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UNPUBLISHED MEMORANDA OF A
even diminutive. The accompanying when thrown open, presented, on one side, a , among the flowers," and the woodpecker, engraving will give a better idea of the rich display of the serges of Malaga, the silks with his busy bill,” and “the singing mockanimal, and of the relative proportion of of Valencia and Barcelona, the velvets of Flo- bird,” while the forests, replete with innumethe horns and the body, than any de- rence, the light and showy shawls of Tours rable other beautiful objects, are ranged by the scription. The colour is as varied as in chester and Glasgow, together with a variety Throughout this district a diversity of rivers, the other species of this genus; and the of Madras and Bandanna handkerchiefs and navigable, and receiving the influence of the peculiarity in the size of the horns is not Canton crapes, the silk goods being about half tides far up their courses, pour their streams. confined to the male, the female being the price of such articles in the shops of Ja- The softly gliding waters, while they refresh very amply provided with this appendage maica, and the cottons equally cheap with the the landscape, supply delight by their contrast to the forehead.
same commodity in the Ènglish colonies. In with the woods and pastures. Here the roseanother part was seen an assortment of cutlery, coloured flamingo, swarming in the distance tin-ware, and groceries. In the upper shelves, like soldiers in batallion, and the egret (the
and along erery rafter of the roof, and every garzota) delicately white, together with the NOTES ON THE ISLAND OF CUBA.
joist and beam, were the earthenwares of Staf- purple gallinule, and a thousand other waterfordshire and the metal manufacture of Bir- birds, inhabit the solitudes, or enjoy an undismingham. All along the sea-beach was piled turbed possession of the swamps and rivers
the native timber - cedar and mahogany, with the iguana and the alligator. No. II.
hardwoods and dyewoods, the sole export trade Through the waste of forest, advantage has
of this district. The commercial opulence of been taken of the streams to raft down the Quitting the sickly picture of society which Manzanilla is not, however, so much to supply most valuable of the native timber. The Jamaica presents, nothing can be a more pleas- the wants of its immediate inhabitants, as to woods form the chief sources of industry to ing change than the humble and unsophisti- meet the demand of the larger population of the proprietors of land here. Mahogany, cated scenes of Cuba. In the walks of nature, St. Salvador de Bayamo, an interior city, the cedar, fustic, lignum vitæ, and ebony, are there is no less difference than in human life. seat of one of the district governors, and dis- those which are most known in the European In Jamaica, every thing exhibits strong oppo- tant about seventy miles up the course of the market ; but the tough and durable, as well sition of parts, grouped in distinct colouring, Rio Couta, of which Manzanilla is the port as the ornamental, hardwoods—such as the buland massed in the excesses of light and shade; There were some three or four excellent saw- lytree-nesberry, the Santa Maria, and the red but in Cuba all things imperceptibly assimilate mills in the town, set in motion by cattle, which mangrove—are articles of valuable commerce -Nature has spread out her beauties with a turned to good account the labour bestowed in with the neighbouring islands. A considerable gentle hand, and man has clothed himself in cutting into boards and scantling the indige- portion of the woodlands in the vicinity of the simplicity. nous timber.
rivers have been denuded of the exportable I entered the town of Manzanilla in the The country immediately contiguous to the timber; but so dense is the vegetation, in these obscurity of night; but I could perceive that it sea is a low level tract, from which no rocky genial climates, that the labours of industry presented a picture far different from any I craggs jut forth to interrupt the easy sloping of to the eyes of the stranger are scarcely discernhad witnessed in West Indian scenery. The the shores. From the sea, the landscape swells ible any where. The greatest portion, and houses had a sullen, unsocial secludedness, upward into wavy lines of gentle rising and decidedly the most valuable, of the timber of decidedly different from the smiling open air descent, almost imperceptibly forming hills commerce on this coast, is floated down the of those light Venetian dwellings, ornamented and valleys, covered with measureless forests Rio Couta. After it is brought out of the with piazzas and balconies, seen in our Eng- clothed in that majesty and splendour of foli- forest, hy the aid of cattle, to the banks of the lish settlements. They were, indeed, for the age peculiarly characterising the orchards of river, the passage of a raft is a matter of little most part, essen cottages, with roofs the sun. Beyond this district of forest the labour. During the months the rains prevail thatched neatly with the leaves of the Areca country opens to the view wide levels and ex- on the mountains, and the lowlands are expalm; but there was frequently interspersed a tensive savannas, over which nature has spread posed to the periodical floods, the logs are massy building of bricks and plaster, covered occasional pools of water and small detached Aoated to the principal stream, after which the with a heavy sort of semicircular tiles, common groups of trees, blending with each other the rafts are constructed, and sent onward to the in the pictures of Spanish and Italian scenery, most dissimilar foliage, and sweetly varying sea. The mahogany and cedar are of the best forming deep channels for the rain to run off, the eternal verdure of the plains. The splen- quality on the rocký verge of the mountains, or rather gutters to eject the floods of water dour, the variety, and luxuriance of vegetation, from whence they are brought to the ravines that pour from the clouds with such prodigious and the picturesque disposal of these clumps with great difficulty and labour; and hence it impetuosity, at stated seasons, in these cli and thickets, are beautiful in the extreme. is that the clouded, mottled, and variegated mates. The horizontal curvature of the roof, Trees, in which fruits and flowers are mingled, cabinet woods bear an increased price, not so with overhanging eaves, and massy cornices cluster around the wide-spreading ceiba and much from the scarcity of these specimens of composed of a succession of mouldings,—the the mahogany; and these, in their turn, are timber as from the additional value created by pilasters hy the side of large pannelled door- opposed by the stately grandeur of the pal- the additional labour in bringing them down ways,-and the immense barred windows, were metto, raising its perpendicular stem a hundred for a foreign market. On the richer loams and so perfectly Arabesque that a stranger could feet, then spreading its branches into a wide moister soils of the plains the timber is of more scarce fail immediately to recognize the circle of shadowy plumes. After travelling rapid growth, of a less compact texture, a less Moorish history of the people. This character through scenes where the view has no exten- specific gravity, and of consequence of inferior was still more decidedly impressed by a large, sion beyond the precincts of a forest road, no quality. The vegetable physiology, however, square, flat, terrace-roofed building, that now thing can surpass the pleasurable emotion as far as it has been subjected to observation, and then intermingled with the humbler and experienced on opening upon these continued indicates the quality of the timber in the apbetter sorts of edifices. There was no great pastures, spread for many miles, and bounded pearance of the bark and of the foliage, as diversity in the size of the houses, and I after- only by the distant mountains, as they are well as in the localities to which the various wards found no great variety in their internal seen, in these serene climates, distinct, and trees are assigned by nature, convenience; but the humblest of them im- beautifully blending their meek blue colour pressed the visitor with a sense of their roomy with the bright azure of the horizon. Anicomfort and airy coolness.
mated nature is not wanting to complete the The town extended itself about a mile and interest of the picture. Over these plains, or a half upward from the shore, and as much rather these embellished parks, wander a mul
Sir,-It has been said by a celebrated again along the sea. The houses, though titude of wild horses and cattle, that enjoy, author, who at the same time was no inconsibuilt without any respect to uniformity, had not divide, the empire of these primeval fields derable philosopher, that the proper study of a pretty equal altitude, and great prevailing of nature. Amid the teeming harvests of mankind is man. This is, indeed, a maxim to similarity. The streets, wide and unpaved, the fields, one might run over the objects which all either intuitively or by experience intersected each other at right angles. The enumerated in Bowles's description of South shops, which were generally very large, were American Scenery, for there are " the parrot profusely stored with articles of commerce in filocks darkening the passing sunshine," and and honey, perhaps, one of the cheapest commo
* Bees-wax is an article of extensive commerce, the best-arranged order. Their massy en-“ the chrysomel and the purple butterfly, wantrances, like the gateways of capacious barns, dering amid the clear blue light,” and “ the the wild bees that hive in the hollow trees of the
dities, of Cuba. It is gathered from the combs of and serving for windows as well as doors, hummiug-bird, with twinkling wing, spinning forest.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE TOURIST.
must assent. To detect the secret workings of clerk, for fifteen years, with fidelity and affec-, MORAL AND RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE the human heart ere yet they have declared tion; his hand-writing was bold, ingenuous, and
OF THE CLASSICS. themselves in open action, and to infer, even straight-forward ; his organ of conscientiouswith tolerable accuracy, the future conduct ness as large as a cocoa-nut; but his nose
No. V. from that which has preceded, are advantages forged a bill for £500, and carried off the
GREEK DRAMA. so eminently desirable, in the ordinary dealings money to America. I respect, I entirely, exoand transactions of life, that no one can sup- nerate the individual ; any physiognomist in The epic poetry has been selected for the pose the knowledge of mankind to be useless the world will tell you that it is impossible for
more pointed application of my remarks, from and insignificant, and, therefore, neither can a person to be honest who is the proprietor of the belief that it has had a much greater inthe study of man be idle and unimportant. such a sinister feature; and, therefore, he fluence on the moral sentiments of succeeding
As, then, there are few who have not suffered might as reasonably have been persuaded to ages than all the other poetry of antiquity, by by forming a wrong estimate of their neigh- fight against his stars as to expect to make a
means of its impressive display of individual bours, so also there are few who do not eagerly successful opposition against his nose.
great characters. And it will be admitted that seek for some theory whereby to assist and condly, a flat, prominent nose is an unlucky the moral spirit of the epic poets, taken togeregulate their judgments and observations of feature, and is in general indicative of imbe- ther, is as little in opposition to the Christian characters in general. Hence the origin of cility: the more hooked it is, however, the theory of moral sentiments as that of the colphysiognomy, phrenology, noseology, and all better; but if you should encounter a speci; lective poetry of other kinds. Some just and other ologies and onomies that profess to deter- men that rises in a gradual straight line, and fine sentiments to be found in the Greek tragemine the talents and dispositions by certain flattens towards the extremity, you may rest dies are in the tone of the best of the pagan actual and visible manifestations. Of these, perfectly satisfied that there are no brains in didactic moralists. And they infuse themphrenology and hand-writing-ology are tke that nose. One of my boys
was a victim to a selves more intimately into our minds when most fashionable, because most recently intro- proboscis of this nature. From his earliest thus coming warm in the course of passion duced; but, Sir, I, who am a Septuagenarian, infancy, from his very cradle, I watched the and action, and speaking to us with the emprotest against explosion of every thing that is growing evil with all the solicitude of a fond phasis imparted by affecting and dreadful old, for, if this practice obtain, I feel that I also and anxious parent; and sometimes I own events; but still are of less vivid and penemust be blown up.
it with a blush-I was even guilty of com- trating charm, than as emanating from the But, to be serious, if you should wish to pressing the disastrous feature with my thumb insulated magnificence of such striking and ascertain the character of any particular indi- and finger: but all in vain ; no effort could sublime individual characters as those of epic vidual, the question is, how are you to pro- arrest the course of nature, and day by day I poetry. The mind of the reader does not, ceed? Locke and Bacon would say, Mark could perceive the hideous form becoming from those dramatic scenes, retain for months well the former conduct, of which make a more and more developed. All that remained and years an animated recollection of some patient and accurate analysis ; and, when you for me to do was to labour assiduously at the personage whose name constantly recalls the have thus arrived at first principles, by succes- cultivation of his faculties, and with this view sentiments which he uttered, or with which sive combinations of these elements, you will I devoted more time to his education than I his conduct inspired us. The Greek drama is obtain a perfect solution to the problem. Ano- bestowed on that of all the other members of extremely deficient in both grand and interther exclaims, Get a sheet of his hand-writing; my family put together; but I could never esting characters, in any sense of the epithets if the tails of his Y's are thrown off in a free inoculate the poor boy with a solitary idea, that should imply an imposing or a captivaand sportive manner, be assured that the man is and, even when he was more than eight years ting moral power. Much the greatest number bold and enterprising, of lofty notions, and ex-old, his apprehensions were so dull that he of the persons and personages brought on the cursive imagination; butif they should be made would often make comparisons between things scenc are such as we care nothing about, short, squat, and turned up to the right, the that had no analogy whatever. Thus he otherwise than inerely on account of the cirwriter must be mean, low-minded, cowardly, would say that he liked two slices of fat bacon cumstances in which we see them acting or and matter of fact. Again, Dr. Spurzheim better than fireworks, and that he loved his suffering. With few exceptions they come cries, Feel his head; while Lavater says, Look mother much more than fifty miles. Snub on the stage, and go off, without possessing us in his face. Now, without presuming to decide noses, or noses having a concavity in the bridge, with either admiration or affection. When, on the merits of these various systems, it must aspiring towards the extremity so as to betray therefore, the maxims or reflections which we be evident that physiognomy is by far the most the nostrils, and altogether somewhat resem- hear from them have an impressive effect, it is convenient, and may be employed when there bling a shoe-horn, are for the most part warm less from any commanding quality in the peris no opportunity for the exercise of any of the and vivacious. Damon and Pythias had both sons than from the striking, and sometimes others. A stranger comes to me upon import- such noses ; so had also Tarquin and Appius portentous and fearsul, situations, that the ant business, and I desire some insight into his Claudius ; those of Voltaire and La Sage sentiments have their pathos. There are a few character. I can draw no inference from his touched a little on this genus: in short, it is a characters of greater power over our respect past actions, for I know of none; neither can very desirable nose, although it has been assi- and our sympathies, who draw us, by virtue of I ask him to sit down and write a copy: it milated to a pump-handle. Nor is this the personal qualities, into a willing communion would certainly be most grossly indecent, on a only stigma that has been unjustly fastened on with them, at times, in moral principles and first acquaintance, to set to manipulating his snub noses. It has been said that they are emotions. We are relieved and gratified, after skull; but I may without any impropriety, in- conceited and overbearing, and that they are passing through so much wickedness, misfordeed courtesy demands that should, look at thus formed to render it inconvenient and dif-tune, and inane common-place moralizing, to his conntenance. For these reasons I have ficult to pull them. But this is a very mistaken be greeted with fine expressions of justice, geever been a physiognomist, and I would particu- notion, and a gross and unfeeling libel to boot; nerosity, and fidelity to a worthy purpose, by larly recommend every class of your numerous for it is one thing to be contemptuous and persons whom we can regard as living realizareaders to adopt the same course without supercilious, and another thing to turn up your tions of such virtues. It is like finding among delay. I can now speak from the experience nose. A Grecian nose, produced towards the barbarous nations (as sometimes happens) of nearly fifty years; and, were I to live fifty extremity so as to overhang the upper lip, is a some individual or two eminently and unacyears longer, I should doubtless double the sure sign of sound intellect and an intensity countably above the level of their tribe, whose number of facts I have already acquired. As of the reasoning powers. Such noses adorned intelligence and virtues have, by the contrast an encouragement to those who may feel dis- the countenances of Euclid, Archimedes, So- and the surprise, a stronger attraction than posed to receive my advice, permit me to sub- crates, all the Grecian sages, Bacon, Shak- similar qualities meeting us in a cultivated join a few initiatory remarks. And first, of speare-cum multis aliis-all of whom, it will community. But the delight, sometimes noses ;-have you, my friends, ever seriously be admitted, were certainly no fools.
kindled by sentiments of magnanimous or thought of the great importance of noses ? But, Sir, I am trespassing on your valuable gentle viriue, is exceedingly repressed, and Noscitur naso, says the Latin proverb; and space without any consideration. I had better often quenched, in the reader of the Greek there is a depth of truth in the observation defer the rest of my observations till some drama, by the incessant intrusion of a hideous which we should do well to consider. There future time.
moral barbarism; especially by the implicaare, indeed, many secrets revealed by the nose
Your obedient Servant, tion of the morality with an execrable mythowhich the lips would never acknowledge.
logy. There is an odious interference of “ the Above all things avoid a flattened aquiline
gods," sometimes by their dissentions with one nose. A man of this description once robbed
another, perplexing and confounding the rules me of £500. The man was himself as good a
of human obligation ; often contravening the man as ever breathed; he had served me as
best intentions and efforts--depriving virtue
of all confidence and resource-despising, , to the King's commands, and that no further island, that they do not only abstain from frustrating, or punishing it-turning its exer- attempts will be made illegally to molest the associating theniselves with any such society tions and sacrifices to vanity or disaster ; and ministers of religion, of any sect or persuasion, as aforesaid, but that, according to their seve yet to be the objects of devout homage, as in that free and undisturbed exercise of their ral charges and trusts, they do, to the utmost homage paid with intermingled complaints sacred calling which the constitution sanc- of their respective abilities, and according to and reproaches, extorted from defeated or suf- tions; but, should any persons within your their several trusts, give full effect to the law fering virtue, which is trying to be better than knowledge still persevere in acting in defiance for the inaintenance of toleration, in matters the gods. Nothing can be inore intensely of his Majesty's proclamation, you are ex- of religion, and do co-operate in bringing to dreary than the moral economy as represented pected immediately to report the same to his justice all persons who may offend in the prein much of that drama. Let any one con- Excellency, as he will feel it to be his duty, mises : And we do further admonish all our template it as displayed, for example, in the should they hold any appointments, civil or faithful subjects in our said island, who may Prometheus Chained, or the whole stories of military, under the crown, forthwith to deprive feel themselves aggrieved by any such illegal Edipus and Orestes. On the whole, I have them of the same, that all others concerned in proceedings as aforesaid, that they do abstain conceded much in saying, that a small portion the proceedings may perceive that neither ac- from the adoption of any violent or illegal of the morality of that drama may have a tual violence, nor a repetition of illegal threats, measures for obtaining redress in the preplace with that of the best of the didactic will be allowed to pass unpunished.
mises, as they shall answer the same at their moralists.
“I have the honour to be, Sir, your most peril; it being our firm purpose and resolution obedient humble Servant,
to use the power in us vested by the law, in
(Signed) “C. YORKE, Secretary." such a manner as may secure effectual protecTHE TOURIST.
tion to all our subjects, within our said island,
By the king.- A Proclamation. in the peaceable and orderly discharge of their MONDAY, APRIL 8, 1833. * WILLIAM R.
several lawful callings, and in the enjoyment “Whereas, it hath been represented to us them, or any of them, belonging.
of all the rights, privileges, and franchises to SUPPRESSION OF THE COLONIAL that divers of our subjects, resident in our
“Given at our Court, at St. James, this third CHURCH UNION. Island of Jamaica, have associated themselves
day of December, One Thousand Eight together into certain voluntary societies, under
Hundred and Thirty-two, and in the third The intelligence received from Jamaica by the name of Colonial Church Unions, or other
Year of our Reign. the last packet is a fresh assurance of the de- similar designations, and that public meetings
God Save The King." termination of his Majesty's Government to of such societies have been holden in different protect the missionaries and their converts in parts of our said island, on which occasions By a private letter, accompanying the above the enjoyment of their religious rights. The resolutions have been entered into for the for- communication, we learn something of the outrageous proceedings of the Colonial Union cible removal from our said island of divers temper manifested by the colonists at the aphave been regarded with astonishment and teachers and ministers of religion, dissenting pearance of this proclamation. “In various detestation in this country, and many persons from the doctrine or discipline of the Estab- parts of the island the King's proclamation, have been surprised that the royal authority lished Church of England and Ireland: And with the Governor's despatch, were torn down has not interposed earlier. The infatuation whereas it hath been further represented to us almost as soon as posted ; and placards such of the colonists has been equalled only by their that the several resolutions aforesaid have been as these have been put up in several parishes: malignity. Had they possessed a particle of printed and dispersed throughout the said is--Down with MÚLGRAVE—No SECTARIANS wisdom they must have seen the absurdity of land, to the great disquiet and alarm, not only-INDEPENDENCE OF JAMAICA—No Wungstheir course, and have been induced gladly to of such religious teachers as aforesaid, and of Success TO THE COLONIAL UNIONs—and this retrace their steps. This was their only hope their several congregations, but of all other in the face of the King's proclamation! The of escape; but they have madly persisted, till peaceable and well-disposed inhabitants of our daily papers are full of the abuse of the King forbearance itself has become exhausted. The said island: And whereas such proceedings as and his representative. Our Governor is called unconstitutional character of their proceedings aforesaid are contrary to law, and tend to the the BAPTIST-LOVING EArt—the HEARTLESS was sufficiently obvious; the displeasure of his imminent danger of the public peace in our Whic—the NAMBY-PAMBY Novel WRITER, Majesty's Government was well known; the said island: Now, therefore, we do hereby de- &c. &c. I assure you his Excellency is treated signs of the times warned them of their folly; clare and make known to all whom it inay with as little ceremony as the missionary, short and every wise and virtuous man prayed them concern, that we are purposed and firmly re- of personal violence. Although the proclamato desist. But, deaf to every entreaty, insen- solved, in the exercise of our lawful authority, tion calls on the printers not to publish the sible alike to honour and religion, given over to maintain within our said island the princi- resolutions of the Colonial Unions, iminedito a brutal and reprobate mind, they have ples of religious toleration, and to protect and ately the most abusive articles appeared in the added insult to transgression, and open de defend all our subjects, and others resident papers, laughing at the King, the proclamafiance to secret revolt. It is, therefore, with there, in the public worship of Almighty God, tion, and the Governor; meetings of the Copleasure we learn that the following proclama- according to their own consciences, although lonial Union were advertised, and the solemn tion has been issued; and we trust the same such worship may not be conducted according declaration of July 28th, 1832, republished. spirit which dictated its publication will en- to the doctrines or discipline of the Church of This was only yesterday; what the Governor force its execution.
England and Ireland aforesaid, so long as will do in the business is yet uncertain.” “ CIRCULAR.
such persons shall conform and be obedient One of the newspapers had the audacity to
to the laws: And we do hereby admonish all reprint, in the same paper which contained “ King's-House, 25th Jan., 1833.
persons resident within our said island, that if the proclamation, the very resolutions which "Sir,-) am commanded by his Excellency any attempts shall be made to carry into effect it interdicted, thus putting his Majesty's authe Governor to transmit to you, for promulga- any such resolution as aforesaid, for the forci- thority in direct and open defiance. tion within your parish, the enclosed proclama- ble removal from our said island of any such tion of his Majesty in Council, against certain teachers and ministers as aforesaid; or if any
The Swiss HORNS.--It used to be the custom societies calling themselves Colonial Church such society, or any other persons within our
among the berdsmen of Switzerland to watch the Unions, and, at the same time, to recall to your said island, shall re-publish any such illegal
setting of the sun. When he had already left the recollection that one of his Excellency's first resolution as aforesaid, that then, and in every valleys, and was only visible on the top of the acts upon assuming the administration of the such case, we will enforce against all persons snow-capt mountains, the inhabitant of the cotgovernment was to forward to you the Attor- presuming so to offend, all such pains and pe- tage seized his horn, and, using it like a speakingney-General's opinion on this subject, and im- nalties as they may incur by such their of- trumpet, he turned towards his next neighbours, press upou you the propriety of cautioning all fences: And we do hereby strictly warn and and called out, " Praise ye the Lord ?" The persons within your district against entering admonish our subjects, and all others resident neighbours imitated him in their turn, and thus into any association founded on what was within the said island, that they do abstain the words were repeated from Alp to Alp, and the thus declared to be illegal. All the circum- from associating themselves with any society
name of the Lord was proclaimed and re-echoed stances connected with the origin and objects formed, or which may be formed, for any such for a whole quarter of an bour. A deep and solemn
silence then ensued, until the last trace of the of these societies have been since reported to illegal purpose as aforesaid, as they will anthe King. His Majesty now, in this marked swer the contrary to us, at their peril: And the first herdsman said again,
splendid luminary had entirely disappeared, when
Good night," manner, expresses his displeasure on the sub- we do especially and strictly command all
which was repeated, as before, from all the rocky ject. His Excellency, therefore, trusts that judges, custodes, justices of the peace, and all walls of hill and dale, until every one had with implicit obedience will be henceforward paid our officers, civil and military, in our said ' drawn to his resting-place.
purchaser. The Lord Mayor at length discharged Strong, as he had been taken up without a warrant. Mr. Clarkson tells us, “ As soon as this determination was made known, the parties began to move off. Captain Laird, however, who kept close to Strong, laid hold of him before he had quitted the room, and said aloud, • Then I now seize him as my slave.' Upon this, Mr. Sharp put his hand upon Laird's shoulder, and pronounced these words :- I charge you, in the name of the king, with an assault upon
person of Jonathan Strong, and all these are my witnesses.' Laird was greatly intimidated by this charge, made in the presence of the Lord Mayor and others, and, fearing a prosecution, let his prisoner go, leaving him to be conveyed away by Mr. Sharp.”
Numerous other cases similar to this subsequently occurred, in all of which Mr. Sharp acted a distinguished part. He was known as the friend of the African, and the cry of the oppressed and perishing frequently met his ear. But
though he had been instrumental in freeGRANVILLE SHARP.
ing several poor Africans from the merciGRANVILLE SI9RP, the son of Dr. | other hand, were unwilling to surrender less fangs of their oppressors, he was far Thomas Sharp, and grandson of Arch- their right of property. In this dilemma from being satisfied. Each case had been bishop Sharp, was born in 1734. Of his they laid their case before the Attorney determined by its own circumstances, and early life but few memorials are preserved. and Solicitor-General in 1729, and ob- the decision was greatly dependent on He was educated for the bar, but did not tained as favourable an opinion as they the feelings and interests of the parties by practise ; which is the less to be regretted, could have desired. The encouragement whom it was pronounced. There was, as it afforded an opportunity for the deve- thus given by the law officers of the therefore, no security to Africans ; no lopment of those qualities which add so crown emboldened the planters openly to general principle had been assumed as mild and honourable a lustre to his more seize the persons of the negroes, and to applicable to all similar cases; and Mr. advanced years.
On abandoning the convey them on board of their ships. A Sharp was in consequence uneasy. Dislegal profession, he obtained a place in case of this kind called forth the talents satisfied with the legal opinion which had the ordnance-office, which, however, he and zeal of Mr. Granville Sharp, and been given by the Attorney and Solicitorresigned at the commencement of the thus became mainly instrumental in effect- / general, he applied to Doctor, afterwards American war. He then took chambers ing the abolition of the slave-trade. In Judge, Blackstone, and to several other in the Temple, and devoted himself to a 1765, Mr. David Lisle had brought over eminent lawyers; but, obtaining no satislife of study, the happy fruits of which from Barbadoes Jonathan Strong as his faction, he nobly determined to devote are well known to the philanthropist and servant; and, having used him in so bar- two or three years to the study of the scholar. It was during this period of barous a manner as to have rendered him legal part of the case. His studies were his life he met with the African slave utterly useless, he allowed him to go at prosecuted with success, and the triumphJonathan Strong, whose condition made liberty to avoid the expense of his main- ant result was given to the public in a deep impression on his benevolent mind, tenance. The disabled African applied 1769, in a work entitled, “A Representaand awakened that virtuous determina- to a brother of Mr. Granville Sharp, soli- tion of the Injustice and Dangerous tion on which he continued to act to citing medical advice, and at length was Tendency of Tolerating Slavery in Engthe hour of death. In the early part of cured. During this time Mr. Sharp sup- land.” Our limited space precludes crithe eighteenth century, the West India plied him with money, and on his recovery ticism, or it would be interesting to point planters and merchants were accustomed obtained him a situation.
out the benevolence and legal erudition to bring negroes to this country in the Strong happened one day to meet his which are combined in this publication. capacity of servants, and subsequently to inhuman master, who, finding his health
At length the effect of Mr. Sharp's re-ship them to the colonies. A notion to be recovered, determined on repossess- labours began to be felt, and prepared became prevalent among this degraded ing bim. He was accordingly seized by the way for that decision which secured class that, by being baptized, they se- two officers, without any warrant, and to outraged humanity protection on our cured freedom, and strenuous efforts were was conveyed to the Poultry Compter, soil. Lord Mansfield, there was reason in consequence made to obtain the ad- where he was sold by his master to John to believe, now began to waver; and, ministration of this Christian rite. When Kerr, for thirty pounds. Mr. Sharp seeing no end of the trials which this their masters attempted to send them having been refused admission to him, species of litigation would induce, was back to the land of bondage, the slaves waited on the Lord Mayor, and entreated desirous, as was also Mr. Sharp, of trying were accustomed to fly to their godfathers him to send for Strong, and to hear his the next case on some broad ground, for protection. Much trouble and per- case. A day was accordingly appointed, which should be applicable to all subseplexity were thus induced. The merchants when Mr. Sharp attended on behalf of quent ones. When, therefore, the case and planters knew not what to do. They the slave; and David Laird, captain of of James Somerset occurred, in 1769, it were afraid of outraging public feeling the vessel in which it was intended to was agreed to proceed on the general by a scizure of their slaves; and, on the send out Strong, on behalf of Kerr, the principle, “ Whether a slave, by coming
into England, became free.” The case parishes, threatened the court at Whitehall, ( the churchyard was full, in the outskirts of the was argued at three different sittings, in and, in defiance of every precaution, stole its parish. Of the hardened and brutal conduct January, February, and May, 1772, and way into the city. A general panic ensued ; of the men to whom this duty was committed,
men taken from the refuse of society, and lost the opinion of the judges was subse - the royal family followed ; and then all
, who to all sense of morality or decency, instances quently taken on the pleadings. The valued their personal safety more than the were related, to which it would be difficult glorious result was, that as soon as ever considerations of home and interest, prepared to find a parallel in the annals of human deany slave set his foot on English territory, to imitate the example. For some weeks the pravity. he became free.
tide of emigration flowed from every outlet The disease generally manifested itself by From this period Mr. Sharp contem- towards the country ; it was checked at first the usual febrile symptoms of shivering, nausea, plated the abolition of the slave-trade. by the refusal of the lord mayor to grant cer- head-ache, and delirium. In some, these affecAs he had delivered his country from the tificates of health, and! by the opposition of the tions were so mild, as to be mistaken for a slight
neighbouring townships, which rose in their and transient indisposition. The victim saw not, fearful peril of harbouring slavery within
own defence, and formed a barrier round the or would not see, the insidious approach of his its coasts, so he was deeply solicitous to devoted city. free it from the guilt of this most mon
on- 'e The absence of the fugitives, and the conse- sudden faintness came on, the maculæ, the strous traffic. He therefore cordialiy as- quent cessation of trade and breaking up of fatal “tokens” appeared on his breast, and sociated himself with Mr. Clarkson and establishments, served to aggravate the cala- within an hour life was extinct. But, in most other enlightened philanthropists, and mity. It was calculated that forty thousand cases, the pain and delirium left no room for became Chairman of the Committee number of artisans and labourers thrown out of carbuncles arose ; if these could be made to
servants had been left without a home, and the doubt. On the third or fourth day, buboes or formed in 1787 for the Abolition of the employment was still more considerable. It is suppurate, recovery might be anticipated ; if Slave-trade. To the close of his life he true, that the charity of the opulent seemed to they resisted the efforts of nature, and the skill remained the consistent advocate of the keep pace with the progress of distress. The of the physician, death was inevitable. The principles he had early avowed. His king subscribed the weekly sum of £1000; the sufferings of the patient often threw them into time, property, and personal labours were city of £600; the queen-dowager, the Arch- paroxysms of frenzy. They burst the bands by consecrated liberally to this noble object, | bishop of Canterbury, the Earl of Craven, and which they were confined to their beds; they and secured him the admiration of an ex- the amount of their benefactions; and the they ran naked into the streets, and plunged
the lord mayor, distinguished themselves by precipitated themselves from the windows; tensive circle; while his private virtues magistrates were careful to ensure a constant into the river. commanded the veneration and love of supply of provisions in the market; yet the Men of thestrongest minds were lostin amazehis more intimate friends. He died July families that depended on casual relief for the ment, when they contemplated this scene of 6th, 1813, in the 79th year of his age. means of subsistence were necessarily subjected woe and desolation; the weak and the creHis library was very extensive, and he to privations, which rendered them more liable dulous became the dupes of their own fears possessed a curious collection of Bibles, to receive, and less able to subdue, the con- and imaginations. Tales the most improbable,
tagion. The mortality was at first confined and predictions the most terrific, were circuwhich he presented to the British and chiefly to the lower classes, carrying off, in a lated"; numbers assembled at different cemeForeign Bible Society. His principal larger proportion, the children than the adults, teries to behold the ghosts of the dead walk works are, “Remarks on the Uses of the the females than the men. But, by the end of round the pits in which their bodies had been Definitive Article in the Greek Testa- June, so rapid was the diffusion, so destructive deposited; and crowds believed that they saw ment," &c.; “ A Short Treatise on the were the ravages of the disease, that the civil in the heavens a sword of flame, stretching English Tongue;" “ Remarks on the authorities deemed it time to exercise the from Westminster to the Tower. To add to Prophecies ; " " Treatise on the Slave powers with which they had been invested by their terrors came the fanatics, who felt themTrade;" “ On Duelling;” “On the Law and ordering of persons infected with the of these, in a state of nudity, walked through
an act of James T., “for the charitable relief selves inspired to act the part of prophets. One of Nature and Principles of Action in plague." 1. They divided the parishes into the city, bearing on his head a pan of burning Man;" tracts on “ The Ilebrew Lan- | districts, and allotted to each district a compe- coals, and denouncing the judgments of God guage;" “ Illustrations of the Sixty- tent number of officers, under the denomination on its sinful inhabitants; another, assuming eighth Psalm."
of examiners, searchers, nurses, and watch the character of Jonah, proclaimed aloud, as men. 2. They ordered that the existence of he passed, “ Yet forty days, and London shall
the disease, wherever it might penetrate, should be destroyed ;” and a third might be met, GRAPHIC ACCOUNT OF THE PLAGUE be made known to the public by a red cross, sometimes hy day, sometimes by night, advancOF LONDON.
one foot in length, painted on the door, with ing with a hurried step, and exclaiming, with
the words, “ Lord, have merey on us!" placed a deep sepulchral voice, “Oh, the great and At another time, the report of such a ric- above it. From that moment the house was dreadful God!” tory (over the Dutch fleet in 1665) would have closed; all egress for the space of one month During the months of July and August, the been received with the most enthusiastic de- was inexorably refused; and the wretched in- weather was sultry, the heat more and more monstrations of joy; but it came at a time mates were doomed to remain under the same oppressive. The eastern parishes, which at when the spirits of men were depressed by one roof, communicating death one to another. Of first had been spared, became the chief seat of of the most calamitous visitations ever expe- these, many sunk under the horrors of their pestilence, and the more substantial citizens, rienced by this or any other nation. In the situation; many were rendered desperate. They whom it had hitherto respected, suffered in depth of the last winter, two or three isolated eluded the vigilance, or corrupted the fidelity, common with their less opulent neighbours. cases of plague had occurred in the outskirts of the watchmen; and by their escape, in- In many places, the regulations of the magisof the metropolis. The fact excited alarm, stead of avoiding, served only to disseminate trates could no longer be enforced. The and directed the attention of the public to the the contagion. 3. Provision was also made for nights did not suffice for the burial of the weekly variations in the bills of mortality. On the speedy interment of the dead. In the day- dead, who were now borne in coffins to their the one hand, the cool temperature of the air, time, officers were always on the watch to with- graves at all hours of the day; and it was inand the frequent changes in the weather, were draw from public view the bodies of those who human to shut up the dwellings of the infected hailed as favourable circumstances; on the expired in the streets ; during the night the poor, whose families must have perished through other, it could not be concealed that the num- tinkling of a hell, accompanied with the glare want, had they not been permitted to go and ber of deaths, from whatever cause it arose, was of links, announced the approach of the pest- seek relief. London presented a wide and progressively on the advance. In this state of cart, making its round to receive the victims heart-rending scene of misery and desolation. suspense, alternately agitated by their hopes of the last twenty-four hours. No coffins were Rows of houses stood tenantless
, and open to and fears, men looked to the result with the prepared; no funeral service was read; no the winds; others, in almost equal numbers, most intense anxiety; and at length, about inourners were permitted to follow the remains exhibited the red cross flaming on the doors. the end of May, under the influence of a of their relations or friends. The cart pro- The chief thoroughfares, so lately trudden hy warmer sun, and with the aid of a close and ceeded to the nearest cemetery, and shot its the feet of thousands, were overgrown with stagnant atmosphere, the evil burst forth in all burden into the common grave, a deep and grass. The few individuals who ventured its terrors. From the centre of St. Giles's, the spacious pit, capable of holding some scores of abroad walked in the middle ; and, when they infection spread with rapidity over the adjacent bodies, and dug in the churchyard, or, when met, declined on opposite sides, to avoid the