Page images

fashionable novel would deem a graceful or | matter made quite a different sound, a cir- | top, or bursting through the sides of the admissible expedient for filling up his plot. cumstance which led him to conclude that mountain ; a complete liquid mass of melted

One cannot close such a review of our fine the bottom was solid. Reidsdel observes, that mineral matter, running like a river, and dewriters without melancholy reflections. That no sound at all was produced by throwing stroying the face of nature wherever it comes cause which will raise all its zealous friends to stones into the gulph, but he heard a roaring The explosions of Etna bave been recorded a sublime eminence on the last and most so- like the sea. The crater stood to the east, with from a very early period. Diodorus Siculus lemn day the world has to behold, and will one opening, which no longer exists. MA mentions eruptions of it 500 years before the make them great for ever, presented its claims D'Orville tells us that he and his companion, Trojan war, or 1693 years before the Christian. full in sight of each of these authors in his having fastened themselves by ropes, held by æra. This is that which drove, he says, the time. The very lowest of those claims could men at the top, went down the shelving sides Sicani from the eastern part of Sicily, which not be less than a conscientious solicitude to to the very mouth of the gulph. They beheld they then inhabited. Thucydides mentions beware of every thing that could in any point a conic mass of matter in the middle, to the three eruptions, of which the second was the injure the sacred cause. This claim has been height of about sixty feet, the base, as far as most remarkable. It happened the second slighted by so many as have lent attraction to they could trace it, nearly 800 feet, from year of the seventy-fifth Olympiad, wber an order of moral sentiments greatly discord- wbich small lambent flames and smoke issued Phædon was archon of Athens, and when the ant with its principles. And so many are gone in every direction. While they were there, army of Xerxes was defeated by the Atheniinto eternity under the charge of having em- the north side of the mountain began to throw ans, at Platæa. Both the victory and eruption ployed their genius, as the magicians their out flames and ashes, accompanied by a bel- are recorded in an ancient inscription on the enchantments against Moses, to counteract the lowing noise, on which they retired. Strabo Oxford marble. During this eruption, AmSaviour of the world.

describes the top of the mountain as a level phinomus and Anapis, two Sicilian youths, Under what restrictions, then, ought the plain, with a smoking hill in the centre. Spa- rushed into the midst of the flames, and saved study of polite literature to be conducted ? Ilanzani as bifurcated, for he saw another emi- the lives of their aged parents, at the immicannot but have foreseen that this question nence a quarter of a mile distant, with ano- nent peril of their own, on which account a must return at the end of these observations; ther crater, though not of equal dimension. temple has been consecrated to their memory. and I am sorry to have no better answer to M, Houel speaks of three eminences, 1782, The third eruption mentioned by Thucygive than before, when the question came in like an isosceles triangle, only two of which dides occurred in the year before Christ, 425, the way, inconveniently enough, to perplex the could be perceived from any distance, in the in the eighty-eighth Olympiad, and desolated conclusion to be drawn from the considera- midst of which is the principal crater, in dia- part of the Catanian territory. He mentions tions on the tendency of the classical literature. meter about sixty feet. According to Fazello, it in the third book on the Peloponnesian war, Polite literature will necessarily continue to be there was a hill produced in 1444, which fell in these words :-"About the spring of the a large department of the grand school of in into the crater after an eruption, and mingled year a torrent of fire overflowed from Mount tellectual and moral cultivation. The evils, with the melted mass. Borelli writes that the Ætna, in the same manner as formerly, whicla therefore, which it may contain, will as cer summit of the mountain rose up like a tower, destroyed part of the lands of the Catanians, tainly affect in some degree the minds of the and, during the eruption of 1669, fell into the who are situated at the foot of that mountain, successive pupils, and teachers also, as the crater. The whole structure and appearance which is the largest in all Sicily. It is said hurtful influence of the climate, or of the of the mountain is thus evidently subject to that fisty years intervened between this flow seasons, will affect their bodies. To be thus great changes..

and the last which preceded; and that, in the affected is a part of the destiny under which The stones ejected from Etna are granitic, whole, the fire has thus issued thrice since they are born in a civilized country. It is in- or calcareous, surrounded with columns of Sicily was inhabited by the Grecians." dispensable to acquire the advantage; it is basalt, which M. Dolomieu terms “prismatic inevitable to incur the evil. The means of lava." Spalanzani supposes the shore to be counteraction will amount, it is to be feared, to volcanic for twenty-three miles. The same

THE COCOOY, QUEEN BEETLE. no more than palliatives. Nor can these be writer observes that there is on Ætna a great proposed in any specific method. All that I scarcity of water, owing, as he imagines, to This astonishing insect is about one inch can do is, to urge on the reader of taste the the rain's falling on scoriæ, in which it sinks and a quarter in length; and, what is wondervery serious duty of continually recalling to his for want of those various argillaceous strata ful to relate, she carries by "her side, just mind, and, if he be a parent or preceptor, of which retain it in other mountains. Others above her waist, two brilliant lamps, which cogently representing to those he instructs, the affirm that the mountain is well watered, that she lights up at pleasure with the solar phosreal character of religion as exhibited in the there are intermitting springs which flow du- phorus furnished her by nature. These little

there are intermitting sprines which Aow du. I phorns furnished her hy nat Christian revelation, and the reasons which ring the day only, and stop in the night, a lamps do not flash and glimmer like that of command an inviolable adherence to it. fact which may arise from the melting of the the fire-fly, but give as steady a light as the

snow, which ceases as the night comes on; gas light, exhibiting two perfect spheres, as that there are streams always pouring from large as a minute pearl, which affords light

the side of the mountain, unquestionably ori- enough in the darkest night to enable one to DESCRIPTION OF MOUNT ÆTNA ginating in some permanent source; that there read print by them. On carrying her into a AND ITS ERUPTIONS.

are poisonous springs, fine salt springs, &c. dark closet in the day time, she immediately

An approaching eruption of Mount Ætna is illuminates her lamps, and instantly extinThe great crater itself may be described as indicated various ways. There is at first an guishes them on coming again into the light. a cup, or bollow at the top of a conical hill, increase of the white smoke issuing from the But language cannot describe the beauty and rising equally on all sides. The hill is com- top of the crater, intermingled with volumes sublimity of these lucid orbs in miniature, with posed chiefly of sand and ashes, thrown up of black smoke in the centre. These are at which nature has endowed the queen of the from the mouth at different periods; and attended by slight explosions, and followed by insect kingdom.—New York Advertiser. present it is ten miles in circumference, and a red flashes, or rather streams of fire, perpequarter of a mile in height. The crater pre- tually increasing in number, and growing in sents the appearance of an inverted cone, the dimension, till the whole becomes one entire inside of which is covered with salts and sul- black column, highly electrical, illuminated

RAPID FLIGHT. phur of various colours; it is oval in its figure, by frequent lightnings, and attended by oc THE rapidity with which the hawk and shelving down from the aperture. Sir W. casional thunder. These phenomena are fol- many other birds occasionally fly, is probably Hamilton, 1769, calculated the circumference lowed by showers of red hot stones and ashes : not less than at the rate of one hundred and at two miles and a half; Mr. Brydone, 1770, the former projected often to a great distance, fifty miles an hour; the common crow twentyat three miles and a half; Mr. D'Orville, and the latter wasted sometimes by the winds, five miles an hour; a swallow, ninety-two 1727, at three or four miles. In 1788, Spa and carried 100 miles, setting fire to build miles an hour; and the swift three times lanzani, who visited this phenomenon, de ings, and destroying the face of vegetation. greater. Migratory birds probably about fifty scribes the inner sides as terminating in a Recupero tells us that he had known rocks miles an hour. plain of half a mile in circuit, in the centre of thrown up to the altitude of 7000 feet. M. which is a circular aperture of five poles in Houel saw one of these stones, which had diameter, contained within the cavity, appa been projected from the mouth of Ætna, Printed by J. HADDON and Co.; and Published rently in a state of ebullition. Several stones whose weight was not less than sixteen tons. by J. CRISP, at No. 27, Ivy Lane, Paternoster that he threw in fell dead as into a thick It is generally three or four months before the Row, where all Advertisements and Commens paste ; but those that did not fall into the lara makes its appearance, boiling over the cations for the Editor are to be addressed.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][graphic]

ANONG the antiquities of this and other logists say, a broken fragment from some about twelve feet over its base. Ils shape countries are many remains of art for neighbouring crags, the veins and general | bears some resemblance to that of a large which after generations find it difficult character of the stone being precisely ship inclined upon its keel ; its length 18to account. Their origin is sometimes de- similar. It is not, however, in such a about thirty-one yards; and its weight pendent on long-lost secrets, and they situation as it would occupy had it simply has been computed at nearly 1800 tons. only serve to exercise the wonder and the fallen from those crags : and if there ever | A little earth on its top affords nourishspeculations of posterity. The above was a generation of men who could ment to a few small trees. engraving represents an instance in which amuse themselves by removing it to its The whole scene is vast, Wild, and nature has played a similar part. The present station, they must have been fel- | precipitous. Its chief features are subhuge mass called the Bowder Stone is low-tenants of this world with the Mam- | lime hills and crags, so irregularly situ. found nearly opposite to Castle Crag, moth and Leviathan.

ated that the emission of any loud sound in a most romantic part of Cumberland, It rests on some fragments of rock, and occasions the most tumultuous reverbera

It rests on some fragments of rock, and and the difficulty is to guess how it came lies almost bollow: the road winding | tions. “It is utterly impossible, says there. It would seem to be, as the geo- round its eastern side, which projects a popular writer, “ for a lively imagina.

tion unused to the delusion. to expe- handle of his stick in his mouth, he would | will be very entertaining between truth and rience it without a momentary belief that move about his garden in a short hurried step, I lying. I have a notion you will find books.

nirits of now stopping to contemplate a butterfly, a but in great confusion as to catalogues, classhe is surrounded by the unseen spirits of a

flower, or a snail, and now earnestly engaged ing, &c. the mountains reproving his intrusion

in some new arrangement of his flower-pots." | “7. Describe minutely how you pass one into their sacred recesses in vocal thun: | He would take from his own table to his study day on ship-board ; learn to take and apyly der.” The universal uproar produced the back-bone of a hare or a fish's head ; and lunar, or other observations, and how the midamidst these eminences by a burst of he would pull out of his pocket, after a walk, shipmen, &c., do it. laughter has been most characteristically a plant or stone to be made tributary to an 8. What sort of fish you get, and how delineated by Wordsworth in the fol- argument. His manuscripts were as motley dressed. I should think your business would

as his occupations; the workshop of a mind be to make yourself master of the middle lowing lines :

ever on the alert: evidences mixed up with Greek. My compliments to Buonaparte, if “ 'Twas that delightful season, when the broom, memorandums for his will; an interesting | you meet with him, which I think is very Full flower'd, and visible on every steep,

discussion brought to an untimely end by the likely. Pick up little articles of dress, tools. Along the copses runs in veins of gold

hiring of servants, the letting of fields, send- | furniture, especially from low life-as an acOur pathway led us on to Rotha's banks;

ing his boys to school, reproving the refractory tual smock, &c. And when we came in front of that tall rock

members of an hospital; here a dedication,' “ 9. What they talk about; company. Which looks towards the east, I there stopp'd

there one of his children's exercises-in anoshort,

“ 10. Describe your impression upon first And traced the lofty barrier with my eye

ther place a receipt for cheap soup. He would seeing things; upon catching the first view of From base to summit: such delight I found

amuse his fireside by family anecdotes—how Constantinople; the novelties of the first day To note in shrub and tree, in stone and flower, one of his ancestors (and he was praised as a you pass there. That intermixture of delicious hues

pattern of perseverance) separated two pounds “ In all countries and climates, nations and Along so vast a surface, all at once,

of white and black pepper which had been languages, carry with you the best wishes of, In one impression, by connecting force

accidentally mixed-« patiens pulveris," he dear Carlyle, Of their own beauty, imaged in the heart. might truly have added; and how, when the

ós Your affectionate friend, - When I had gazed, perhaps, two minutes space, Paley arms were wanted, recourse was had to

“W. Paley.” Joanna, looking in my eyes, beheld

a family tankard which was supposed to bear That ravishment of mine, and laugh'd aloud.

Such was Paley. A man singularly without them, but which he always took a malicious guile, and yet often misunderstood or misreThe rock, like something starting from a sleep, Took up the lady's voice, and laugh'd again :

pleasure in insisting had been bought at a presented; a man who was thought to have That ancient woman,* seated on Helm-crag, sale

no learning, because he had no pedantry, and Was ready with her cavern ; Hammar-scar,

-" Hæc est

who was too little of a quack to be reckoned And the tall steep of Silver-how, sent forth

Vita solutorum miserâ ambitione gravique ;” a philosopher; who would have been infallibly A noise of laughter; southern Loughrigg heard, And Fairfied answer'd with a mountain tone :

the life of a man far more happily emploved | praised as a useful writer on the theory of than in the composition of political pamphlets,

government, if he had been more visionaryHelvellyn far into the clear blue sky Carried the lady's voice; old Skiddaw blew

and would have been esteemed a deeper dior in the nurture of political discontent. Nay, His speaking-trumpet ; back out of the clouds

when his friend Mr. Carlyle is about going wine, " he had not been always so intelligible Of Glamarara southward came the voice ; out with Lord Elgin to Constantinople, the

who has been suspected of being never serious And Kirkstone tossed it from his misty head. very head-quarters of despotism, we do not

because he was often jocular, and before those, Now whether (said I to our cordial friend, perceive, amongst the multitude of most cha

| it should seem, who were not to be trusted with Who, in the hey-dey of astonishment, racteristic hints and queries which Paley ad

a joke; who did not deal much in protestations Smil'd in my face) this were, in simple truth, dresses to him, a single fling at the Turk, or a

of his faith, counting it proof enough of his A work accomplish'd by the brotherhood single hope expressed that the day was not

sincerity (we are ashamed of noticing even Of ancient mountains, or my ear were touch'd With dreams and visionary impulses, very far distant when the Cossacks would be

thus far insinuations against it) to bring argupermitted to erect the standard of liberty in

ments for the truth of Christianity unanswered Is not for me to tell; but sure I am,

and unanswerable his capital. That there was a loud uproar in the hills;

to pour forth exhortations And while we both were listening, to my side

to the fulfilment of the duties enjoined by it, “ I will do your visitation for you (Mr. Carlyle was chancellor of the diocese), in case

the most solemn and intense-and to evince The fair Joanna drew, as if she wish'd To shelter from some object of her fear."

his own practical sense of its influence, by of your absence, with the greatest pleasureit is neither a difficulty nor a favour.

crowning his labours with a work to the glory “ Observanda-1. Compare every thing with

and praise of God, at a season when his hand

was heaviest upon him English and Cumberland scenery--e. g., rivers SKETCH OF DR. PALEY.

a work which lives, with Eden, groves with Corby, mountains with

and ever will live, to testify that no pains of "He never seemed to know," says his son, Skiddaw : vour sensations of buildings, streets,

body could shake for a moment his firm and " that he deserved the name of a politician, persons, &c. &c.; e. g., whether the Mufti be

settled persuasion, that in every thing, and ‘at and would probably have been equally amused sike Dr. , the Grand Seignior, Mr. —

every crisis, we are God's creatures, that life at the grave attempts made to draw him into, “ 2. Give us one day at Constantinople

is passed in his constant presence, and that or withdraw him from, any political bias." He | minutely from morning to night-what you

death resigns as to his merciful disposal. would employ himself in his Natural Theology, do do, see, eat, and hear.

Quarterly Review. and then gather bis peas for dinner, very likely

3. Let us know what the common people rathering some hint for his work at the same have to dinner; get, if you can, a peasant's time, He would converse with his classical

REVIEWS. actual dinner and bottle: for instance, if you neighbour, Mr. Yates, or he would reply to his

or he would reply to his see a man working in the fields, call to him to invitation that he could not come, for that he

bring the dinner he has with him, and de- A TREATISE ON ASTRONOMY. By Sir John was busy knitting. He would station himself scribe it minutely.

F. W. Herschel, Knight Guelp., F.R.S., at his garden wall, which overhung the river,

&c. &c. Dr. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopædia, and watch the progress of a cast-iron bridge

6 4. The diversions of the common people; Vol. XLIII. in building, asking questions of the architect,

| whether they seem to enjoy their amusements, and carefully examining every pin and screw and be happy, and sport, and laugh ; farm

If our readers have never yet interested with which it was put together. He would

houses, or any thing answering to them, and | themselves in astronomy, they have now an loiter along a river, with his angle-rod, musing

of what kind ; same of public-houses, roads. opportunity of acquainting themselves with upon what he supposed to pass in the mind of

“5. Their shops; how you get your breeches that science, through the medium of a volume a pike when he bit, and when he refused to mended, or things done for you, and how (i.e.,

which is almost equally suited to the tastes of hite; or he would stand by the sea-side, and well or ill done); whether you see the tailor,

a literary and a scientific reader. The perspeculate upon what a young shrimp could converse with him, &c.

spicuity with which this distinguished writer mean by jumping in the sun. “With the

“6. Get into the inside of a cottage; de conveys his valuable instructions is such as to scribe furniture, utensils, what you find ac

clear him entirely from the charge of empir

ricism which has in former times marked the * On Helm-crag, that impressive single moun- | tually doing. tain, at the head of the Vale of Grassmere, is a “ All the stipulations I make with you for students of the more profound physical sciences. rock which, from most points of view, bears a doing your visitation is, that you come over to He brings down the truths and discoveries striking resemblance to an old woman cowering. Wearmouth soon after your return, for you which he has elaborated, by means of great ting.

research, and great scientific learning, to the vious phenomena of the heavens, he has the which we can form no conception from any analevel of almost every capacity, and fits them following most elegant and interesting pas-logy offered by our own system, may be circula. for the reception of such as are but very par- sages. tially instructed in the subject. A few speci or Saturn's Rings.

Enormous Distances of the Stars.- In the proThe rings of Saturn must present a inagnificent spectacle from those regions

portion of 200,000 to 1, then, at least, must the mens of these distinguishing traits, as exhi

of the planet which lie above their enlightened distance of the nearest fixed star from the sun bited in the volume before us, will be more satisfactory than any description of ours. The

sides, as vast arches spanning the sky from hori. exceed that of the sun from the earth. The latter

zon to horizon, and holding an invariable situation distance, as we have already seen, exceeds the following remarks respecting the moon will be among the stars. On the other hand, in the re

earth's radius in the proportion of 24,000 to 1 ; read with interest, considered not merely as

gions beneath the dark side, a solar eclipse of fif and, lastly, to descend to ordinary standards, the speculations, but, in most instances, as facts

teen years in duration, under their shadow, must | earth's radius is 4000 of our miles. The distance . attested by mathematical proof. afford (to our ideas) an inhospitable asylum to

of the nearest star, then, cannot be so small “ The generality of the lunar mountains present animated beings, ill compensated by the faint

| as 4,800,000,000 radii of the earth, or a striking uniformity and singularity of aspect. light of the satellites.. But we shall do wrong to

19,200,000,000,000 miles! How much larger They are wonderfully numerous, occupying by far judge of the fitness or unfitness of their condition it may be we know not. the larger portion of the surface, and almost uni- from what we see around us, when, perhaps, the

“The only mode we have of conceiving such versallů of an exactly circular or cup-shaped form, very combinations which convey to our minds

intervals at all is by the time which it would foreshortened, however, into ellipses towards the

only images of horror, may be in reality theatres require for light to traverse them. Now light, limb; but the larger have, for the most part, flat

of the most striking and glorious displays of bene as we know, travels at the rate of 192,000 bottoms within, from which rises centrally a small, 1 ficent contrivance,

miles per second. It would, therefore, occupy steep. conical hill. They offer, in short, in its « The small Planets. No doubt the most re- | 100,000,000 seconds, or upwards of three years, highest perfection, the true volcanic character, as markable of their peculiarities must lie in this in such a journey, at the very lowest estimate. it may be seen in the crater of Vesuvius, and in condition of their state. A man placed on one of

What, then, are we to allow for the distance of Breissak's map of the volcanic districts of the them would spring with ease sixty feet high, and

those innumerable stars of the smaller magni. Campi Phlegræi, or those of the Puy de Dome, sustain no greater shock in his descent than be

tudes, which the telescope discloses to us? If in Desmarest's of Auvergne. And, in some of does on the earth from leaping a yard. On such

we admit the light of a star of each magnitude to the principal ones, decisive marks of volcanic planets giants might exist ; and those enormous

be half that of the magnitude next above it, it stratification, arising from successive deposits of | animals, which on earth require the buoyant

will follow that a star of the first magnitude will ejected matter, may be clearly traced with power- power of water to counteract their weight, might

require to be removed to 362 times its distance to ful telescopes. What is, moreover, extremely sin.

scopes. What is; moreover, extremely sin: there be denizens of the land. But of such spe-appear no larger than one of the sixteenth. It gular in the geology of the moon is, that although culation there is no end.

follows, therefore, that among the countless mul. nothing having the character of seas can be traced

Enormous Dimensions of Comets. It remains titude of such stars, visible in telescopes, there (for the dusky spots which are commonly called to say a few words on the actual dimensions of

| must be many whose light has taken at least a seas, when closely examined, present appearances comets. The calculation of the diameters of their thousand years to reach us; and that when we incompatible with the supposition of deep water), heads, and the length and breadths of their tails,

observe their places, and note their changes, we yet there are large regions perfectly level, and

offers not the slightest difficulty when once the are, in fact, reading only their history of a thou. apparently of a decided alluvial character.

elements of their orbits are known, for by these sand years' date, thus wonderfully recorded. *** The moon has no clouds, nor any other in we know their real distances from the earth at

" Double Stars.--But it is not with the revoludications of an atmosphere. Hence its climate any time, and the true direction of the tail, which

tions of bodies of a planetary or cometary nature must be very extraordinary ; the alternation being we see only foreshortened. Now, calculations

round a solar centre that we are now concerned ; that of unmitigated and burning sunshine fiercer instituted on these principles lead to the surpris.

it is that of sun around sun-each, perhaps, acthan an equatorial noon, continued for a whole ing facts that the comets are by far the most

companied with its train of planets and their satelfortnight, and the keenest severity of frost, far ex- voluminous bodies in our system. The fol

lites, closely shrouded from our view by the splenceeding that of our polar winters, for an equallowing are the dimensions of some of those

dour of their respective suns, and crowded into a time. Such a disposition of things must produce

which have been made the subjects of such in space bearing hardly a greater proportion to the a constant transfer of whatever moisture may exist quiry :-The tail of the great comet of 1680, im

enormous interval which separates them, than the on its surface, from the point beneath the sun to mediately after its perihelion passage, was found

distances of the satellites of our planets from their that opposite, by distillation in vacuo after the

by Newton to have been no less than 20,000,000 of primaries bear to their distances from the sun manner of the little instrument called a cryophorus. leagues in length, and to have occupied only two

itself. A less distinctly characterized subordinaThe consequence must be absolute aridity below days in its emission from the comet's body; a de

tion would be incompatible with the stability of the vertical sun, constant accretion of hoar frost

cisive proof this of its being dashed forth by some their systems, and with the planetary nature of in the opposite region, and, perhaps, a narrower active force, the origin of which to judge, from

their orbits. Unless closely nestled under the zone of running water at the borders of the en

the direction of the tail, must be sought in the protecting power of their immediate superior, the lightened hemisphere. It is possible, then, that | sun itself. Its greatest length amounted to sweep of their other sun in its perihelion passage evaporation on the one hand, and condensation on 41,000,000 leagues, a length much exceeding the round their own might carry them off, or whirl the other, may, to a certain extent, preserve an whole interval between the sun and earth. The

them into orbits utterly incompatible with the equilibrium of temperature, and mitigate the ex- tail of the comet of 1769 extended 16.000.000 conditions necessary for the existence of their intreme severity of both climates.

leagues, and that of the great comet of 1811, habitants. It must be confessed that we have* "Telescopes must yet be greatly improved be.

36,000,000. The portion of the head of this last here a strangely wide and novel field for speculafore we can expect to see signs of inhabitants, as

comprised within the transparent atmospheric en tive excursions, and one which it is not easy to . manifested by edifices or by changes on the survelope, which separated it from the tail, was

avoid luxuriating in. face of the soil. It should, however, be observed, | 180,000 leagues in diameter. It is hardly con

" Nebulæ.-The nebulæ furnish, in every point that, owing to the small density of the materials | ceivable that matter once projected to such enor

of view, an inexhaustible field of speculation and of the moon, and the comparatively feeble gravimous distances should ever be collected again by

conjecture. That by far the larger share of them tation of bodies on her surface, muscular force the feeble attraction of such a body as a comet

consist of stars, there can be little doubt; and in would there go six times as far in overcoming the

a consideration which accounts for the rapid pro the interminable range of system upon system, weight of materials, as on the earth. Owing to

gressive diminution of the tails of such as have and firmament upon firmament, which we thus the want of air, however, it seems impossible that been frequently observed.

catch a glimpse of, the imagination is bewildered any form of life analogous to those on earth can The Fixed Stars.--Now, for what are we to and lost. On the other hand, if it be true, as, to subsist there. No appearance indicating vegeta

suppose such magnificent bodies scattered through say the least, it seems extremely probable, that a tion, or the slightest variation of surface which

the abyss of space? Surely not to illuminate our phosphorescent or self-luminous matter also exists, can fairly be ascribed to change of season, can nights, which an additional moon of the thousandth disseminated through extensive regions of space, any where be discerned.

part of the size of our own would do much better, in the manner of a cloud or fog-now assuming ir If there be inhabitants in the moon, the earth

nor to sparkle as a pageant void of meaning and capricious shapes, like actual clouds drifted by must present to them the extraordinary appear

reality, and bewilder us among vain conjectures. the wind, and now concentrating itself like a ance of a moon of nearly two degrees in diameter,

Useful, it is true, they are to man as points of cometic atmosphere around particular stars; what exibiting the same phases as we see the moon to

exact and permanent reference ; but he must we naturally ask is, the nature and destination of do, but immoveably fixed in their sky (or, at least,

have studied astronomy to little purpose who can this nebulous matter. Is it absorbed by the stars changing its apparent place only by the small

suppose man to be the only object of his Creator's in whose neighbourhood it is found, to furnish, by amount of the libration), while the stars must

care, or who does not see, in the vast and won its condensation, the supply of light and heat ? seem to pass slowly beside and behind it. It will

derful apparatus around us, provision for other or is it progressively concentrating itself by the appear clouded with variable spots, and belted

races of animated beings. The planets, as we effect of its own gravity into masses, and so laywith equatorial and tropical zones corresponding

have seen, derive their light from the sun ; buting the foundation of new sidereal systems or of to our trade-winds; and it may be doubted whethat cannot be the case with the stars. These,

insulated stars? It is easier to propound such ther, in their perpetual change, the outlines of our doubtless, then, are themselves suns, and may,

questions than to offer any probable reply to them. continents and seas can ever be clearly discerned.”

perhaps, each in its sphere, be the presiding

| Meanwhile, appeal to fact, by the method of conWith respeet to some other of the most ob- I.centre round which other planets, or bodies of stant and diligent observation, is open to us; and,


as the double stars have yielded to this style of these periods, however, the magistrates alone again. The way in which they meet that is questioning, and disclosed a series of relations of will have the power of enforcing the fulfil they say, Oh, but where twelve people are the most intelligible and interesting description, ment of the contract, while the labourer will wanted, we put on twenty-four, so that twelve we may reasonably hope that the assiduous study be receiving a just reward. The power thus are always at rest; and that is the fact in one of the nebulæ will, ere long, lead to some clearer

given to the labourer to select, at the end of way, because those women who are attending understanding of their intimate nature."

each year, a new master, would create such a the mill are squirted all over with the cane We are sorry to take our leave of this de competition amongst employers, both in re- juice, and are wet through. lightful volume. We hope, however, that our spect of general treatment and payment of “ Q. You are speaking of what yourself readers will not fail to acquaint themselves

to acquaint themselves wages, as would be highly conducive to the knew ? with its contents, and we wish that they may comfort of those employed, and supply the “ A. Yes, and what I saw day after day, derive as much pleasure from its perusal as most powerful and permanent incentives to and night after night. we have done. industry.”

" Q. If any witness should have stated that those who fed the mill are not wetted with the juice of the sugar cane that spurts out, that is


“ A. No, it is not; I defy any one to feed IMMEDIATE, AND SAFE ABOLITION OF SLA


the mill without being squirted all over with VERY THROUGHOUT THE BRITISH COLONIES.

juice. I have done it myself; I have grown By JOSEPH Phillips, late of Antigua. We have ever advocated a total and imme- canes as thick as my arm; that cane is put in London: J. and A. Arch. 1833. . | diate abolition of this atrocious evil; and, in between two large rollers of sixteen to eighteen

the last page of this periodical, we cannot do inches diameter; the roller is so close you At a time when the ministerial measure of emancipation is occupying so much attention,

better than bring forward a few additional scarcely can see through it; the cane is, with

statements calculated to impress the propriety a little impetus, thrust between the roller, and and exciting so much discussion, it will be interesting to read the outline of a plan for

and necessity of such a course. They are ex- that catches hold of it, and draws it in; and, the same purpose sketched by one who has

tracted from a pamphlet just published, con when the cane is rank and in good order, it is spent a great part of his life in the West

taining selections from the Report of the so full of juice, there is almost a little fountain Indies. We have only space, however, to ex

Committee of the House of Commons, which playing on the people; they are perfectly wet tract the essential parts of the plan in the

is at once the most authentic source of inform through, they have nothing on but their little writers own words.

ation, and that which speaks most conclu Osnaburgh frock, and their lower clothes ; It is as follows: sively, in favour of our cause.

then if they lie down in that state on the mill “[.—That, by an act of the imperial par

bed, which at low ground is raised very high, liament, FREEDOM shall be conferred on all“ William Taylor, Esq. (13 yecers a resident of course they are before a small fire, exposed the slaves throughout his Majesty's dominions of Jamaica, in a Commercial capacity, and to so piercing a draft of cold, although I myon and after the first of July, 1834, and that as a Manager of Estates.)

self was clothed warmly as Europeans are, the following regulations be enforced, as ne

"Q. Do you think that an essential im- and had a Scotch plaid, which I bound round cessary and sufficient to secure the welfare of

provement is consistent with a state of slavery? my face, I could not stand it. the slave, and the cultivation of the soil :

"A. I think no essential amelioration can “ Q. The crop time is generally in the “ 1st. Corporal punishments to be entirely consist with slavery.

coldest part of the year in that country ? abolished, and the liberated slave admitted to

“ Q. Will you describe what you mean by “A. The mill is generally put about in Fean equal participation of all the civil and reliamelioration ?

bruary, and from February it varies, according gious privileges enjoyed by the free-born sub

L “ A. For instance, the absence of the whip. to the climate, for three, four, or six months; ject of these realms.

I do not see that they can uphold slavery on some estates it is crop time nearly the year “2nd. Such of the slaves as have been hi

| without physical coercion—without corporeal | round. therto engaged in agricultural labours to be

punishment; some motive must be brought to “Q. Those who feed the mill through Feindented to their present masters for the term bear on men's minds. where there is no mo- bruary and March are subject to suffer exof one year, being previously duly registered, and provision made for the payment of adetive you must apply the whip; if you with- tremely from cold?

t reason of quate remuneration. At the end of the first

the whole system, and I do not think that, the destruction of life. The negro comes out year, it shall be left to the free choice of the

under any ameliorated slavery, they can be of the field, after working all day under a labourer either to be indented to the same

kept together. I think a certain degree of it tropical sun, and comes in to take the night master, or choose another for a similar period. “ 3rd. That, to prevent idleness and vagran

may be called cruel punishment. Corporeal spell, gets wet through in feeding the mill,

punishment is necessary to keeping them and lies down on the mill floor to sleep two or cy, the magistrates shall have the power to

together, and to keep them in active operation. three hours under the cutting wind : I consicompel all persons found unemployed in towns or elsewhere (who have no obvious mode of | be carried on without flogging, and Aogging | lion o

I do not think that the work of the estate can der that to be one great reason for the destrucliving except by manual labour), to engage considerably sometimes.

“Q. Did the long spell exist on your estate? themselves as agricultural labourers or other

A. On one out of the three. wise, or, on refusal to do so, to send them to “ James Beckford Wildman, Esq. (a Planter, “Q. What may be gained in produce, is in the public works.

and Proprietor of 640 slaves.) | your opinion lost in the life of the slave? “4th. That the hours of labour shall be

“Q. Did you work the boiling-house in one from six in the morning to six in the evening,

A, Over, and over again.

Q. What are the punishments in use inx with an interval of three hours for meals. Aii / or two spells on your estate ?

the island of Jamaica now? agreements between employer and labourer

“ A. The system on one of my estates when

“ A. They are very cruel ones. for a specified term to be understood to have I went was a very dreadful one, as I consi

R. Will you state what they are ? relation to the above general regulation, and dered, and of which my attorney, although he

A. The general system of flogging is to all labour beyond to be considered extra work,

| had been in the island all his life, was igno


rant; for when I told him the negroes worked and paid for accordingly.”

give them a certain number of stripes with a .

give the what is called the long spell, that is, in fact,

all this in fact | long whip, which inflicts a dreadful laceration, The particulars of this plan are defended by

long a number of explanatory considerations, the

four-and-twenty hours, he denied it, and said or a dreadful contusion ; and then they follow following of which appear to us to deserve at- l the people, and asked them the question, that it was not so ; and it was not until I called up up that by a very severe flogging with ebony

switches, the ebony being a very strong wiry tention :he acknowledged it.

plant, with small leaves like a myrtle leaf, and “ To provide against the danger which "Q. Explain to the Committee what the

under every leaf a sharp tough thorn; and might possibly arise to the agricultural inter- long spell is?

then after that they rub them with brine." ests of the colony, by suddenly investing the “A. In the long spell, the negro goes on at| slaves with the power of changing their mas 12 o'clock in the day; he then continues the ters and places of residence, it is proposed that whole four-and-twenty hours in work ; he is they should be indented to their present mas- then relieved, at shell-blow, for two hours, and Printed by J. Haddon and Co. ; and Published ters for the term of one year, the indenture to he works again from that time till dark, so that by J. Crisp, at No. 27, Ivy Lane, Paternoster be renewable at the end of ihat period, either it is thirty hours labour with the intermission Row, where all Advertisements and Communito the same or another employer. During of two hours ; tben, at day-light, he turns out cations for the Editor are to be addressed.


« PreviousContinue »