis, carried forward into an elaborate picture of all that the Egyptians may be supposed to have felt during the horror of this darkness.

When lawless men had supposed that they held a holy nation in their power, they themselves, prisoners of darkness, and bound in the fetters of a long night, close kept beneath their roofs, lay exiled from the eternal providence. For while they thought that they were unseen in their secret sins, they were sundered one from another by a dark curtain of forgetfulness, stricken with terribie awe, and sore troubled by spectral forms. For neither did the dark recesses that held them guard them from fears; but sounds rushing down rang around them, and phantoms appeared, cheerless with unsmiling faces. And no force of fire prevailed to give them light, neither were the brightest flames of the stars strong enough to illumine that gloomy night: but only there appeared to them the glimmering of a fire self-kindled, full of fear; and in terror they deemed the things which they saw to be worse than that sight on which they could not gax. For even if no troublous thing asírighted them, yet, scared with the creepings of vermin and hissings of ser pents, they perished for very trembling, refusing even to look on the air, which could on no side be escaped. But they, all through the night which was powerless indeed, and which came upon them out of the recesses of powerless Hades, all sleeping the same sleep, now were haunted by monstrous apparitions, and now were paralyzed by their soul's surrendering; for fear

sudden and unlooked for came upon them. So then every man, whosoever it might be, sinking down in his place, was kept in ward, shut up in that prison which was barred not with iron: for whether he were a husband man, or a shepherd, or a laborer whose toils were in the wilderness, he was overtaken, and endured that inevitable necessity; for with one chain of darkness were they all bound. Whether there were a whistling wind, or a melodious noise of birds among the spreading branches, or a measured fall of water running violently, or a harsh crashing of rocks hurled down, or the swift course of animals bounding along unseen, or the voice of wild beasts harshly roaring, or an echo rebounding from the hollows of the mountains: all these things paralyzed them with terror. For the whole world beside was enlightened with clear light, and was occupied with unhindered works; while over them alone was spread a heavy night, -an image of the darkness that should afterward receive them. But yet heavier than darkness were they unto themselves.

Both treatments are equally fine, and the contrast enhances both.

Page 35. The Passover.---This is the name of the chief festival of the Israelites, in commemoration of the departure from Egypt. The name is connected with the last of the Plagues of Egypt, by which the firstborn of the Egyptians were destroyed. “For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel” (of the Israelites' houses). “... the Lord will PASS OVER the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you.” A feature of the festival was the eating of unleavened bread, symbolizing the hurry of the departure. “And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders."

Page 35. Song of Triumph at the Red Sea.—This is one of the grand lyrics of the Bible. It also is interesting to the literary student as throwing light upon the evolution of poetry.

At first it seems strange to find, in such a primitive epoch of history, a poem that appears so advanced and modern. Not only is it late in general style, but the latter part of it speaks of the panic of Moabites and Canaanites which would only happen a generation after the event of crossing the Red Sea. The primitive form of poetry is what is called the ‘Ballad Dance': a combination of verse with musical accompaniment and the significant movements of the body which in ancient poetry (and in the Bible) are called 'dancing.' An explanation, like a footnote, follows the Song:

And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances. And Miriam answered them,

Sing ye to the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously;
The horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.

This represents the simple Ballad Dance which would be used on the occasion itself, of which the sole words would be the couplet given above. The rest of the

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