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severity. The slaves are prostrated on the their appraised value from the funds of the genius that should be thus faithful to true ground, and the body is indecently exposed to colony.
religion might be regarded as trees by the the gaze of by-standers; the arms are extend In the return from which these particulars side of that “river of the water of life,” ed, the wrists being made fast; the legs are are taken, allusion is, in some cases, made to having in their fruit and foliage a virtue to brought close together, and secured at the the conduct of the prisoners during their con- contribute to “the healing of the nations.” ancles by a rope, which passes through a hole, finement. In one parish (St. Catherine's) the But, on the supposition that there were a man and is pulled tight, stretching every muscle | superintendant of the workhouse states that sufficiently discerning, impartial, and indefatieven to agony.
nearly one half of the slave convicts thus sen- gable for a research throughout the general An attempt was lately made, at a vestry tenced for life are well disposed, steady, quiet, body of our poetical literature, it would be meeting of the parish of St. Andrew's, in attentive, and obedient. How deeply is it to curious to see what kind of religious system, Jamaica, to obtain an abolition of the cruel | be lamented that men, whose good conduct and what account of the state of man, as system of stretching negroes, who are about to had thus extorted from their gaoler this fa- viewed under moral estimate, and in relation be flogged.* An opinion was given by the vourable testimony, should be kept in chains, to the future destiny, would be afforded by a medical attendant of the institution, that that and subjected to imprisonment and hard la digested assemblage of all the most marked mode of punishment was the least likely to bour for the remainder of their days! And for sentiments, supplied by the vast majority of injure the slave. It had already, he said, what offence? Frequently for no moral crime. the poets, for such a scheme of moral and been proposed to use the halberd for the pur- | In some cases, perhaps, for resistance to op-religious doctrine. But, if it would be expose, as in the army; but he thought that the pression, justified by the best feelings of human ceedingly amusing to observe the process and contortions of the body, during the infliction nature; while in others the timid slave, who the fantastic result, it would, in the next of a flogging, might cause the dislocation of has committed unintentionally a venial of- place, be very sad to consider that these falthe wrists. One member of the vestry stated fence, for which he is threatened with punish- | lacies have been insinuated, by the charms of that he was ready to make oath that he knew ment, flies to the woods that he may escape poetry, into countless thousands of minds, a negro who was of no service to his owner, the infliction of the lash. It is not, however, with a beguilement that has, first, diverted from the effects of stretching by means of the in the public gaols alone that the slave is them from a serious attention to the gospel, block and tackle, and he had no doubt that treated with unjustifiable severity. There is then confirmed them in a habitual dislike of there were many other such instances. Ano- on every estate a place of confinement, of the it, and finally operated to betray some of them ther member was also against the use of the proceedings in which no record is kept. A to the doom which, beyond the grave, awaits block and tackle. He himself knew a negro slave may be here incarcerated and flogged at the neglect or rejection of the religion of who was totally useless in consequence of the mere will and caprice of his owner or being stretched in the workhouse. He thought overseer, free from the control and inspection You have, probably, seen Pope cited as a the halberd the milder of the two punishments. of any magistrate. The law affixes no limit Christian poet, by some pious authors, whose During this discussion the majority of the to confinement in the stocks or bilboes on the anxiety to impress reluctant genius into an commissioners retired from the board, one or plantation, nor provides any means for control appearance of favouring Christianity has cretwo at a time, and the meeting was adjourned against the abuse of such punishments. These dulously seized on any occasional verse which sine die! At the date of the last official re- places of confinement are entirely removed seemed an echo of the sacred doctrinos. No turn of the state of gaols and workhouses in from the public eye. No record is required to reader can exceed me in admiring the discriJamaica, there were in that island 488 slaves be kept of the flagellations which are inflicted, minative thought, the shrewd mora) observain confinement who had been committed by a however severe ; and to such treatment the tion, the finished and felicitous execution, and public court, or by the order of three magis- slave population of our West India colonies is the galaxy of poetical beauties, which comtratęs. Of this number 174–viz., 146 men, daily exposed, without the possibility of re- bine to give a peculiar lustre to the writings and 28 women-were condemned to hard la-dress, if only the party who inflicts the punish- of Pope. But I cannot refuse to perceive that bour in chains for life, for the offence of ment is prudent enough to limit the stripes to almost every allusion, in his lighter works, to having absconded from their masters for six thirty-nine, or take care that no free person the names, the facts, and the topics, that spemonths or more. Others, convicted of the witness it, when that number is exceeded. cially belong to the religion of Christ, is in a same offence, were condemned to imprison These wrongs could only be tolerated in a style and spirit of profane ;banter; and that, ment and hard labour for different periods, society whose sense of public justice has been in most of his graver ones, where he meant to varying from one to twelve months; many subverted by the most odious and debasing of be dignified, he took the utmost care to divest were also sentenced to receive thirty-nine all human institutions, and it is in vain to ex- his thoughts of all the mean vulgarity of lashes when committed, and again on their pect in the West Indies any just system of Christian associations. “Off, ye profane !"
criminal law, so long as slavery shall be per- might seem to have been his signal to all period, eighty-two-viz., sixty-three men, and mitted to inflict its cruelties upon the negro evangelical ideas, when he began his Essay nineteen women. A further number of six race, and spread its pestiferous and deadly in- on Man; and they were obedient, and fled; teen had been committed as “ runaways;" | fluence throughout the other classes of the for if you detach the detail and illustrations, having asserted their claim to freedom, but comm
so as to lay bare the outline and general prinpossessing no documentary evidence of the
ciples of the work, it will stand confest an fact, they were condemned, although un
elaborate attempt to redeem the whole theory claimed by any one; the slave being, in such MORAL AND RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE
of the condition and interests of man, both in cases, usually sold for the benefit of the island.
OF THE CLASSICS. Besides these prisoners, there are in the gaols
life and death, from all the explanations im
posed on it by an unphilosophical revelation various other descriptions_felons, misdemea
from heaven. And, in the happy riddance of nants, deserters, slaves levied on for their mas
this despised, though celestial light, it exhiters' debts, or by the collector for taxes, and
bits a sort of moon-light vision, of thin, imwho are committed to the gaol or workhouse
palpable abstractions, at which a speculatist until claimed or sold. The punishment for an In extending the censure to the poets, it is may gaze, with a dubious wonder whether assault upon, or even offering violence to, a gratifying to meet an exception in the most they be realities or phantoms, but which a white person, is imprisonment and hard labour elevated of all their tribe. Milton's consecra- practical man will in vain try to seize and for life. In this return a female slave appears ted genius might harmoniously have mingled turn to account, and which an evangelical to have been condemned to this terrible punish- with the angels that announced the Messiah man will disdain to accept in exchange for ment “ for assaulting her master;" another to be come, or that, on the spot, and at the those forms of truth which his religion brings woman, “ for offering violence to her master," moment of his departure, predicted his coming to him as real living friends, instructors, and is condemned to six months' hard labour, and again; might have shamed to silence the consolers, which present themselves to him, at to thirty-nine lashes, both on her committal muses of paganism, or softened the pains of his return from a profitless adventure in that and discharge. In many instances these se- a Christian martyr. Part of the poetical works shadowy, dreary region, with an effect like vere sentences are pronounced, not by a public of Young, those of Watts, and of Cowper, that of meeting the countenances of his affecSlave-court, but by three magistrates, and the | have placed them among the permanent bene- tionate domestic associates on his awaking owners are, in such cases, indemnified for the factors of mankind; as owing to them there is from the fantastic succession of vain efforts slaves thus sentenced for life, by being paid a popular poetry in the true spirit of Chris- and perplexities, among strange objects, inci
tianity, a poetry which has imparted, and is dents, and people, in a bewildering dream. Vide The Watchman, or Free Press, a colo destined to impart, the best sentiments to in- But what deference to Christianity was to be nial newspaper, February 5 and 9, 1831.
numerable minds. Works of great poetical expected when such a man as Bolingbroke was the genius whose imparted splendour was know what all the multitude of statues which times as old; so that I am at a loss to conceive to illuminate, and the demigod * whose ap- surround this building can represent, and I any motive for making this exhibition, except probation was to crown, the labours which, may at the same time tell you, to increase the desire to get money by it. Had the fea. according to the wish and presentiment of the your surprise and curiosity, that the interior of tures been tolerably preserved, it might have poet, were to conjoin these two venerable the building contains a still greater number, been excusable to show them to those who adnames in endless fame?
| viz. five thousand : so at least we were told by mired the character of St. Charles; but it is a If it be said for some parts of these dim two persons who showed us the church, and disgusting mockery to exhibit a withered speculations, that though Christianity comes who, being in office, ought to be well in- corpse enshrined in splendour. The eyeless forward as the practical dispensation of truth, formed. Supposing, however, that there may sockets of the head seem to tell how vain are yet there must be, in remote abstraction be- be some exaggeration in this, and concluding the costly gems that sparkle around them; hind, some grand, ultimate, elementary truths, also that many groups in alto-relievo, and and the shrunk brow appears little fitted to which this dispensation does not recognise, smaller than life, are counted as statues, the receive the golden crown that hangs over it. but even intercepts from our view by a system number is still astonishing. They represent We were told that the value of the crosier was of less refined elements, in which doctrines all manner of personages-angels, apostles, upwards of thirteen thousand pounds sterling. of a more contracted, palpable, and popular prophets, saints, martyrs, warriors, bishops, and that of the crown, three thousand five hundred, form, of comparatively local purport and rela all the variety of characters who can be intro- and that the frame in which the body is laid tion, are imposed in substitution for the higher duced in representations of the events recorded contained forty-five thousand ounces of pure and more general and abstracted truths-I in Scripture. A large proportion of them are silver. After quitting this chapel, we were answer, And what did the poet, or “ the mas- extremely well executed, and one, by Agrati, allowed to see the treasury, where we beheld ter of the poet and the song," know about is considered such a masterpiece of sculpture, relics of each of the twelve apostles-a tooth those truths, and how did they come by their that there is engraved upon the pedestal, “Non of one, bones of another, &c.--contained in information ?
me Praxiteles, sed Marc' finxit Agrati.” The small bottles, and placed in a sumptuous case ; subject is extremely curious, being St. Bartho- we also saw several patches of the garments
lomew flead; his skin is entirely stripped off, of the Virgin Mary. And here I made a MILAN.
and hangs over his shoulders, and the great strange mistake; for, being told they were
merit of the statue is its accurate representa- upon a splendid stand before me, I touched an Milan is a large and elegant city, with a
tion of the muscles and parts under the skin :old dirty cloth which hung from it, and asked population of 130,000 souls ; but having been
the execution is admirable. The interior of if that was the garment, thinking it had a twice razed to the ground, by Attila and by
the building is vast and rich, but unfortunately marvellous look of antiquity. The sacristan, Frederick Barbarossa, it contains no remains of
of very different styles of architecture, the half shocked and half amused, explained that its ancient greatness. It possesses, however,
Greek 'having been mixed with the Gothic; that was merely the covering of the stand, and many handsome palaces, the second cathedral
one consequence of which is, that the large pointed out a few small bits of cloth, very in Italy, several fine theatres, good streets and
window usually placed at the western end of much resembling printed cotton, cased in gold promenades, and some valuable collections of
Gothic churches, and which forms so great an and jewels, which I found were the veritable paintings, statues, and books. The cathedral,
ornament in York Minster, is left out, thereby garments of the Virgin. There is here also a called the Duomo, is in many respects the
diminishing the light and destroying the hai-nail of the cross, preserved in a case of rock most remarkable building I have yet seen;
mony of the building. This mixture of styles crystal. But these are nothing compared with and I believe it may be pronounced, as far as
is to be found in most of the cathedrals of what may be seen at Cologne, where I saw the external decoration goes, to be the most gorge- Italy, and is to be accounted for by the length skulls of the three kings of the east who came ous edifice in the world. From its want of a
of time required for their erection, and the to worship Christ at his nativity, and where tower or dome, corresponding to the size of the
various architects employed. The greatest are kept the bones of St. Ursula and eleven church, it yields in majesty to York Minster
curiosity in the Duomo is the subterranean thousand virgins, who came from England in and St. Paul's, to say nothing of St. Peter's at
chapel of St. Carlo Borromeo, the celebrated Rome; but in the richness of its materials, and
one ship to convert the Huns, but were barbaArchbishop of Milan, who died in 1584, and rously murdered by them. It seems astonishing the profusion and beauty of its ornaments, it
who endeared himself to his fellow-citizens by far outshines them all.
that such gross impostures should so long find It is a Gothic edifice,
his munificent charity to the poor, and by his credence. Of this magnificent cathedral I nearly as long as our largest cathedrals, and
fearless administration of the sacrament to the shall only further say, that it contains numewider than any of them, built entirely of white marble, which has retained its colour better
dying when a plague raged in the city. This rous altars, rich in marble and gilding, several
noble ecclesiastic is honoured by every mark excellent pictures, splendid monuments, and than any other I have seen ; its nave and
of gratitude to his memory, and his body is all those decorations which are accumulated double aisles are supported by fifty-two clus
preserved, embalmed in a sumptuous frame in by the munificence, taste, and devotion of tered columns, and fifty half columns; and on
this chapel, and still shown to the devout or successive ages in the churches of Italy. the exterior its roof is encircled by a triple
the curious. The chapel is built of the finest Most of the cities of Italy.still possess schools row of pinnacles or spires, each about sixty
veined marble, and completely lined with rich of painting, and institutions for the encoufeet high, of the lightest and most elegant
crimson silk wrought in gold; the frieze is ragement of the fine arts, where collections of form, and crowned by statues as large as life.
composed of eight broad tablets of silver, on pictures by the great masters are kept, and Its walls, buttresses, and spires, are crusted
which are carved the principal actions of the where an annual exhibition of modern paintwith a profusion of tracery and statues, of
life of St. Charles; and the shrine where the ings takes place, with a dispensation of prizes which you may form some idea when I men
body of the saint is laid flames with precious to the most deserving artists. There is an tion, that on the exterior of the building alone
metals and precious stones. The body itself institution of this kind at Milan, which exthere are no less than three thousand four
is contained in a frame of massive silver, with tends its views to the promotion of the sciences hundred statues; and these, being disposed in
sides of rock crystal; but this is generally and letters, as well as of the fine arts; it occutasteful manner, do not encumber the build
hidden beneath a cover, which, we were told, pies the old palace of the Brera, and has, being, but give it an effect the most florid and
could not be raised without the performance sides a valuable collection of paintings and beautiful. The pinnacles are a hundred and
of a religious ceremony by a priest, nor the statues, an extensive library, a museum, a twenty in number, and they were all, except
ceremony performed without the payment of theatre of anatomy, and a philosophical appatwo which are ancient, and six or eight added
five francs. Having consented to be imposed ratus. This is one of the most interesting lately, erected in the time of Napoleon, who
upon, a priest was sent for to gratify our curi- places to visit in Milan; but I shall not annoy nearly completed the edifice, after it had been
osity; but the answer was brought that no you by a panegyric on individual pictures or more than four centuries in an unfinished
statues. Whilst on this subject, however, I state.
| priest was forthcoming; whether it is actually The Duomo is in the form of a Latin
ordered that this ceremony shall be performed, must tell you, that I have here seen, in the cross, and it has an octagonal tower rising to
or, as I suspect, the man only told us so to ex- | refectory of an old convent, the celebrated a small elevation above the roof, and then sud
tract a larger sum of money from us, he found | fresco painting, by Leonard da Vinci, of the denly contracting into a slender tower of the same form, which is itself terminated by a
it convenient to dispense with it; raising the | Last Supper. This painter, whose great and
cover, he displayed to us the black and shri- versatile talents displayed themselves as well spire, and a brazen statue of the Virgin; this
velled mummy of the saint, clad in his ponti- in sculpture, poetry, music, architecture, and is extremely elegant, but it is too light to have
fical robes, with the mitre on his head, and the geometry, as in that line which has more parany thing of majesty. You may be curious to
crosier by his side. No part of the body ex- ticularly raised his fame, was a native of
cept the face is seen, and this is as much dis- Milan, where the inhabitants are justly proud * He is so named somewhere in Pope's works. I figured as that of an Egyptian mummy ten of him. The fresco of the Last Supper is
much injured by time and a damp situation ; 1 behold this monument, reflect that their con- | Othello lifts the dagger over Hedelmone (the but the greater part of the countenances may duct will make it their glory or their reproach. name of Desdemona was too unmusical for still be well discerned, and I have seldom been Let them be persuaded that similarity of manmore gratified with any production of the ners, not proximity of blood, gives them an Loredan, and the Doge of Venice rush in. pencil. In point of composition and character, interest in this statue.
The latter personage seizes the dagger, exit seems to me to press hard upon the sublimest
“Remember-Reşemble - Persevere.”
claimingworks of Raphael, and, like the productions of
-“ Malheureur, qui fais tu ? that divine artist (with whom Leonardo was After perusing this and similar evidence | Tu vas de ce poignard immoler la virtu!" contemporary), to have the simple dignity, of the vast talents of Mr. Burke, it will be truth, and grace, which characterise the sculp-highly amne
The play was published with both catastrophes, up highly amusing to read an instance of his ture of the ancient Greeks. The countenance
for the Parisians to take their choice; and the of Christ is such a personification of his chajocularity. It is related on the testimony
coteries found an interesting and unending racter that it can scarcely be regarded without of his biographer, Mr. Prior, and is as
topic in the respective merits of the denouereverence and emotion; it expresses all we follows :
ment funeste and denouement heureux. But can conceive of wisdom, purity, benevo- |
Two strolling players and their wives, who the actor, probably from bis English education, lence, and resignation in the prospect of injus
I paid frequent visits to the neighbourhood of was less tender, and more natural, than his tice and suffering. Judas is the hardened
Penn and Beaconsfield, chiefly on account of
| audience. The denouement heureux sat unvillain; but the rest of the disciples are all the liberal patronage of Mr. Burke, had ac- easil
easily upon him; and, a few nights after its consternation and curiosity at the announcequired some celebrity from performing, by
adoption, as Ducis, the author, was passing ment their master has made, that one of them means of rapid changes in dress, and consi
behind the scenes, he saw Talma striding shall betray him. I think it would improve derable powers of mimickry, all the characters
away in one of the dark passages, in full solia man's heart to contemplate this picture in the pieces which they represented. On one
loquy. “Shall I kill her? No, the audience daily. of these occasions a fox-hunter was to be ex
will not suffer it! Yet, what do I care! I will hibited, to whom a pair of leather small
| kill her: they shall learn to suffer it. Yes, I clothes was deemed an indispensable article have made up my mind; she must be killed!" EPITAPH ON THE MARQUIS OF of dress, but unfortunately there was no such
Ducis, who stood aloof from the whirlwind of ROCKINGHAM. article in their wardrobe. In this dilemma,
this debate, now came forward.—" What is the Mr. Burke, who was then at General Havi
matter with you, Talma ?"_“I am deterMR. BURKE's taste in epitaph, or rather | land's, at Penn, and whose invention and as
mined-I must put her to death !”—“I am of character-writing, was put in requisition by sistance commonly contrived to overcome their
your opinion, Talma; but what then ?"_"Her the completion, in August, 1788, of the splen- difficulties, was applied to; for a moment he
fate is fixed !”—“ Then go through your dedid, and, in this country, unequalled, mausowas at fault, but soon recollected that the iden
termination !” The actor went through with leum to the memory of the Marquis of Rocktical garment formed part of his host's military
it, to the surprise of the general audience, and ingham, erected about a mile in front of costume. How to procure it, however was the to the peculiar agonies of the most obviously Wentworth House, in Yorkshire, from which, difficulty; to ask for it they knew would have
handsome and fashionable; but there was so as well as from the surrounding country, it
| appeared in the eyes of the owner a species of my
neries of much truth and dramatic feeling in his performs a noble and interesting object, ninety profanation; the old General was held fast in
formance that the death became the estabfeet high. The interior of the base is a dome
bed by the gout, the wardrobe stood close to
wardrobe stood close to lished mode, and Talma had all the honours supported by twelve Doric columns, with niches the bed, and in this seemingly secure station
of a successful intrepidity.—Blackwood's Mafor the statues of the deceased nobleman and
were deposited the leathern indispensables. gazine. his friends, among whom the distinguished
“Come, Dick," said Mr. Burke to his brother writer of the following piece now takes his
Richard, who equally enjoyed a jest of this stand. The inscription, for force, precision, kind, “ we must out-general the General; you
SLAVERY IN ENGLAND. and fitness, has, perhaps, like the mausoleum
must be the decoy, and I shall be thief; attack itself, no equal among the mortuary remains
The diffusion of Christianity, by teaching the old soldier on his favourite military topic, of the country :
lead him to the heights of Abraham, where
Pico mankind that they were all equal, first awa
kened men to the injustice of a system which “CHARLES, MARQUIS OF ROCKINGHAM.
his prowess was displayed with Wolfe, fight
| made one man the property of another. Freatesi
quently, at the intercession of their conlessors, sincerity, and directness, were the sole instru
the feudal lords were induced to enfranchise and my luck good, I shall be enabled to ments of his policy. His virtues were his arts. march off with the breeches.” This jocular
their slaves; and, from the ignorance of the A clear, sound, unadulterated sense, not per
times, the administration of justice devolving scheme was successfully accomplished, and plexed with intricate design, or disturbed by
into the hands of the clergy, opportunities fresubsequently afforded a frequent topic for ungoverned passion, gave consistency, dignity, merriment to the visitors at Penn.
quently occurred of showing particular induland effect, to all his measures. In Opposition,
gence to this unfortunate class of society. In he respected the principles of Government; in
the eleventh century, the pope formally issued Administration, he provided for the liberties of
a bull for the emancipation of slaves; and, in the people. He employed his moments of ANECDOTE OF TALMA.
1102, it was declared in the Great Council of power in realizing everything which he had
the Nation, held at Westminster, unlawful for promised in a popular situation. This was The French are notoriously delicate in any man to sell slaves openly in the market, the distinguishing mark of his conduct. After murder upon the stage ! In the height of the which before had been the common custom of twenty-four years of service to the public, in a Revolution, when the guillotine was perma the country. critical and trying time, he left no debt of just nently patriotic, and the judges fell asleep, expectation unsatisfied.
wearied with signing sentences of bloodshed, By his prudence and patience he brought a dagger lifted upon the stage would have | Edited by the late W. GREENFIELD, Superintendant of
the Editorial Department of the British and Foreiga together a party which it was the great object thrown the whole mob of regenerators into Bible Society. of his labours to render permanent, not as an hysterics. On the first representation of
THE PSALMS, Metrically and Historically instrument of ambition, but as a living depo- | Othello, the death of Desdemona before the | 1 Arranged. Stereotype Edition. 15. 60.. boards. sitory of principle. audience raised an universal tumult. Tears, The pecnliarity in this Edition is, that, in addition to
the metrical arrangement, the type is as large as that used “ The virtues of his public and private life groans, and menaces, resounded from all parts
in the largest Edition of the Comprehensive Bible, while were not in him of different characters. It of the theatre; and, what was still more de- the size of the volume is small, was the same feeling, benevolent, liberal mind monstrative, and more alarming, several of
Sold by S. Bagster, Paternoster-row; J. and A. Arch, that, in the internal relations of life, concili the prettiest women in Paris fainted, in the Cornhill; Darton and Co., Gracechurch-street; Darton ates the unfeigned love of those who see men | most conspicuous boxes, and were publicly
and Son, Holborn; E. Fry, Houndsditch; and all other
Booksellers in Town and Country. as they are, which made him an inflexible carried out of the house. Ducis was alarmed patriot. He was devoted to the cause of li- for his tragedy, for his fame, and for his life. berty, not because he was haughty and in- | The author of so much public combustion Printed by J. Haddox and Co.; and Published tractable, but because he was beneficent and might have been sent to expiate his temerity by J. Crisp, at No. 27, Ivy Lane, Paternoster humane.
in the Bastile. He took the safer mode, and Row, where all Advertisements and Communi. “Let his successors, who from this house altered the catastrophe. At the moment when cations for the Editor are to be addressed.
“ UTILE DULCI."— Horace.
Vol. I.-No. 43.-SUPPLEMENT.
MONDAY, MAY 20, 1833.
PRICE One Penny.
THE BOURSE, OR TRIBUNAL DE COMMERCE, PARIS.
It is believed by some ingenious ety-naparte, and is another instance of his thian order of architecture, raised upon a mologists that the name Bourse, desig- financial ingenuity. Perceiving the de- basement which gives it an elevation sunating a public place, where merchants sirableness of such a building, he imposed perior to that of the neighbouring buildassemble and transact business, is derived an annual tax on the mercantile body, ings. It is surrounded by sixty-four from the edifice called the “ Hotel des ostensibly for the purpose of supplying columns, sixteen on each side, and Bourses," at Bruges, in Flanders, so called the funds necessary for its erection. The encloses not only the hall in which merfrom the escutcheon of the builder which building, however, was suspended by va- chants meet, and the business of the it bore, and which contained three Bourses, rious causes for a number of years, during public funds is transacted, but also those or purses. Near this the mercantile as- which period of delay the payment of the courts whose jurisdiction extends only semblies were held.
tax continued, so that a much greater | to litigations arising out of commercial Most of the chief cities of Europe have sum was amassed than was requisite for transactions. The judges in these courts long contained an edifice for this purpose, the completion of the work. It was com- are usually chosen from retired mer. among which may be mentioned those of menced in March, 1808, but was not chants, and their decisions are guided London, Bruges, Antwerp, Amsterdam, completed until after the downfall of the more by the principles of equity, and on Rotterdam, &c. Paris, however, though conqueror, and, indeed, until after the the plan of arbitration, than by any it had long been one of the first accession of the late monarch, Charles written law. The interior is decorated commercial cities, has not possessed X. It will be perceived by the above with emblematical paintings, and is exsuch an edifice until a comparatively engraving, which gives a faithful view of ceedingly well adapted for the purpose recent date. It owes its origin to Buo- the edifice, that it is built in the Corin- to which it is assigned
LETTER FROM A PERSON IN JAMAICA | enchantment that dwells with the romantic. sweet small devotions of home! in which I
Over the valleys, refreshed by their influence, was wont to offer a little incense TO A FRIEND IN ENGLAND.
a cake-a the waters dash onward in continual cascades. chaplet of flowers when will my circumIf what I have said respecting a journey into | The trees adorning their banks, scattered over stances be such as to secure my old age from the interior of the island shall have awakeried in the long and vivid grass, add ever-varying | poverty and calamity !” you an expectation of interesting descriptions, beauty to the whole. Where nature is perI am afraid I shall disappoint you in what I mitted still to revel in wild luxuriance, nothing sball detail in this communication. The fact can be a more pleasing vicissitude than the
ON THE HABITS OF TAME BIRDS. is, that the scenery in Jamaica, though novel coolness of the woodland roads, upon which and extremely striking—sublime in some of its the overarching fig spreads the dense shade of
BY NATTHÆUS SYLVATICUS. features, and beautiful in others-possessing its thousand branches. every thing to awaken inquiry, and to satisfy
| After gaining the successive eminences that It is a common observation, confirmed by curiosity- is associated with so little of senti- mark this distance, as the traveller advances those naturalists who have had the greatest ment and that little of no pleasurable charac- to the interior of the island, rising now in | experience, that our knowledge of the wonders ter, that, to one who has imbibed the maxim | loftier and more rugged elevations, he is sur of creation is still in its infancy. One very that to feel delighted is nothing without feel- 1 prised by the sudden opening into extensive interesting point, on which we are much in the ing the mind instructed and the heart im- plains, stretching far, and parallel to the range dark, is that faculty of the brute creation called proved, its natural beauties in its social de
of the deep inland mountains. Here, beneath | instinct. Now, Sir, it has always been my formities imprint no interesting emotions. clumps of shade, left to adorn an occasional | opinion, that one clearly substantiated fact
To the voyager, approaching the shores of swell, or to overshadow the waters of the tends more to elucidate truth than any numJamaica, the country appears, from the ex- cattle-pond, the peculiar herds and flocks are ber of theories and hypotheses, either wholly treme clearness of the atmosphere, to be one seen to repose. From these levels the hills unfounded in fact, or built upon some casual splendid mass of mountain scenery, rising in precipitately rise in frequent cones, between exception to the general rule; and, with this boldness and fertility from the ocean. The whose hollows the labour of cultivation has feeling, I submit the following statement as a bright green of the nearer objects, and the planted the coffee shrub. Beyond, the eye en- candidate for a corner in the « Field Naturaldark blue of the more distant, under a piercing counters a boundless amphitheatre of wood, I ist's Magazine.” sun and a cloudless heaven, so nearly assimi- -forests of stupendous trees,-the magnificent I am extremely fond of what I call practical late to each other, that the vallevs between ceiba, the wild tamarind, the St. Mary-tree, | natural history; but, as I reside in a large each successive ridge, from the sea to the in- and the stately cedulla; heights over which the town, you will suppose I may find some little land mountains, cannot be traced by the eye. lofty and majestic palm rears its empire-an difficulty in pursuing it I am, however, so It is only when we approach these lands of unexplored, exhaustless, and leafy solitude, happy as to possess a garden, about 140 feet eternal freshness, in the grey clearness of the covering with splendour of colour the vast in length by 40 in breadth, in which, besides sunrise, or in a cloudy sky and a moist and range of mountains, till these again mingle as many fowers as it will contain, I usually slightly dense atmosphere, that the character of with the clouds.
keep one or more tame birds, in the full enthe country is readily discoverable. Then, in
joyment of unclipped wings, and at free liberty the clear and distinct colours of the aerial per
In their rough bewildered vales
I to leave my demesne if they feel so disposed; spective, we perceive hill succeeding hill, ex
And silver fountains fall, and nightingales
| but several have thought proper not to do so tensive valleys intervening, and the interior | Attune their notes, where none are left to hear."
for three or four years; and I believe that, mountains rising in majesty over all.
Dyer's Fleece, b. iv.
| when they at last disappeared, they were either Quitting, about the middle coast of the
stolen or devoured by cats. The bird with island, the shore, which opposes its rocks Within a month from this, I expect to be at which I have had the most intimate compacovered with foliage and powers to the blue what I call my home, partaking a little domes- nionship is the magpie, and I will now proand tranquil waters, the eminences are seen in tic happiness, the only portion of earthly feli-ceed to tell you a little of what I have observed bold yet not ungentle acclivity, with valleys of city afforded me here. Believe me, when in him. I shall not attempt to give you the pleasing inequality between. As, with a beauty away from the circumscribed dominion of the characters of individual magpies, which I becalculated to awaken attention, the convexities bousehold gods, my portion is a silent heart lieve differ as widely as those of individuals of of every retiring height are rounded into a brooding wretchedness. I write this to you the human species: their loquacity and proregularity of form, so the separating hollows from among scenes of complete loneliness; the pensity to theft are well known; but I do not are marked with an evenness of surface that only sounds that break the silence of the soli find many who are aware of the high notions gives to the transitions an appearance uncha- tude are the music of the mocking-bird, the which a magpie possesses of his own rights in racterised by abruptness. Though diversified voice of the dove, the evening call of the wild whatever he deems his property. My magpie by frequent rocks, rugged and unequal, they guinea-fowls, and the rushing of waters deep considers my garden as his estate; he walks seldom burst in those bold, barren, and im- ening occasionally the murmurs of the sea- jealously behind any stranger who goes into mense masses, to elaim the appellation of breeze. Amid these scenes, I find a happiness it; and if any attempt be made to touch a crags, or to create any remarkable deviations in a converse with nature, since the society of plant, a stick, or a stone, he flies at the offender from the general character of the country. man affords me none. I must not, however, with every demonstration of rage and fury. He
The different foliage that crown these conti-omit one striking feature presented amid the perambulates his boundaries, i. e. the top of nual undulations, coloured in the brightest scenes here. In the many naked persons one the surrounding wall, and never by any chance and most contrasting green, combine beauty encounters, enjoying the cool freshness of the goes beyond them. Every evening, he volunwith their variety. Where the hand of the woods and waters, the mind familiar with tarily enters a cage appropriated to him, shuts cultivator has pruned the exuberance of na- classic imagery does not fail to recall the the door after him, and goes to roost on the ture, no scenery can be more delightful than fabled beings of the olden time-Dryads and perch. On one occasion, having some greenthe groves of the dark-leaved pimento, with Naiads, nymphs that loved the woods and house plants turned out in the borders, I which she had spontaneously clothed the face streams; while some brown and brawny native, wished to send them, for the winter, to a friend of the uplands. Detached in groups, with antending his flocks and herds, or stripping to in the country: a cart was accordingly brought interval that admits not their branches to in-seek a repast in the floods, personates the to the gate, and a man commenced removing tervene, they expose to the view the bright fauns and sylvans of the same primeval times the plants from my garden; but Mag, seeing verdure of the turf beneath. As this tree of fancy and of fable. Though my circum- his estate thus plundered, made a vigorous suffers no unkindred rival to rear itself within stances supply me with a theme in which, as attack upon the spoiler; he would jump on the shadow of its leaf, the close, even, and un- you may perceive, imagination can run riot, each pot as the man took it up for removal, spotted sward, nourished by the showers of its my strange misfortunes make up the greatest and peck his hand until the blood sprung from dew-drops, enjoying a free air and unceasing portion of my thoughts. The hope of my it; and he followed him, constantly pecking shade, flourishes in perennial beauty. From return to the domestic and social luxuries of his heels, to the garden gate, but no further; their aromatic leaves and flowers, the breezes, England is now fast receding from my view. for he then would run back to me, chattering that pour from every glen, waft a perfume of I know the consolations friendship would give; loudly, and looking up to me for approbation. the most delicious fragrance with the coolness but I should be inclined to exclaim with He once entered the open window of a room which they bring.
Nævolus, in the Satires of Juvenal, though where breakfast was set out, before the family Though every scene be calculated to impart not with the same impulse, "Reserve them came down stairs; he drank largely out of the delight, it is amid those through which the for bappier men. My Destinies would rejoice milk jug, tasted the butter, and concluded by rivers take their course that we experience the if my efforts could avail me any thing. O the ! throwing down upon the floor the toast, spoons,