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knives, and every thing that he could move. | in twelve. The legislature is so far impressed | been uniformly attended, is the best evidence Having done this, he sat on the back of a chair with the importance of faithful and systematic of the convicts' interest in the exercise, and of apparently quite delighted at his exploit. If religious instruction, by a resident chaplain, as its effect upon their feelings. One, who had any one looked particularly at a flower, .heto grant this officer, at the last session, two been in prison but a few weeks, sent for me to would nip it off, and bury it for security. I | hundred and fifty dollars annually, in addition let me know what a change had been wrought had, for some time, a tame jackdaw to keep to the pay which he before received from the in his feelings respecting it. I always hated him company. This bird is fond of getting state. The earnings of the convicts, during to hear prayers (said he), and the first time into dark holes and corners, which Mag studi- the year ending October 31, 1829, amounted that I heard you pray in the prison I could ously avoids. In a small lobby, opening into to 39,933 dollars 45 cents; the expenses, in- hardly contain the contempt that I felt for the garden, there is a little cupboard in the cluding the pay of the officers, to 34,070 dol you and your prayer; now, I feel it a great wall, about a yard from the ground. I once lars 85 cents; leaving a balance in favour of privilege to kneel down and pray with you.' saw the jackdaw enter this cupboard, and, the institution of 5862 dollars 60 cents.
« The Sabbath-school still holds a promiwith great labour, drag out a bunch of large The following letter is from the chaplain of nent place in our system of instruction, and keys, which he threw down to his friend Mag, the prison, dated May 29, 1830:
claims our highest regard. Its number has who was waiting below. Jack then descended, “I have now spent two years among the been gradually increased, till it now contains and the two together worked in good earnest at convicts in this prison. I review the period about one hundred and sixty pupils, in thirtypulling the keys into the garden, no doubt in- with deep emotion. I think it has been the one classes, which are under the care of thirtytending to hide them, had I not stopped their most useful, certainly the happiest, portion of two theological students as teachers, one of proceedings. This jackdaw frequently hid my life. They who have asked me, "How whom takes the immediate oversight of the himself in a dark corner by the larder door, can you immure yourself in so dreary a place, whole. I scarcely know which most to adwaiting patiently until the cook came to open and among such a class of men ?' have yet to mire, the devotedness of the teachers, or the it; he would then try to slip in unperceived learn what is the richest luxury that a bene- ardour and industry of the scholars. The behind her, and hide himself behind a large volent heart can enjoy. If left to my choice, liveliest interest is manifested by both. A. cheese-pan, in hopes of being left among the no earthly consideration would tempt me to mutual and strong attachment springs up begood things.
leave this for any other field of labour on tween them. The teachers seem willing to I once had a magnificent cock pheasant in earth.
forego any other privilege for the sake of the same manner; he was as tame as the mag- “ The ordinary religious services have been meeting and instructing their pupils; and pie, but not so amusing or cunning. I also had regularly performed. To the preaching on the among the scholars, generally, no other pua thrush who was perfectly tame; he would Sabbath the convicts have uniformly listened nishment is more dreaded than the exclusion wade up to his neck in a little pond of gold with fixed attention, and often with deep and
with fixed attention, and often with deep ar from the school. It has been interesting to fish, which was under the branches of a large overwhelming emotion. The services are al me to observe, upon the discharge of these
ways characterized by perfect order and ap- scholars from prison, how often the first infruit that fell into it. In short, I have not met parent solemnity. It has been the common quiry has been, where they might find their with any bird in whom kind treatment would remark of casual visitors, as well as others, teacher.” not give rise to tameness and affection.- Field that they never witnessed an equal degree of The discipline of the institution, to secure Naturalist's Magazine.
attention, and apparent seriousness and inter- such a result, would be supposed good ; but a est, in any other congregation. From the single fact will place it in a stronger light. chapel, I have followed them, in the after- | At midnight, during the last year, there was
noon, to their solitary cells, and there, in the a cry of fire. It was soon ascertained that it PRISON DISCIPLINE.
best possible circumstances for producing was in the prison. An extensive shop, filled
effect, have pressed home upon their con- with combustible materials, directly under the We have, in our accompanying num
sciences, individually, the truths which they eaves of the north wing, in which were conber, given an account of the prison sys
had heard in the public assembly, in such fined five bundred and fifty convicts in sepatem in Jamaica. We will now present manner as I conceived to be the best adapted rate cells, was in flames. The fire spread with the last report of the prison at Auburn, to their different capacities and states of feelgreat rapidity, and very soon communicated in North America, just stating that there ing. In these visits I have often witness
ing. In these visits I have often witnessed with the windows of the building in which the are reports, from a number of similar es the power of truth, in making the stoutest convicts were locked up; and, before any protablishments in the same country, of an
heart, the heart that could be approached in gress could be made in arresting it, the flames
no other circumstances, to tremble. This I burnt through the windows, and threatened equally favourable character.
regard as the most important part of my duty, the convicts in their night-cells with suffocaThe prison at Auburn maintains the same and that which has been most evidently ac tion. The keepers, at the hazard of their general character which it has sustained for a companied by the blessing of God. The truths lives, rushed through fire and smoke, and succourse of years. It continues to be, as it was of the Bible, applied closely to the conscience, ceeded in unlocking every door, and dis.. five years ago, a specimen of neatness from have generally produced a visible effect upon charged into the yard at midnight five hunthe gate to the sewer. In this respect, it fur- their feelings, and, in some instances, I have dred and fifty convicts. Two avenues had nishes a good lesson to many private families. every reason to believe, exerted a transform now been opened to the street, through either Combinations in villany, and communications ing influence upon their hearts. I have found of which the convicts might have escaped, in of evil, are to a great extent, if not wholly, the men readily accessible, almost without the confusion of passing the water, and the prevented. Silence, industry, and order, reign exception; softened in their feelings, willing passing and repassing of citizens. Instead, throughout the establishment. The health, and glad to converse upon the subject of reli however, of attempting to escape, they formed
gion, convinced of the necessity of a radical a most efficient fire-company, extinguished the walls, is about equal to that of the most change in their own hearts, and often power- the fames, and, when this was done, were favoured country villages in New England, fully awakened to the immediate obligation of found in their places, no one having atand greater than that of the city of Boston; yielding to the demands of the gospel. No- tempted to escape. The chaplain, in view of the deaths in the last six years having been thing is more common than to hear them ex- this fact, says, My attachment to my people
| press their surprise that they never thought of is constantly increasing," less than one in one hundred. The cases of these things before, and their gratitude that Such being the facts in regard to discipline, sickness in the hospital have been, on an aver- | they have been arrested and brought into a and the proceeds of labour, the question arises, age, six nearly, or about one in one hundred.) place where they are taught them, and where whether there is evidence, after their discharge, The moral influence is good, as might be ex they cannot but think of them. In this la- of its being reformatory. Intelligence has pected from the public worship, the Sabbath-bour I have been assisted by the use of tracts, been received, during the last year, in answer school, the reading and study of the Bible, the which the keeper has kindly given me per- to letters addressed to post-masters and sheriffs, solitude, the private admonition, the absence mission to put into their hands on the Sab- in all parts of the State of New York, concernof temptation, the mild and wholesome dis- | bath, and which, by a suitable selection and ing two hundred and sixty discharged concipline, and the daily acknowledgment of God, adaptation to particular cases, have not un- victs, of whom one hundred and forty-six are which is proved by numerous cases of refor- frequently proved to be efficient co-workers in reformed. Concerning many of the one hunmation, and, comparatively, few cases of re- producing and strengthening salutary impres dred and forty-six here mentioned, informacommittal. The well-authenticated cases of sions upon their minds.
tion has been received, three years in succesreformation are more than one hundred and “The profound and impressive stillness, sion, giving them the same character; and forty, and the re-committals are less than one with which the daily evening devotions have some of them the character of decidedly pious
men.' Three years ago this system of inquiry conrersant with our English poets; and there- | most experienced in his endeavours to explain concerning discharged convicts was first in- fore the reader will be the less surprised when why so many flashes of lightning have occurred stituted. The first year, it brought favourable I tell him that Drummond is the earliest over London, perhaps some thousands, when Teturns concerning fifty-two; the second year, writer of the true sonnet whom I can properly not more than twenty of its towers have felt concerning one hundred and twelve; and the be said to know. One of the sonnets of this their effects in the revolving of soveral centuthird year, as already stated, concerning one admirable genius, addressed to the nightingale, ries. Iron is acknowledged to be one of the hundred and forty-six.
is so beautiful that I must be allowed to gra best conductors; and, as every stoeple is surThere is another class of facts proving the tify myself by transcribing it.
mounted by a pointed spindle for the vane, we same thing concerning the reformatory cha
TO THE NIGHTINGALE.
might suppose part of the contents of electric racter of the prison at Auburn. The recom- Sweet bird, that sing'st away the early hours
clouds would be attracted to them, and the de mitments in 1827, out of four hundred and Of winter, past or coming, void of care,
struction of the structures follow from the want twenty-seven, were only nineteen. And in Well pleased with delights which present are,
of a continuation of the same metal to the 1829, out of five hundred and seventy, only Fair seasons, budding sprays, sweet-smelling
earth. The celebrated Franklin, aware of the seventeen.
numerous partial attractors to be found on The health of the institution is also remark- To rocks, to springs, to rills, from leafy bowers. towers, churches, and other buildings, sugable. The cases of sickness in the hospital Thou thy Creator's goodness dost declare, gested the use of iron rods, linked and pointed, being, on an average, one to one hundred,
And what dear gifts to thee he did not spare ; to ascend their sides and the highest parts of according to the physician's report, and the A stain to human sense in guilt that lowers.
the edifice; the efficacy of which cannot be deaths one to seventy-five annually. What soul can be so sick, which by thy songs,
for a moment doubted, as the upper ends of Attired in sweetness, sweetly is not driven
the rods are frequently ascertained to be melted Quite to forget earth's turmoils, spite, and wrongs, HISTORY OF THE SONNET. |
into drops, without the inhabitants of the And list a reverend eye and thought to heaven? Sweet artless songster! 'thou my mind dost raise
houses to which they are generally affixed, in The sonnet, as is generally known, is alto- To airs of spheres,-yes, and to angels' lays.
America, being sensible of the least shock gether of Italian origin; and its structure is
In the times succeeding to those of Surrey, the
during the passage of the fluid. Had those ascertained with so much rigid precision as to sonnet was constructed, though not with rigid
excellent safeguards been discovered 128 years be insusceptible of any, or only of the most | accuracy, by Sidney, Spenser, Shakspeare, and
past, the cupola of the Escurial might possibly trifling, variation of the fourteen lines, of still more happily by Drummond, the peculiar
have escaped very serious damage. In the wbich it is to consist, the first eight are to ad| object, as it would seem, of Milton's applause
month of June, 1679, a flash of lightning demit one change only of rhyme for their termi. | and innitation. By Milton this minute poem
scended on the brass ball of 750 pounds nation; and are to be distributed into two has frequently been animated with a great and
weight, which was supported by a pyramid of stanzas, of which the first verse chimes with mighty soul. "That which he wrote “ when the
stone, and beat both to the ground. the last, and the two intermediate ones with
assault was intended to the city," and those each other. The six concluding lines may
which he addressed to Cyriac Skinner (the either be confined within terminations of two
grandson of the great Lord Coke), to Fairfax, similar sounds alternately arranged, or may be
FREE LABOUR. to Vane, and to Cromwell, are eminent for disposed, with two additional rhymes, into a
their vigour and loftiness. Some greater accu It is assumed that the slaves will become quatrain and a couplet. Like every short
idle on obtaining their freedom; but this is a poem, the sonnet requires strict unity of sub
ing of these short poems; but they are con- mere assumption. The report of the privy ject; but it solicits ornament from variety of
ceived and executed in a grand and broad council (1788) speaks, on the authority of witthought, on the indispensable condition of a
style. Like a small statue by the chisel of nesses from the British West India islands, of perfect subordination. The sentence may over
Lysippus, or a miniature from the pencil of the “invincible repugnance of the free negroes How the verse, but must not transgress the
Angelo, they demonstrate that the idea of to all sorts of labour.” Messrs. Fuller, Long, stanza. This little poem is impressible with
greatness may be excited independently of the and Chisholm declare, that “ free negroes are various characters; and, while with Petrarch it
magnitude of size.—Symmons's Life of Milton. never known to work for hire, and that they is tender and pathetic, with Dante, in equal
The English reader may form some idea of have all the vices of the slaves.” Mr. Brathconsistency with its nature, it is elevated and
the general character of Petrarch's sonnets by waite states, that “if the slaves in Barbados forcible. Peculiarly adapted to the language
the following specimen. It is translated by were all offered their freedom on condition of and the taste of its native Italy, it has been
Lady Dacre, and was evidently written after working for themselves, not one tenth of them considered, though in my opinion without the death of his Laura.
would accept it." Governor Parry reports that sufficient reason, as insuperably unaccommo
“ free negroes are utterly destitute of indusNot skies serene, with glittering stars inlaid, dated to those of Britain. When happily constructed, it will be found to gratify every
Nor gallant ships o'er tranquil occan dancing,
try;" and the council of the island add, that,
Nor gay careering knights in arms advancing. English ear, attuned to the harmony of verse;
“ from their confirmed habits of idleness, they Nor wild herds bounding through the forest
are the pests of society."--Report, 1788, part 3. and the idea, which it suggests, of difficulty
Strange that, in the face of these declaraencountered and overcome, must contribute, as w
Nor tidings new of happiness delay'd,
tions, proceeding from persons in high official
trust and authority, the free blacks have, by the power of its effect.
Nor lady's song beside clear fountain glancing, their superior industry, driven the lower order During the prevalence of our Italian school In beauty's pride, with chastity array'd; of whites from almost every trade requiring of poetry, this short and pregnant composition Nor aught of lovely, aught of gay in show,
skill and continued exertion. I believe that was much in favour with our bards; and in 1 Shall touch my heart, now cold within her tomb
not one in twenty of the working shoemakers the childhood, as it may be called, of the Who was erewhile my life and light below!
in Barbados is a white man. The working English Muse, it was made the vehicle of his So heavy-tedious-sad-my days unblest,
carpenters, masons, tailors, smiths, &c., are,
That I, with strong desire, invoke Death's love by the tender, the gallant, the accom
gloom, plished, and the ill-fated Surrey.*
for the most part, men of colour; and this at When I speak of Surrey as a sonnetteer, I
ller to behold, whom ne'er to have seen were best! a time when a large white population are in
the lowest state of poverty and wretchedness. either take the fact on the credit of others, or I
In the application for casual charity, the numadopt the vague language of writers who call
EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING.
ber of white persons soliciting relief is far every short poem, comprised within fourteen
greater than that of the free coloured. The lines, a sonnet. Surrey has justly been hon
The effects of lightning have ever been par- free black and coloured inhabitants have aloured by Mr. Wharton with the title of our ticularly dreadful on high buildings, and yet ways contributed in their full proportion to tirst English classic : but I am not acquainted
| it is singular that steeples and towers are not
the parochial taxes, for the support of the with one regular sonnet which he has con
more frequently injured by it; many instances poor whites, while their own poor receive no structed. I am far from being profoundly might be adduced to prove that cottages and parochial relief, but are supported by private
the earth have felt the force of this subtle * From the notoriety of the fact, it can scarcely
contributions among the more wealthy of their | fluid, when objects infinitely more elevated own colour. Do these facts indicate habits of be necessary to inform the reader, that this ornament of the English nobility (Henry Howard,
have escaped without injury. Philosophers irreclaimable idleness ?--Archdeacon Elliot's eldest son of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk) fell a
speculate almost in vain upon the phenomena Lectures. victim, in the flower of his age, to the jealousy of exhibited by the electric fire in its passage that capricious and remorseless tyrant, Henry through the atmosphere, and such substances VIII.
| as it meets in its way; and it would baffle the
ter, his majesty was pleased (that none might be left there doubtful of his favour) graciously to assure them, that he willingly granted all they desired, or could wish, and that they might admit Dr. Roderick to be their Provost as soon as they pleased ; which they received with the greatest joy and gratitude imaginable.
“After this, his majesty went to Trinity College, and in the first court thereof was congratulated by the Hon. Dr. Montague, the inaster, and in the second by Mr. Norris, a fellow of that College, and with a copy of English verses in the new-built library, the structure whereof his majesty was very well pleased with. And here his majesty was pleased to accept of a dinner, provided by the University, in the College-hall; where, at the upper end, was a table-raised five steps above the floor, at which sat his majesty, and at one
end his Royal Highness Prince George of THE GNU.
Denmark, who attended him hither; and at
the other tables, on each side of the hall, were This animal is found chiefly in South-ways with their horns. This, however,
their Excellencies the Spanish and Dutch
| Ambassadors, with several other foreign minisern Africa, and combines in its form the lasts but for a moment: the whole troop
ters, together with the nobility and principal beauties and adaptations for strength and soon flies across the desert with amazing
gentry in great numbers. All which his maspeed of several animals. It is generally speed. The males bellow like a bull, jesty was graciously pleased to accept, sending described as having the head square, the and the young have a kind of nasal from table a message to his Grace the Chanpeck thick, the shoulders deep, the body murmur. They have been much observed, | cellor, that he drank to him, and wished prosshort and rounded, the legs long and and described by numerous African tra- | perity to the University of Cambridge. Immefinely formed, and composing altogether vellers; and the general testimony seems
diately after dinner, his majesty returned to an animal exceedingly compact and ac to be that, either from some obliquity of
| Newmarket through infinite throngs of people,
who crowded from all parts to have the haptive. They are remarkably lively, trot- disposition, or from a plenitude of animal
piness of seeing his majesty.” ting, ambling, and galloping with great spirits, which imprisonment and persecuswiftness; and so sportive that even tion cannot subdue, they are rarely or when alarmed they always commence by never domesticated.
EIGHT MONTHS' RESIDENCE IN playing with each other, striking side
JAMAICA, IN 1830 AND 1831. Tue following article is handed to us by the writer, whose name we have, with the highest testimonies to his veracity and respectability.
I had the misfortune to become acquainted, VISIT OF WILLIAM III. TO THE UNI.! “ The next day, his majesty was pleased to in the spring of 1830, with a gentleman then VERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, 1689. make a visit to the University, and arrived lately returned from Jamaica, after having
here in the morning, being met without the resided in the island for nearly twenty years. The following interesting article is extracted town by the mayor and aldermen of the corpo- At that time I was wholly unacquainted with from the London Gazette, October 10th, 1689. ration in their formalities, who complimented the real nature of colonial slavery, and drew
On Sunday last, the vice-chancellor, the his majesty, by Mr. Pepys, their present mayor, my conclusion on the subject, partly from heads of colleges, and doctors in all faculties, and made a present of a large basin and ewer. hearsay, and partly from the perusal of letters with several regents and non-regents, in their They marched before him into town, at the written by relatives resident in the slave coloproper habits, waited upon his majesty at New entrance whereof his majesty was received by nies, who all agreed in their praises of the market, being introduced into his royal pre- rows of scholars, according to their several system. These conclusions, although I trust sence by his Grace the Duke of Somerset, degrees, on each side of the streets leading to they never could have confirmed me a lover Chancellor of the University. The Rev. Dr. the public schools, and amidst the loud accla- of slavery, did actually—I confess with shame Covell, Vice-Chancellor, addressed himself to mations of all sorts of persons. His majesty, -go a great length in rendering me an apolohis majesty in a proper and elegant speech, alighting at the schools, received there the gist for the system. Such were my views congratulating the glorious successes his ma- public thanks of the University, by the Vice- when I came in contact with this gentleman, jesty had been blessed with in his endeavours Chancellor and their orator, for the great -and, having long had thoughts of trying to rescue this church and nation from the im- | honour that was then done them; and an ex- my fortune in the West Indies, I rejoiced that minent dangers that threatened both, and | traordinary Commencement being then held on I had at length met with an individual who which were more particularly pointed against this signal occasion, for conferring degrees on could inform me of the true nature of things the Universities, and concluded with an persons of worth in all faculties, Mr. Kiddler in Jamaica. I therefore lost no time in kumble recommendation of themselves to his and Mr. Pelling were created doctors in his making every possible inquiry of him, that majesty's protection, wherein the Protestant majesty's presence, being presented by the might tend to afford me correot views on the religion had so much concern. To which his Regius Professor, Dr. Beaumont, with that subject. The information he gave me was majesty was pleased to return in answer, that | unimitable elegancy which is so peculiar to uniformly laudatory of the system, and garas God had blessed him in this undertaking, him.
nished with pleasing descriptions of the $0 he should faithfully discharge his trust in “ From the schools, his majesty walked to contented and enviable condition of the preserving the church of England, and giving King's College, where Mr. Layton, a fellow of slave population, delivered with a tone of soall protection and favour to the Universities that society, declaring in his speech the appre- much seeming earnestness as to leave me no They then waited upon his majesty to church, hensions they were under least they might room to doubt their truth. I agreed at once and at their return from thence were conduct have offended his majesty by a late petition, to a proposal that I should accompany his ed to the king's house, where, by directions wherein they only mentioned one single per- brother to Jamaica,—both of us having made from his majesty, they were received and son as duly qualified to succeed in the vacancy up our minds to make trial of a planter's life. splendidly entertained at dinner by Sir James of their Provost, and humbly beseeching his On being furnished with recommendatory letForbes, clerk of the green cloth.
majesty's favourable construction of that matters, we sailed from Greenock in the end of April, and, after a pleasant passage, arrived i such, ere I had well been fifteen minutes on in reply to either driver or overseer only occaat Falmouth, Jamaica, on Sunday, the 13th the estate. The overseer, observing my un sions renewed punishment. My observation of June, 1830.
easiness, desired that I might retire for a few induces me to believe that many of the punish· After having gratified ourselves with a minutes. Glad in the opportunity thus afforded ments arise from hatred engendered in the walk through the town, and listened to theme of withdrawing myself from the scene, I | breast of the drivers ; the severest punishsongs of praise (in which we mentally joined) did so accordingly: but whether it was that ments are being continually indicted on the that were ascending from out a chapel crowded the heart of the overseer relented, or that he same individual without just cause. One with negroes, we adjourned to the lodging- did not wish to show extraordinary rigour wretched creature, of the name of Polly Betty, house of a free black woman, named Clark, during my first appearance, I cannot pretend was continually flogged by the driver in the where we took apartments. This advocate of to say; however, the poor negro, after a field. Her life was a continued scene of
shower of oaths and abuse had been liberally wretchedness and misery, as, in addition to brother and two sisters as slaves,-uniformly bestowed upon him, received comparatively the cruel treatment she received at the hands treated them as such,-flogged them with her few lashes, -not half, I should consider, of of the driver, she was afflicted with an incuown hand, or under her immediate superin-| the allowable quantum. They proved suffi- rable disease, which rendered her incapable of tendence. Frequently have I heard her bawl cient, however, to cause him to roar in agony, doing so much work as the others. Her deout to them, “Now, mind what you be about; and imploringly to entreat the overseer that ficiency of natural strength he endeavoured to you'll catch something you don't like else."
supply by the constant application of the whip. Both of her sisters had at the time infants at do let me go dis one time,” was his oft-re There was a little girl also on the estate, the breast; but even this circumstance did not newed exclamation. The appeal struck deeply named Elizabeth, who, some how or another, screen them from the harsh usage of their into my heart, and was sufficient to have wrung was particularly hateful to the old driver, unfeeling relative, who, though but lately a pity from any one unaccustomed to such Jack. She was flogged, without mercy, alslave herself, now exercised all the despotism scenes. After he had “dismissed the case,” | most daily, frequently for no visible offence, of an owner.
he remarked to me, “If I were not occasion and worked all day long in sorrow and in I called next day on the Hon. William ally to flog these fellows they would get the tears. She was actually quite lame from the Miller, the Custos, and delivered to him one upper hand of me;" and he laboured to effects of the lash; she went hobbling along to of my introductory letters. He received me prove, by a long stretch of puerile argument, her work bent down like an aged person. with affability and politeness, in his elegant that the slaves of Jamaica were far more Frequently did this poor, ill-used girl feign mansion, and said that if I called next day comfortably situated than the peasantry of sickness in order to escape the horrors of her an appointment would be written out for me. Britain. The anti-slavery advocates at home unpitied lot; but this subterfuge was, of His apparently mild and urbane disposition, had their share of abuse; and, in particular, course, easily detected, and she subjected to contrasted with the revolting spectacle I wit- he remarked that the part Dr. Thomson, of additional rigour. nessed in the court-yard before his house, Edinburgh, had taken, was enough to expose Neither age nor sex protects the victims of were, to me, perfectly irreconcileable. There every planter's throat to the knife of the negro. slavery from the cart-whip. From seven to I beheld about a dozen convict slaves, chained I was destined, however, to see the fallacy of seventy, and beyond that age, there is no reto each other, who were busy macadamizing these futile assertions fully verified in my own prieve from its arbitrary infliction. An inthe yard,-a surly looking driver, whip in sad experience.
Offensive African, called familiarly Old Billy, hand, superintending their operations. But After a few days spent in looking about the of upwards of seventy years of age, was shamemy feelings were infinitely more shocked by estate, I had, on the fourth day, my written fully flogged during my stay at Llandovery, witnessing in the public street, in the face of instructions given to me by the overseer, which for some alleged mistakes connected with the day, six or eight workhouse slaves dragging at ordered me to attend daily the youngest gang, dressing of the overseer's garden ; but it struck their heels a cart heavily laden with stones; 1 and to look after the small stock of the estate. me forcibly at the time, and has been my firm men and women chained legs and arms to the 1 very soon discovered that the work which belief ever since, that this poor, defenceless old vehicle: they were literally driven by a stont the slaves of all ages had to perform was creature was flogged by the overseer out of black, armed with a tremendous cart-whip, terribly severe.
mere cruel sport, to amuse some strangers who which he carried ready poised, and occasion I may safely say that, after having been a were with him, and for no other reason whatally applied to their naked backs, shouting, at week on the estate, my mind was completely ever. The case of this unfriended creature the same moment, with loud execrations. I made up as to the atrocious character of the was particularly painful to me; nor will the never was so horrified and disgusted in my system. I set it down, without the least hesi agonizing expression of his countenance, and life, as on beholding this degrading sight. tation, as one of detestable injustice, cruelty, his dismal cries, ever be effaced from my The poor creatures never raised an eye, but and oppression. And from this period, until memory. The condition of the aged and looked despondingly to the ground; their my final departure, my whole mind was bent worn out, who have such strong claims to whole appearance telling a tale that spoke of on leaving the country, and slavery, for ever ; proper maintenance in old age, is wretched accumulated misery and woe. They looked, and I never enjoyed peace of mind till I had beyond description. From hunger, and the in fact, as if on earth they had no hope, and attained my object. Nevertheless, I was an dreadful infliction of the lash, death is their that death itself would be a welcome relief. unwilling witness of the system for nearly only relief. It was now that my belief in the comforts of eight months.
The drivers are uniformly the strongest and slavery began to be a little shaken. I after I need hardly declare that the negroes in most active negroes the estate can furnish, wards ascertained that these gangs were partly Jamaica are overworked. Out of crop they toil and, to save their own backs, never fail to act composed of convict slaves, and partly of slaves from sun-rise to sun-set; that is, generally, up to their instructions. They are liberally sent thither by their masters, to undergo ex- throughout the year, from 5 A. M. to 8 P. m.; and allowed rum; and of an afternoon, when their treme punishment.
during crop, which lasts five months in the year, acquired cruel dispositions are heightened by On calling next day (Tuesday) at Mr. Mil- for thirty-six hours out of the forty-eight, als its use, the scenes of cruelty that then took ler's office, I received a letter to the overseer lowing an hour and a half each day for meals, place were, to my mind, revolting in the utof Llandovery estate. I hired a horse on the sleep only being conceded to them every alter- most degree. Wednesday morning, and on my journey Inate night. The majority are, also, to speak The negroes at Llandovery were given to passed two gangs, with drivers, and whips at in plain terms, half starved, seven salt her- understand that if they considered themselves their backs; and, after witnessing on my rings, and a few indigestible esculent roots, ill-used they might complain to the attorney, route the most enchanting scenery, arrived in being their only support. The old worn-out on his periodical visits to the estate. But this the afternoon at Llandovery.
men and women have still less food, chiefly | was a course scarcely ever resorted to. They The overseer received me with open-hearted subsisting on the partial bounty of their fel- were well aware that such a proceeding could attention, and, after a few common-place in- low slaves-or, indeed, upon cats and rats, only have one effect, that of calling down quiries about my passage, had just commenced when they are fortunate enough to procure aggravated cruelty upon them. an eulogium on the comforts of the slaves, | them.
During my residence, a Mulatto washerwhen a negro was brought to the foot of the I assert, also, that they are uniformly harshly woman was severely flogged for merely hinting steps, followed by four others and a driver, in treated, and, in numerous cases, cruelly so, and that she would adopt this course. kept no order to undergo punishment. All the stories that for trivial faults. If a slave is only a few journal during my residence at Llandovery, I had ever heard about the cruelty of the minutes behind the time he ought to be at an omission I deeply regret, as I should have planters towards their slaves now rushed in a work, he is either flogged by the black driver been enabled, by adopting this course, to have moment on my thoughts, and I deeply la- on the instant, or receives thirty-nine lashes given actual dates to many monstrous acts of mented that I should be doomed to witness on the arrival of the overseer. A word spoken oppression and cruelty. I think I may safely
say, however (speaking within bounds), that| THE NIGHTINGALE'S SONG. rolling of the sand if, upon his repeating three or four barbarous instances of cruelty
this three or four times, the intruder should occurred weekly. The usual way was for the The characteristic trait of the nightingale's not retire, he flies to another bush ; yet if he terrified culprit to be held down by four others, song consists in his very superior powers of be approached very gently, so that he should and thus flogged on the bare flesh. The whip, execution; he has an infinite variety of the not be frightened, he will sometimes show when“ well laid on," as the planters term it, most beautiful and complex rolls and quavers, himself and sing within a couple of yards of produces exactly the same effect as if one was all of which are delivered with a perspicuity the spectator, when the wonderful distension of to cut the parts in scores with a knife, so well and richness of tone peculiar to himself. The his throat will be very obvious, and when it is is the whip used. Some experienced drivers best description, however, would convey but impossible not to admire the lightness and will, at each stroke, cut out a piece of flesh; | an inadequate idea of the musical powers of elegance of his form, and the amazing long and, after the flogging is over, then comes the the nightingale; he must be heard to be duly hops he frequently takes from bough to bough. rum and salt pickle, on the application of appreciated. His song is generally wild and Field Naturalist's Magazine. which the lacerated victim writhes and con-unconnected, like that of the thrush; but when tórts himself in dreadful agony.
he joins his notes a little, as he sometimes lan told by a friend of mine, now estab- though rarely does, nothing can be conceived lished in Edinburgh, who was upwards of two | more exquisite. His habit also of singing MORAL AND RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE years a book-keeper on Greenside estate, Tre- during the calm stillness of the night, when
OF THE CLASSICS. lawney, that it was a common custom on that almost without a competitor, adds considerably estate to bring out, every Monday morning, I to the effect. To hear him, however, in per
No. XI. those hospital negroes who had sore legs, &c., fection, we should ramble along the margin of
NOVELS-CONCLUSION. and to have them severely flogged, for no a wood on a fine spring morning; when, after earthly reason whatever than to induce them a passing shower, the sun bursts forth in all A SERIOUS observer must acknowledge, with to go to their work, and to prevent' others his splendour, and nature smiles in all her | regret, that such a class of productions as taking refuge in the hospital!
vernal loveliness; when drops of water glisten novels, in which folly has tried to please in a An overseer is extremely jealous of strangers through the opening leaves, and every breeze greater number of shapes than the poet enuspeaking to the slaves; and woe betide even a wafts fragrance : then it is the feathered merates in the Paradise of Fools, is capable of junior book-keeper if he should be heard to choristers are heard in all their melody; the producing a very considerable effect on the drop a word of commiseration! For merely thrilling music of the thrush; the deep-toned moral taste of the community. A large prospeaking a few words to a negro one after mellow warble of the blackbird ; the whistling portion of them, however, are probably of too noon I was debarred from the breakfast-table of the willow-wren and blackcap, loud and slight and insipid a consistence to have any more of the whites for several weeks.
clear; the charming, ever-varied song of the specific counteraction to Christian principles The planters of Jamaica, and their under- | little garden warbler, rising and falling in than that of mere folly in general; excepting, lings, live in gross and openly avowed pro- softest, sweetest cadences on the enraptured indeed, that the most flimsy of them will occafligacy. Their general conversation, in short, sense; with the joint chorus of a thousand sionally contribute their mite of mischief, by is one long detail of disgusting obscenity. At little throats, each striving to excel the rest in alluding to a Christian profession in a manner the dinner-table each endeavours to outstrip harmony; while the murmuring of the turtles, that identifies it with the cant by which hypohis neighbours, in going the greatest length and the pleasing call of the cuckoo, serve to crites have aped it, or the extravagance with with the details of their licentiousness. Hoary- furnish variety, and to give an exquisite finish which fanatics have inflated or distorted it. headed men, on the confines of eternity, are to the whole,—then it is the nightingale is But a great and direct force of counteracting quite as much depraved as the youngest, and heard to advantage; high over all the rest he influence is emitted from those which elomore hardened. To enter into any description makes the woods re-echo to his song of joy. quently display characters of eminent vigour of such conduct would be to outrage decency.
| The nightingale may easily be distinguished and virtue, when it is a virtue having no basis Suffice it to say, that many overseers do them- from all other British songsters by the wonder- | in religion ; a factitious thin
in religion ; a factitious thing resulting from selves seduce the young girls under their fully clear and distinct manner in which he the mixture of dignified pride with generous charge, and actually boast at table of their executes an endless variety of most compli- feeling; or constituted of those philosophical facility in doing so. The book-keepers are re-cated and inimitable shakes and quavers. His principles which are too often accompanied, in commended by the overseer, in a strain that song, indeed, is quite unlike that of any other these works, by an avowed or strongly inti. almost amounts to a command, to take black British bird, and many of his most frequently mated contempt of the interference of any regirls for their housekeepers, alias mistresses. repeated notes are known to the London | ligion, especially the Christian. If the case is The overseer at Llandovery used to say that dealers by particular names. Thus, one that mended in some of these productions into not a single packet letter came from the pro- is universally admired, is that which is com- which an awkward religion has found its way, prietors in England in which the small in- | monly called by them “sweet-jug," from a it is rather because the characters excite less crease of Mulattoes, children of the book fancied resemblance in the sound. It is a note interest of any kind, than because any which keepers by female slaves, was not complained that he frequently utters, and may be tolerably they do excite is favourable to religion. No of; and whether by orders of the proprietor or expressed thus, - huep, huip, huipp, hueep, reader is likely to be impressed with the digattorney I cannot say, but I solemnly declare hueep, hueep, hueep, chuck, chuck, chuck; the nity of being a Christian by seeing, in one of that rewards, in the shape of articles of dress, former part to be pronounced very slowly, in these works, an attempt to combine that chawere openly held out to those book-keepers a kind of half whisper, half whistle; the latter racter with the fine gentleman, by means of a whose mistresses should have children, and part, “chuck," is repeated about a dozen most ludicrous apparatus of amusements and thus add to the stock of the estate!
times, and so quick and distinct as to set all sacraments, churches and theatres, morning From what fell under my own observation, imitation at defiance: sometimes, instead of prayers and evening balls. Nor will it, per and from the conversations I had occasionally chuck, it is terminated by a kind of roll, re- haps, be of any great service to the Christian with the slaves, who are particularly shrewd sembling tottle-tottle-tottle; this sudden tran- cause, that some others of them profess to exin contending for their rights, I am persuaded sition from high to very deep notes has an ex-emplify and defend, against the cavils and that imminent danger attends the continuance tremely pleasing effect. Other remarkably scorn of infidels, a religion of which it does not of the system.
fine notes have been likened to the words appear that the writers would have discovered The slaves have among them a confident water-bubble, whitlow, &c. This mode of illus- the merits had it not been established by law. hope of emancipation from the British Govern- | trating the song of a bird may perhaps at first One may doubt whether any one will be more ment; and my impression is, that should that sight appear unnecessary, but it is the only than amused by the venerable priest, who is hope be destroyed, or much longer deferred, method in which a just idea can be given; introduced probably among libertine lords and they will rise and take it themselves.
and if by this description the bird should be giddy girls, to maintain the sanctity of terms, My conscientious belief is that immediate immediately recognized by those who had not and attempt the illustration of doctrines, which emancipation may safely take place, and that before heard it, as I conceive it would, the ob- these well-meaning writers do not perceive that any substitute for that measure, under the Iject is, of course, accomplished.
the worthy gentleman's college, diocesan, and pretence of education, or further preparation, When the nightingale is singing, concealed library, have but very imperfectly enabled him will be quickly followed by the most frightful in a bush, he will not suffer himself to be ap- to understand. If the reader even wished to results.
proached too near; and, though he does not be more than amused, it is easy to imagine immediately fly, he ceases to sing, and signi- how much he would be likely to be instructed fies his displeasure by a peculiar croak-re; and affected by such an illustration or defence sembling the word curre, pronounced with a of the Christian religion as the writer of a