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ponderating influence in the government of | tions of the several States of the Union, which this State that we desire to see the large coun- are now lying on their tables. This book, I ties limited in the number of representatives presume, will be regarded as the collected wisthey may have. Not, sir, that we desire to pre- dom of the American people in regard to the vent capital from having the weight that legiti- best method of construing organic law for the mately belongs to it, but we are opposed to its wise government of a people; and by turning possessing the all-controlling influence in the over these pages what do we find? In MassaLegislature.

chusetts, Connecticut, and the rest of the New Šir, the great interest of the State of Indiana England States, it is expressly provided that is agricultural; and while that class of our pop- each township shall have one member in the ulation engaged in these pursuits retain the lower branch of their Legislature; and in several ascendancy in the coupcils of our State, we of the States, the number of representatives in have no reason to fear båt that she will be well the popular branch of the Government amounts governed. Let us not, however, attempt to to three or four hundred. In New York and conceal from ourselves the fact that the towns Pennsylvania, the agricultural interests of these and cities of our State are rapidly on the in- States, in order to secure themselves against crease; that banks, insurance companies, rail- the overpowering influence of their great cities, roads, and other corporations and associations have provided in their new Constitutions that have increased beyond anything we could have each county shall have at least one member in expected, or even dreamed of a few years ago, the House of Representatives. In New Jersey and that, at no distant day, unless some meas- one representative is sent from each county ures are taken to prevent it, there is reason to without regard to its population. The same fear that the capital and moneyed influence of principles may be found in the Constitutions of the State will govern its legislation. And, sir, | Delaware and Maryland. In North Carolina it is because I find that in nearly all the large my own native State, under their new Consticounties, such as Jefferson, Marion, Tippeca- tution, cach county, without respect to its pop noe, Vigo, and others, large cities are gaining ulation, is entitled to send one member to the the ascendancy, and sending up here their three popular branch of the Legislature, whether i or tour members to the popular branch of the has the ratio fixed in the Constitution or not State Legislature, that I desire to see a provis- It is the same in Georgia and in South Caro ion inserted in the new Constitution that shall lina. In the State of Louisiana, it is expressly retain and secure to the farmers in the new provided in her new Constitution that each and sparsely settled portions of the State their parish shall have at least one representative.' full share in the representation of the State. In Tennessee, the rule was adopted that every In regard to the increase of population in the county having two-thirds of the ratio of repre States of this Union, it is a fact that has been sentation should have one representative; and well ascertained, that, after they reach a cer- I am told by a gentleman I have reason to betain point in population, the rural districts re- lieve is well informed upon the subject, that main stationary, while the towns and cities practically, this gives to all her counties one continue to increase. In many of the old representative. I have not had time to examStates the population of the country has even ine the Constitutions of all the States minutely decreased to a very great extent, while the but I find that the Constitutions of Alabama large cities and towns are constantly drawing Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Michigan the population to them. I therefore contend, each contain a provision that each county shall that, in fixing the principle for the apportion- be entitled to at least one representative; and ment of representation, which, for aught we a friend, who has examined the matter, informe know, is to continue for a century to come, me that the Constitutions of twenty-five out o these facts should be constantly borne in mind; the thirty-one States of the Union, in some and unless we do bear them in mind, it will be shape or other, contain the same principle found that, in time, the agricultural counties Now, sir, with this evidence before us, am will be too much at the disposal of the com- not justified in saying that the united experience mercial counties, having within their limits the of our country requires us to adopt this princi large cities and towns of the State.

ple, or one similar to it? Sir, the more this And now, sir, let me again repeat what has subject is examined, the more I am satisfied already been observed by others that the prin- will be found that there is nothing so really ciple for which we contend is not new, not- odious in allowing each county which has onewithstanding that some gentlemen would seem half or two-thirds of the ratio to be represented to insinuatę such to be the case. It is a great in the popular branch of our State Legislature. mistake to suppose that numbers is the only Sir, I cannot but believe that when the State principle that has heretofore been observed in Government has come to the conclusion that this country in regard to representation. In any portion of the territory of the State should addition to the General Government, to which be organized into a county government, it would I have already alluded, I would direct the at- seem to me as necessarily following that the tention of members to the book of Constitu- interest of that portion of the territory woulo

be so separate that from any other county that? to enable them to secure their rights. These it ought to be represented in the government counties are just organized and are now being that had organized it. Sir, I am not only a settled. They are, as it were, just in the chrys* State rights ” man in regard to our National alis state, and for that very reason they stand Government, but I am, to some extent, a State more in need of attention than the older counrights man in county matters; and I hope that this ties, whose interests are permanent, and which Convention will re-organize the county boards have already received the fostering care of the and rest in them the power of local legislation, Government. The remoteness, too, of these and thus render it unnecessary that the Legisla- counties from the seat of Government, makes ture of our State should be occupied with that it doubly necessary that each of them should class of business. The business which even have some one upon the floor of the House of Hon is committed to their care is very impor- Representatives who would in truth and in tant. They have to act on all claims against fact, and not in name only, represent their inthe county; they have to take care of the poor; } terests. to erect county buildings; to construct roads

Sir, I know that some of the smaller counand bridges; and to transact various other im- ; ties in the northern portion of the State have portant business which I have not time now

been held up to ridicule on this floor; and it has to mention. And how, could these miniature been triumphantly asked here if such counties, republics be properly represented in the great with their sparse population, were each to have council of the State, unless the principle for which we contend should be adopted? Can it four thousand seven hundred and eighty-two

as many representatives as Wayne, with her be done by attaching them to some adjoining polls. No, sir; no one has ever contended for county? Sir, there are many questions which this. We have no objection that Wayne and have reference to each county in its capacity of the other large counties should have their two à separate political organization which never

or three representatives. All that we ask is, could be fully and fairly represented by a person that each of these small counties should have, at who had his feelings and wishes divided by rep; least, one representative. Suppose, sir, that rezenting at the same time another county.

the population of these northern counties is have known of jealousies and unfriendly feel.

now sparse, is that any reason why they should ings existing between counties when they have { be deprived of their voice, when you have albeen attached together for purposes of repre- ready recognized their separate territorial exsentation, and I have always looked upon the istence? joining of counties together for such purposes, as an evil that, if it were possible, should be

But, say gentlemen from the large counties, avoided. When a person is elected to repre- the small counties will be allowed each a repsent two counties, whatever may be said to resentative once in four years; or should there the contrary, it practically results in his becom- be some three of them joined together to form a ing the representative of but one; for it is a representative district, then once in six years; matter of course that he will be attached to the and that once in two years they will be allowed county in which he resides; and in all local to participate in electing a representative for matters he will be disposed to give more par

the whole district. It is contended that this ticular attention to its interests than to the in- ought to be sufficient for them; and that at all terests of the other county, especially where events one person ought to be able to represent the interest of the two counties might happen three or four such counties. Sir, need I repeat to conflict. There was much truth in the re

what I have already said, that the interests of mark of the gentleman from Owen, (Mr. Dob- even contiguous counties, are not always idenson) that there was now a double necessity tical, and that the person elected, to reprethat as far as possible, each and every county sent them, necessarily becomes the representain the State should be represented in the Leg- tive of one in preference to the others, for the islature, and for the very reason that he sug.

reason that his personal interests and attachgested. We have decided to have the Generalments unite him in feeling with the county in Assembly meet but once in two years. Now, which he resides. Besides, sir, as is frequently we know that wben two counties are attached the case where one county is the larger of the together for the purposes of electing a repre- two, it will overpower and entirely control the sentative, they usually take it in turns; and thus representation, and thus the smaller county under the new Constitution, one of such coun- goes entirely unrepresented if the interests of ties would only in fact be represented once in the counties should in any way conflict. For four years. I repeat, sir, that if the system all these reasons, then, which, whatever weight reported by the committee on the legislative } they may have with the Convention, have great department should be carried into effect, it weight with me, I think the course we ought to would do manifest injustice to the smaller pursue is, to give to each of the counties, at counties. In my opinion the new counties in least one representative. the northern portions of the State, of all others, I now come to speak of another feature of need most to be represented in the Legislature, this report to which I object. For anything

that I can yet see, the odious principle of rep- so much perverted by both of the great political resenting fractions, by what is termed in the parties of this State. language of the politicians of this State, the

And now, sir, in connection with this subject, system of "floats," will be continued if the re

let me call the attention of the Convention to port of the committee should receive the sanc

another feature of the system heretofore praction of the Convention. I think, sir, that we

ticed in the State which does great injustice should endeavor to fall upon some plan which

to the small counties, and even some injustice will effectually put an end to this system and

to the medium sized counties, but not to the make the representative districts permanent, so

same extent. I am told that the whole number that no party hereafter in power by this sys of polls in our State is not far from 200,000. tem of gerrymandering may perpetuate their If they do not reach that number now, they power in defiance of the will of the people. probably will do so by the time of the first apSir, this system holds out too many induce. portionment under the Constitution which we ments to do injustice to political opponents, not may adopt. And, sir, if we limit the representato be abused; and in my opinion, no majority tives in the popular branch of the Legislature in either party, ought ever to be entrusted with

to one hundred, we can see how this system it. I am aware, sir, that equality between

will practically work. Take Marion county, counties is not to be obtained. There will ever

for instance, with her 4226 polls, and she be fractions; and therefore mathematical accu

would be entitled to two representatives and racy cannot be had in any system of appor would have but a small fraction. Now, sir, suptionment, sir, if counties were not already or

posing that there were four counties like Allen, ganized, and if we were at liberty to disregard the one in which I reside, with 3214 polls. township and county, lines, and begin at the Each county would be entitled to send one confluence of the Ohio and Wabash, ia Posey representative, and each would also have a county--and, sir, I believe that we always be fraction of over 1200 polls which would make gin in the pocket to apportion the representa. their united fractions over 4800 polls

, which tion for any purpose—and there count the first would go unrepresented, thus losing two reptwo thousand voters and authorize them to send resentatives in the district of country com. a member to the Legislature, and thus proceed prising the four counties. Sir, do we not all on through the State until every two thousand

see that every county must lose a fraction, polls should have a representative, we might and that the more counties there are, the make the representation equal. But this we

more chances there are of losing fractions, cannot do. On the contrary, in any system of and that very frequently the smaller counties apportionment which we may adopt, we must have reference to the existing political organi- I have not examined the matter sufficiently to

have much larger fractions than the larger ones? zation in the State. I have already alluded to the fact that both in our national and State speak with certainty, but I am told that in both Government—and I may add that in every rep- fourths of all the fractions which went unrep

of the apportionments of 1840, and 1845, threeresentative government in the world where they resented in the House of Representatives, were pretend to have a system of popular representa lost in the middle sized and small counties. Sir, tion-they are compelled from necessity to I cannot believe that the framers of the Conhave some reference to the local division es

stitution of 1816, ever designed that such an tablished by law in apportioning their repre unjust system as this should be adopted in our sentatives. It was wise institution of the State. I learned from one of the members of great Alfred, and much improved upon by our

the Convention that framed that Constitutionpilgrim forefathers, to divide the country into the late Col. Polk of Fort Wayne—that no counties and townships. They have ever been other idea was entertained in the Convention looked to in our political organization, and than that every county should have at least one from this division some of the most beneficial

member in the popular branch of the General effects have resulted to our Government. They Assembly. And, sir, in support of this idea already exist in this State, and we cannot disregard them in any plan of apportionment which several of the subsequentones, that each county,

we find in the very first apportionment, and in we may adopt, even if we should desire to do without reference to its population, was author80. And, sir, allow me to say further, that ized to send one member to the House of Repreas long as any attention is paid to the political } sentatives. Indeed, sir, if we turn to the Constituorganization of the counties, perfect equality in tion, we will find that in the very language emrepresentation cannot be obtained.

Sir, we are compelled, in all our efforts, to equalize the ing of the apportionment of representatives in

ployed, this idea is fully carried out, for in speakrepresentation to take in a county here, ard the House it uses this language: to throw away a county there, to enable us make the fraction larger or smaller; and it was “ The number of Representatives shall, at in attempting to correct this evil of large frac- the several periods of making such enumerations that the system of floats, to which I have {tion, be fixed by the General Assembly, and alluded, was introduced, which has since been apportioned among the several counties, according to the number of white male inhabi- | a flourishing city now numbering between four tants above twenty-one years of age in each." and five thousand inhabitants, and it will soon

But, sir, when it comes to speak of the apo double, and probably treble its present populaportionment of the Senate it says:

tion; and, sir, unless I am greatly mistaken, - The number of Senators shall, at the seve Allen county, at no distant day, is destined to eral periods of making the enumeration before be the “ Empire” county of the State, and mentioned, be fixed by the General Assembly Wayne, which has heretofore been designated and apportioned among the several counties or as the “old Dominion,” will be compelled to Listricts to be established by law according to yield the palm to Allen. But, sir, strong as the number of white male inhabitants of the she now is, and encouraging as are her prosage of 21 years in each,” &c.

pects for the future, she would despise to deNow, sir, it may be observed by gentlemen prive her sister counties who are so unfortunate #bat a marked distinction there is between the as to be less prosperous than herself of a fair language which relates to the apportionment and equal represention with her in the legislafor the House and that for the Senate. When tion of the State. If, sir, she were like some it refers to the House of Representatives it other counties of the State which seem never speaks only of counties, and says nothing what to look beyond their own borders, unless it be ever in regard to districts. On the other hand, to gain some political ascendency in the affairs when it refers to the apportionment of Sena of the State, she too, would probably desire to tors, the language is entirely changed, and retain the present number of one hundred memit speaks not of counties only, but also of dis-bers in the House of Representatives, and to tricts.

continue what the present system practically This, sir, has always been conclusive to my carries out to give the advantage of all or mind that the old Constitution never contem- nearly all the fractions to the large counties. plated that counties should be joined together No, sir, we desire nothing of the kind. On the and formed into districts for the purpose of contrary, we desire that the younger and weakrepresentation in the Lower House; but that, on er counties should be protected by having a fair the contrary, in the formation of senatorial representation on the floor of at least one of districts, they might be so constituted if it was the branches of the General Assembly. found to be necessary.

Sir, in addition to the instructions to which Sir, I am fully satisfied, from all that I have I have referred, I am also instructed to vote for heard and read upon the subject, that the Con- a plan requiring the General Assembly either stitution intended that the very principle I am themselves to divide, or cause to be divided, contending for should prevail; and one objec- those counties having more than one member, tion I have to the report is, that it now ex- so that the districts may be single. This might pressly does what the old Constitution never be done by the county boards of the respective autoorized to be done-ihat is, to provide that counties, dividing them into as many districts iwo counties may be united together for the as there are members to be elected in the purpose of electing one representative to the county. Should this principle be carried out, it popular branch of the General Assembly. As should be so regulated in the Constitution that ihere will of necessity be fractions, the only the county boards would not be authorized to way to represent them is either by the system divide any township in forming a district; and of'" floats" or by allowing each county to the districts ought to be constituted of contighave one member or at least one to every uous townships, and other necessary provisions county having one-half or two-thirds of the ought to be inserted in the Constitution calcuratio of representation.

lated to secure a just and equal division of the This would secure one member to each of counties for the purpose of representation. the counties of Adams and Wells, which con- Sir, I favor the single district system for stitute a part of my district, and would thus many reasons, only a few of which I can now comply with the instructions which were given take time to mention. In the first place, I reto me when I was placed in nomination. It is gard it as a method better calculated than any true that one of the counties which I represent other to arrive at the real opinions and wishes upon this floor (Allen) has no favors to ask in of the voters of the State upon all measures of this respect. She is now the eighth county in public policy, and this from the fact that it the State in point of population, contains the brings the representative home directly to his largest area of any county in the State, and has constituents, and requires him to be chosen by more good tillable uncultivated lands, with those only who are best acquainted with him. prospects in every respect equal to those of any This, sir, I hold to be a very important prinother county in Indiana. Sir, I was surprised | ciple--to make every representative as diwhen, during the past year, I passed through rectly responsible as possible, to those he repthe different parts of that county, to find what resents. I favor it also, for the reason that it extensive tracts of rich land were lying unset- gives no more political influence, so far as tled, held by those greatest of all enemies of a voting is concerned, to a person residing in one new country, the land speculators. We have portion of the State, than it does to a person residing in another. Sir, I deem it of much im- į ranged it so that he can only vote for une perportance that we should at least, make the effort son in the district in which he resides; and, is to equalize the votes in every part of the State therefore, so far as this principle prevails, you as far as possible; and I cannot see how this have as much political weight in the affairs of can be done while we allow the voters residing the State as he has.”. in those co inties having three or four members, Sir. I hope this principle of dividing counties 1 to vote for the whole number of members to } into districts, will prevail for another reason. It's which a county may be entitled, and thus give is the best calculated of any other system to break the voter in one county, four votes, whereas, up the central influence in the counties which were he residing in another county, he could has heretofore exercised altogether too much only give but one. And, sir, I object to this control in the business affairs of the counties. system further, on the ground that it gives to I am told that three-fourths of all the members the members when assembled at the Capital, of this Convention reside at the county seats of from the large counties, a decided advantage. their respective counties. Now if the ConstiInasmuch as the same influence elected them all, tution required that counties sending more than they usually act in concert on all questions one member to the House of Representatives, coming before the body of which they are mem- should he divided, then only one member, at any bers. I know that it has been contended here, rate, in any one county, could reside at the counthat because four thousand voters in one county ty seat, and the farmers would have, at least, are entitled, each, to vote for four members, the some chance of electing a man that would reprepresentatives, when assembled in the halls of resent their interests. Sir, if no other reason legislation, have only four votes, and that this had any weight, this one recommends the meas. system does not really give to persons residing ure to my most cordial support, inasmuch as it in those counties more power than it does to the prevents the overshadowing influence, which the residents of any other four counties, each hav- large towns are rapidly acquiring, not only over ing a thousand voters. 'But, sir, were gentie- the affairs of the counties in which they are lomen to contend with me until doomsday, they cated, but also over the legislation of your State. cannot convince me that their position is prac- Sir, in all ages, and in all countries, the intically correct. Need I say to gentlemen, that fuence of large cities and towns, when exeras you concentrate political power, you thereby cising a controlling power over the destinies of render it doubly efficient? And when those a people, has been detrimental to their best ingentlemen shall make me believe that in any terests. I believe that the greatest of political election for a member of a deliberative assembly philosophers now admit that it was the overfifty votes given by fifty men can ever be made shadowing influence of the city of Rome, that as efficient as fifty votes controlled by two men, finally proved fatal to the prospects of that rethen, and not till then, will I believe their the public. If those laws had been passed which ory. Sir, when this proposition was up some the true but much abused friends of their counweeks since in the form of a resolution of in- try advocated, and which were calculated to sequiry, introduced by the gentleman from Put- cure each Roman in the enjoyment of his home; nam, (Mr. Stevenson,) it did not then appear to if the political power of that great republic had receive that favorable attention from the Con- been diffused among the honest yeomanry of vention that ould seem to indicate its adop- the country, and not concentrated in their great tion; and from all that I have seen and heard metropolis and the other cities of the republic, since, I fear that neither it nor the proposition it is more than probable that she would never to give to the small counties a fair proportion of have fallen a victim of the united evils of interrepresentation will be engrafted upon the Con- nal convulsions and foreign invasion. stitution. Sir, I shall repeat this much; be. We find too, sir, that the little Grecian recause if the larger counties are determined to publics were entirely ruled by their cities and retain a principle which gives them an unfair towns, and that their luxury and licentiousness advantage in the fractions, thus securing to them proved their ruin. Sir, I trust that we will from two to three representatives each, it does avoid the rock on which they split—that we seem to me that the single district system will place the rural districts forever beyond the should be ingrafted upon the Constitution; for control of the commercial parts of this State. nothing, in my opinion, would probably tend more I know, sir, that the idea that the towns of this to reconcile the voters in the small counties, to State could ever attain such an influence as in the new Constitution, than for their delegates, any measure to control its legislation is deemwhen they return home, to be able to say to ed futile; but, sir, those gentlemen who have them—“It is true that the Convention refused been connected with the legislation of your to increase the House of Representatives as you State tell me that even now when three or four desired, and would not give one member to each of the largest towns of the State unite their county, or even to those counties having one- influence on any subject, it is almost impossible half of the ratio of representation; yet we have to resist them; and if such is the case now what so provided that a man in Wayne county can- may it come to be when these towns shall have not give four votes to your one, for we have ar- greatly increased in number and in size. Sir,

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