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We fall not from virtue, like Vulcan from hea. ven, in a day. Bad dispositions require some time to grow into bad habits; bad habits must undermine good, and often-repeated acts make us habitually evil; so that by gradual depravations, and while we are but staggeringly evil, we are not left without parentheses of consideration, thought. ful rebukes, and merciful interventions, to recal us to ourselves.--Sir Thomas Brown.

An elevated genius employed in little things appears like the sun in his evening declination ; he remits his splendour, but retains bis magnitude, and pleases more though he dazzles less.-LONGINUS.

Swearing is properly a superfuity of naughtiness, and can only be considered as a sort of pepper.corn rent, in acknowledgment of the devil's right of superiority.- Robert Hall.

Books are not absolutely dead things, but do THE FLYING SQUIRREL.

contain a potency of life in them to be as active as that soul was whose progeny they are ; nay,

they do preserve, as in a vial, the purest efficacy This curious animal is one of eleven this apparatus assists them in leaping

and extract'on of that living intellect that bred species of the squirrel, or sciurus ; so from bough to bough, which they fre them.-MILTON. called from two Greek words, which sig- quently do at the distance of ten yards, - We should be wary, therefore, what persecupify “ tail” and “ shade," and which de- yet the animal can scarcely be said to fly,

tion we raise against the living labours of public

men—how we spill that seasoned life of man presignate the use of its tail as a kind of as it can only move in one direction, and

served and stored up in books-since we see a umbrella. It inhabits the birch-woods of even then cannot keep an even line, but kind of homicide may be thus committed, someFinland, Lapland, and other Arctic re- sinks considerably before it can reach the times a martyrdom, and, if it extend to the whole gions, and is also found in Asia, in the place it aims at. Sensible, however, of

impression, a kind of massacre, whereof the execu

01 tion ends not in the slaying an elemental life, but woods of the Uralian Chain, and in vari- this incapacity, the squirrel, with an strikes at that ethereal and fifth essence, the ous parts of North America. It lives amazing degree of sagacity, mounts the breath of reason itself, and slays an immortality principally on the shoots and buds of the higher on the tree from which it springs | rather than a life.- 1b. birch and pine, generally in solitude, ex- in proportion to the distance it wishes to cept at one period of the year, and builds reach, and thus seldom fails to accomplish its nest of the softest mosses, in the hol- its object. The various endowments of

RIVER OF VINEGAR. lows of trees. at a considerable height | this animal enable it to live apparently in / IN South America, near Popayan, is a river

called, in the language of the country, Rio from the ground. It is principally distin- a state of security and happiness : the

Vinegre. It takes its source in a very elevated guished from the better-known species of great rapidity of their movements defend

chain of mountains, and, after a subterranean squirrel by a lateral membrane extending ing them from the attacks of less nimble progress of many miles, it re-appears, and from the fore to the hind legs, and which animals, and the similarity of their colour forms a magnificent cascade upwards of 300 so far serves the purpose of a wing or sail to that of the trees on which they are feet in height. When a person stands beneath as to have conferred the name of the found causing them to be discerned with this point he is speel

und causing them to be discerned with this point he is speedily driven away by a very flying squirrel. great difficulty, and so preserving them

fine shower of acid water, which irritates the

eyes. M. Boussingali, wishing to ascertain It is, however, to be observed, that this from the attack of rapacious birds.

the cause of this phenomenon, analysed the term is improperly applied; for although

water of the river, and found, among other substances, sulphuric and hydrochloric acids. The following is the result of the analysis :Sulphuric acid, 0,00110; hydrochloric acid,

0,00091 ; alumine, 0,00040; chalk, 0,00013; THE POISONOUS PROPERTIES OF THE | ladies at Cambridge, who were rendered un-soda, 0,00012 ;

soda, 0,00012; silex, 0,00023; oxyde of iron SEEDS OF THE LABURNUM. well by steeping the seeds of laburnum in

and magnesia, traces. their mouths, to the end of passing a needle the It is generally believed that the seeds of more easily through them, in threading them

LONDON :-Published by J. Crisp, at No. 27, the laburnum (cytisus laburnum) are very into necklaces. The ladies were in age about

Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row. poisonous, and, in consequence, children are eighteen and twenty-three, and the symptoms frequently warned against eating them. Their of their illness were headache and slight | Where all Communications for the Editor are to be poisonous quality is also mentioned in some vomiting; after vomiting, they soon recovered.

addressed. botanical works; but, as no notice is taken of The seeds of laburnum are kidney-shaped,

Town Agents. this opinion in Dr. Christison's Treatise on dark brown, hare naturally a polished exterior, B. Steil, Paternoster-row, G. Cowie, Strand Poisons, or in Dr. Beck's Medical Jurispru- and, when perfectly ripe and dry, are so hard W. Strange, ditto

Hewitt, ditto

G. Berger, Holywell-street, Clements, Pulteney street dence, it may be of some importance to men- that a needle is not easily forced through .BS


Purkess, ('ompton-street tion the following circumstance :-On Satur- | them; on this last account it is that they are Arch, Cornhill

Lloyd, slayes.couri day last (September 15, 1832), I was called to occasionally soaked previously to threading

Country Agents. see three children, of the ages two and a half, them, but, I believe, not if the needle can be

Birmingham, J. Drake Leeds, Baynes and Co. five, and about seven respectively, who, having passed through them without it, as soaking is

Boston, J. Noble

Ditto, Knight been sent into the garden to amuse themselves, deemed to lessen, somewhat, the brightness of Bristol, Westley and Co. Lincoln, W. Peck

their natural polish. were induced to eat a small quantity of the

As, too, the threading

Cambridge, Mrs. Sandifer Liverpool, Willmer and
Carlisle, C. Thurnam

Smith seeds of the laburnum, which they mistook for is frequently begun before the soaking is found Chatham, P. Youngman' Manchester, R. Robinson mouse peas. Very shortly afterwards, all the to be necessary, the moistening them in the Cheltenham, J. Gray Ditto, W. Ellerby

Derby, Wilkins and Son Newcastle, Chambers children were taken very sick, and vomited warm saliva is a very natural resource for pro

Edinburgh, J. Wardlaw Nortdich, Jarrold and Sun repeatedly, the youngest and the oldest with ducing the softening required at the instant. | Falmouth, J. Philp

Nottingham, C. Wright less violence than the other. After vomiting, Loudon's Magazine of Natural History. Glasgow, G. Gallic

Stroud, W. Harmer

. Stephenson Worcester, J. R. Hunt they were soon relieved, and in the evening Communications from Dr. G. Johnston and Ditto, J. Noble

Ditio, H. Deighton had recovered their usual health and spirits. | J. D. About thirteen years ago, I knew two young

Printed by J. Haddon and Co., 27, Ivy Lane,

Hull. W


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“ — And yon shrine, where fame is like a regular detail inconsistent with the tion are within our reach, to which we A spectral resident-whose pallid beam,

space which we can allot to the subject. need not refer the notice of our readers In shape of moonlight, hovers o'er the pileMakes this a sacred part of Albion's isle."

On the other hand, the building, in its It has been said, that the building of Byron.

present state, is so replete with objects of the Abbey Church of St. Peter, West

engrossing interest, and so richly fur-minster, is “ involved in mists too dense Our notices of this edifice, whether nished with the most valuable contribu- for the sun of antiquarian research to historical or descriptive, must of necessity tions of art, as equally to forbid us to dissipate.” It is perfectly true that its be exceedingly limited and defective. Its enter on a general detail, and to force us early history is sufficiently crowded with history, on the one hand, extends over so to a very scanty selection. In making preposterous legends, fables, and dreams. many centuries, and involves so many this we shall freely avail ourselves of But, in spite of all the trickery of its interesting events, as to render any thing whatever sources of authentic informa- reverend possessors, its chronology has

been pretty accurately determined. It. When the chapel had been completed, much dilapidated. This work was comwas founded about the year 604, by Se- Henry III. resolved that the remains of menced in 1809, under the direction of bert, king of the East Saxons. If, how- the Confessor should be removed into the Mr. James Wyatt, and has been comever, we could rely on dreams, and par- new shrine in the ehapel ; and, says pleted at an expense of about £42,000. ticularly on those of monks, we might | Neale, in his excellent history of this | The external appearance of the Abbey is quote the authority of Wulsinus, that the Abbey,“ in the sight of all the principal not strictly uniform, but the appearance Apostle St. Peter himself had a chapel or nobility and gentry of the land, who were of the west front is extremely magnificent. oratory on the site of the magnificent pile assembled here, he and his brother Richard The gate is wrought with much delicacy, dedicated to him. The vision of Wul- carried the chest containing St. Edward's and the light and elegant screen corressinus was turned to some advantage by remains, upon their shoulders, to the new ponds with the large window it supports, the succeeding monks, who added a new shrine, wherein it was deposited with vast The chapel of Henry VII. is a magnifilegend of St. Peter's' crossing the water ceremony and exultation. The princes, cent specimen of ecclesiastical architecone stormy night to consecrate the church, Edward and Edmund, together with the ture, 'which, from the beauty of the deand rewarding the fisherman who ferried Earl of Warren, the Lord Philip Basset, sign, and the rich and elaborate manner him over Thorney (water which sur- and others of the nobility, assisted to in which it is executed, proves that it rounded the church, the site of which support the chest ; and we are informed, must have been the work of no ordinary was called Thorney Island), with a mira- | by Matthew of Westminster, that, on artists and artificers. The chapel is culous draught of salmon, assuring him seeing it exalted, the devils were instantly nearly square ; the east end forming five and his fellow-watermen that they should cast out of two possessed persons, who sides of an octagon. When viewed exnever want fish, provided they would give had come purposely (the one from Ire- teriorly, it presents a light and airy strucone-tenth of what they caught to the land, the other from Winchester), to re- ture ; and the interior is of singular newly-consecrated church. To those who ceive benefit on the day of St. Edward's | beauty and symmetry, though much disficonsider the influence of the Catholic removal !”

gured by the stalls and flags of the priesthood, it will not excite much sur- During the reign of Henry III. and Knights of the Bath, who are installed prise that the tale was believed, and that, | Edward I., the eastern parts of the nave here. for several centuries, the monks of West- and the aisles were rebuilt, and finished | Edward the Confessor's Chapel, situminster fed on the offerings of the Thames in 1307. To Edward II., Edward III., ated at the east end of the choir, contains fishermen. What was at first solicited as and Richard II., we are indebted for the several royal tombs, as well as the celea benevolence, in the course of time was Great Cloisters, Abbot's House, and the | brated coronation chair, in which is the claimed as a right, so that, in the year principal monastic buildings. The western still more celebrated stone, related by 1231, the monks brought an action at parts of the nave and aisles were rebuilt | monkish tradition to have been Jacob's law against the minister of Rotherithe, in by successive monarchs, between the pillow. This stone is placed within the which they compelled him to give up years 1340 and 1483. The west front frame-work of the chair, and was brought to them one-half of the tithe of all salmon and the great window were built by those from Scone, in Scotland, in 1267, by Edcaught in his parish.

| rival princes, Richard III. and Henry ward I. It is a remarkable instance of From the foundation of the Abbey to VII.; and it was the latter monarch who the force of superstition, that this stone the time of Edward the Confessor its his- commenced the magnificent chapel which has been the subject of an express article tory is very obscure ; but this pious prince, bears his name, and which was finished in a treaty of peace, as well as of a conin consequence of an injunction from by his son and successor. The first stone ference, between Edward III. and David Leo IX., who had absolved him from a of this chapel was laid on the 24th of II., king of Scotland. By the treaty, it rash vow, appropriated one-tenth of his January, 1502-3, by the Abbot Islip; was agreed to give the stone up to Scotproperty, in “ gold, silver, cattle, and all and although the king did not live to see land, and in the conference it was reother possessions," to the rebuilding of the work finished, yet, after amply en- solved that the king, after being crowned the 'Abbey. It was commenced in 1050, dowing the Abbey, he gave Islip £5000 in England, should repair to Scotland, and finished fifteen years afterwards. | towards completing it, only a few days and be crowned king at Scone; but neiThis king endowed it very liberally, and before his decease. Although Henry VIII. ther of these resolutions were carried into enriched it with (what at that time was finished the chapel, yet he did not spare effect. highly attractive) numerous relics, the the Abbey from the general dissolution of A prophetic distich, said to have been authenticity of which, in those days, it the monasteries, nor could an existence cut on this stone, by King Kenneth, is was not the custom to dispute, though of upwards of nine centuries successfully no doubt the cause of the Scottish attachsome of them are sufficiently startling. I plead in its behalf.

ment to it; since, translated, it means, Among these relics, the monkish writers From the time of Henry VIII, to the

"Where'er this stone is found, or Fate's decree is assure us, were part of the manger in accession of the House of Brunswick,

vain, which Christ was born, the frankincense little appears to have been done to im- | The Scots the same shall hold, and there supremely offered to him by the Eastern Magi, a prove the Abbey; but, on the contrary, reign." splinter of the table of our Lord, a crust it suffered the profanation of the soldiery There are several other chapels in of the bread that he blessed, and a slab during the civil wars of Charles I., when various parts of the building, all of which of the wall of the prison in which he was Sir Robert Harlow, the bigot, who was contain the tombs of some distinguished confined.

employed to denolish the venerable Cross persons. The south transept, commonly From the time of the Confessor to the at Cheapside, broke into Henry the known by the name of Poet's Corner, is reign of Henry III., little appears to have Seventh's Chapel, demolished the altar perhaps the most attractive spot, in this been done to the Abbey ; but, in the stone, and committed other outrages. respect, which the Abbey contains. It vear 1220, the latter monarch laid the During the reigns of George I. and would be impossible to describe all the first stone of a new chapel, in honour of George II, the great west window was | monuments here which deserve notice, the Virgin Mary, on the site now occu- rebuilt, and the western towers com- and even to enumerate their names would pied by Henry the Seventh's chapel ; but pleted ; but it is to their immediate suc- be but to furnish a long and uninteresting little was done to the building until the cessors that Westminster Abbey is most catalogue. Many of the inscriptions they year 1245, when it was more actively pro- indebted, in the restoration of the exte- bear are distinguished by a degree of secuted, and that with a prodigality of rior of Henry the Seventh's Chapel to its pathos, simplicity, and terseness, which expense which at the period was unparal- original beauty, after it had become so constitutes the perfection of this species Jeled.

of composition. The short epitaph upon would hardly be too strong to do justice would be open to receive English and other Oliver Goldsmith, from the pen of Dr. I to its merits. The genius that could con- | foreigners of distinction.

| Climbing, says he, one of those enormous Johnson, will readily occur to the minds: ceive, and the talents that could execute, lat

statues which ornament the peristyle, I placed of many as illustrating this last remark. so noble a monument of art, will for ever

myself above it, like Anchises of old, upon the Few sentences, perhaps, though dictated | rank the name of Ronbiliac in the highest shoulders of Æneas. by the highest admiration and regard, class of human intelligence.”

It is impossible to describe the scene which could enclose in so small a compass such! There are some singular contrasts pre- | presented itself before me; and, were it othera comprehensive eulogy as that upon the sented by the monumental inscriptions wise, imagination is incapable of conceiving

so sublime a spectacle. here, which naturally suggest how few

The inhabitants literary character of Dr. Goldsmith :

of the whole earth seemed assembled in one Nullum genus literarum quod non teti- words are sufficient to immortalize real

vast multitude; while the murmur of innugit ; nullum tetigit quod non ornavit.” | merit, and how many are requisite to set

merable tongues, in different languages, as* There was no order of literature which oft none. Dryden's monument, for ex- cended like the roaring of an ocean. Confusion he did not touch ; and none that he ample, only bears the name, “ J. DRY could scarcely be greater in the plains of touched which he did not adorn.”

DEN," under his bust, with these few Shinar, when the descendants of Noah fled Among the monuments distinguished words in Latin : “ Born 1632, died May from the superstructure of their ignorance and

folly. As far as the eye could reach, the tops for their beauty and interest may be men-1, 1700;” and that to the memory of

of all the houses in Rome were laden with tioned that to Lord Chatham, containing a Sheridan might easily escape notice, the

spectators. A single square, in the spacious statue of the great senator in an attitude of only memorial of him

nly memorial of him being a black area below, was preserved free from the multi

being a black debate, and various emblematical female marble slab which covers his remains ; | tude by the whole body of the pope's military, figures. It was executed by Bacon, and while others, whose names are seen al- who had formed themselves into a quadrangle. the success of the artist has been justly most for the first time on their tombstone, Every other spot was occupied; and so closely and happily expressed by Cowper : are introduced to posterity with an epic were the people united, that their heads in

motion resembled the waves of the sea. The - "Bacon there taph which might be mistaken for a

variety of colours blended together, and, glit· Gives more than female beauty to a stone, history.

tering in the sun, produced an effect of equal And Chatham's eloquence to marble lips.”

There is, nevertheless, an irresistible novelty and splendour. It surpassed all I had Another very striking monument is that interest connected with this place. The ever seen or imagined ; nor do I believe any to Fox, by Westmacott. He is repre- spectator cannot but feel that he is country upon the globe ever produced its sented as dying in the arms of his coun- | walking among the monuments, and parallel.

While I was occupied in the contemplation try. His form and features are depicted treading on the dust, of the greatest

of this amazing spectacle, a loud flourish of with great fidelity, and the expression of of his countrymen and of his species. By

trumpets from two opposite sides of the area suffering in his countenance can scarcely that curious anachronism peculiar to

announced the approach of cavalry. First fail to awaken a painful sympathy in the

| public cemeteries, his imagination is at entered the nobles, in habits of green and gold, mind of the spectator. . Near him is seen once brought into immediate contact with [mounted upon sumptuous chargers, who came a negro, whose anxious and grateful ex those men whose names have illustrated | prancing into the centre of the military quapression is intended to commemorate the the pages of history at different and dis

| drangle. Other troops followed ; and the political achievement which of itself would tant periods, and a feeling is excited

| whole corps, saluting the balcony over the

| grand portals of St. Peter's, from which his suffice to attach to him the lasting vene nearly corresponding in character with

| holiness was to appear, arranged themselves in ration of posterity : we mean the aboli- that eagerness for posthumous celebrity tion of the slave-trade. There is one which distinguished and actuated the | At this instant a bell tolled; and, throughmore monument which deserves some

« mighty dead” around him-a desire out the whole of that vast multitude, such a thing more than a mere casual mention ; factitiously to extend the limits of his silence prevailed as one would have thought this is to the memory of Joseph Gas existence by a temporary and imaginary it impossible to produce without a miracle. coigne Nightingale, Esq., and the Lady intercourse with them. We cannot but

Every tongue was still, and every eye directed

toward the balcony. Suddenly the majestic Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Washing admire that national taste and sentiment

and venerable figure of the pope, standing erect ton, Earl Ferriers. The design of this

which has crowded this spot with so many upon a lofty and self-moving throne, appeared masterpiece of art (the last ever executed affecting associations; for though we can- | through clouds of incense burning around by Ronbiliac) is singularly pathetic. It | not more powerfully realize the equal- / him. As he advanced, his forin became more consists principally of three figures in sta izing power of death than by visiting the and more distinct. All behind was darkness tuary marble, representing Lady Night spot where the ill-fated Queen of Scots

and mystery. The most costly robes decorated

his body; a gorgeous tiara glittered on his ingale and her husband, and the personi- sleeps beside her vindictive and perse

brow; while enormous plumes were seen fication of death. The latter is represented cuting sister, where Pitt and Fox moulder

waving on all sides of the throne. As he apas a complete skeleton, in shroud-like within a few paces of one another, and

proached the light, with elevated front and habiliments, raising his fatal dart to pierce the bitterest enemies lie together, and uplifted hands, he called aloud on the Al. the bosom of the lady, who appears sinking

“ in their death are not divided ;" yet mighty. Instantly the bare-headed multitude to the grave in the last stage of debility. here also we most fully appreciate that fell prostrate. Thousands, and tens of thon

| sands, kuelt before him. The military, with Her husband is seen rushing forward, general tendency of the human mind to extending his right arm to ward off the preserve intellectual greatness and moral

a crash, grounded their arms; and every sol

| dier was seen with his face to the earth. A attack of the monster, while with his left worth in perpetual remembrance, and

voice, which penetrated the remotest corner of be clasps his dying wife to his breast, thus acquaint ourselves with some of the the area, then pronoun

the area, then pronounced the benediction. whose languid helplessness beautifully noblest features of our nature, while con | Extending his arms, and waving them over contrasts with the energetic and muscular versing the most closely with the monu the people, he implored a blessing upon all attitude of her husband. The figure of ments of its frailty.

the nations of the earth. Iminediately the death is distinguished by wonderful ana

cannons roared, trumpets screamed, music

played, all the hells in Rome sounded, the guns tomical correctness, and is represented in

from St. Angelo poured forth their thunder: an attitude of eagerness and resolution.


more distant artillery repeated the signal, and It is almost impossible,” says a writer

the intelligence became conveyed from fortress in describing this monument, “ to speak


to fortress throughout the remotest provinces of such a masterly work without a degree De. CLARKE received a card of invitation,

of the empire.- From Olter's Life of E. D. of admiration bordering-upon-enthusiasm ; from the Major Duomo of his Holiness, pur

on, Clarke. vet even the language of enthusiasm itself | porting that his apartments near the Vatican

disgrace. Happily for the interests of huma- | all, whether it punish or protect. The rights of THE TOURIST.

nity, the formidable armament of France only property are inviolable, and every individual has

served to proclaim to Europe, the estimation the free and uncontrolled power of disposing as MONDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1833. in which the negro held his freedom, and the he pleases of whatever belongs to him. The syssagacity and courage with which he could de

Item is becoming general of dividing the land into fend it. But the effects of this struggle were

| small allotments, where the Haytian farmers culTHE SAFETY OF IMMEDIATE EMAN

tivate provisions and other articles, and rear cattle, long felt. In the latter part of it, exterminaCIPATION.

pigs, poultry, &c., for their own use, or for sale. tion rather than conquest was the object of

| Labourers are hired by the day or week, weekly the French. Neither sex nor age was spared No. III.

| labourers being paid on Saturday. On large -cultivation was driven from the plains, and estates contacts are entered into between the

every means employed to spread famine and proprietors and labourers, for a certain term, of ST. DOMINGO. disease through the island.

one, three, or five years, renewable with mutual "Is it to be wondered at, that, under these cir consent ; one fourth, and latterly, as will be seen cumstances, Hayti should have ceased to export

hereafter, one half of the produce being secured Continued from p. 181. tropical produce? And how perfectly absurd,

to the labourers, who are also fed from the estate, therefore, are all the reasonings which by a com.

and who have Saturday and Sunday entirely to This state of things continued till the peace

themselves, with garden grounds to cultivate on of Amiens in 1802, when Buonaparte fitted

parison of exports from that island in 1789 with
those of 1805, would endeavour to establish the

those days if they think proper; while the proout a powerful armament for the purpose of

inaptitude of a black population for productive in prietor or renter pays all outgoings except labour, reducing the negroes of St. Domingo to their dustry? To secure the means of subsistence, in

and provides for medical attendance and medicines, former state of slavery. We have seen, that case of another invasion, and to defeat that inva

and for the care of children. The legal punishup to this period no evil consequences had fol- sion, if attempted, become now the grand objects

ments for offenders are fine and imprisonment. lowed Emancipation. The negroes were of Haytian solicitude. It was made a fundamen

Corporal punishments are by law wholly abolished.

Men and women labour together without distincpeaceable and the colony was flourishing. It tal law of the state, that the moment an enemy was yet subject to France, under whose autho-should begin to debark on the shores of the island,

tion ; but the men in larger proportion than the

women, who are generally charged with the duties rity Toussaint held command. This state of that moment every town on the coast and every building on the plain should disappear, and the

of the kitchen. things is a practical refutation of the state

The labourers are punishable, by ments of our opponents, respecting the ruinous whole of the population betake themselves, the

fine and imprisonment, for not fulfilling their coneffects which will be realized in our colonies

tracts; or for absenting themselves without leave, women to their mornes, and the men to arms. And this state of uncertainty and peril, necessarily

except on Saturdays and Sundays, from the if slavery be immediately abolished. It shows fatal to all schemes and efforts of prospective in

estate on which they have contracted to labour; that the negro mind is competent to act with dustry, continued to operate, in a greater or less

or for changing their place of abode without a discretion, amid the new circumstances to degree, until the year 1826, when France first re

passport; and they are prohibited from keeping which freedom would give rise,—that the or- pounced her right to attempt again the subjugation

shops or exercising trades without a licence, as, dinary laws of human conduct are as applica- of her ancient colony.

indeed, all persons are, such licences being, in ble to the African as to the inhabitants of Now, in all this long interval, what induce

Hayti, one main source of revenue. Europe. If the immense population of St. ment was there to expeod capital in re-erecting

• Such is the general condition of the agriculsugar works, and in renewirig, on the plains of Domingo could pass, with safety to themselves

tural labourers of Hayti in point of law, even and to the white inhabitants, from slavery to this island, those large agricultural establishments

according to the evidence to be found in the which had been so completely destroyed? As for

official report of Mr. Mackenzie. freedom, without the slightest preparatory

He nowhere measures having been

ventures to tell us that they are over-worked or instituted, how

capital, inderd, it had no existence. The very

preposterous are the fears which the colonists afmeans and instruments required for the culture,

under-fed. Indeed, the very contrary may be | preparation, manufacture, and safe keeping of ex

inferred from the whole of his writings. We hear fect, of the consequences to themselves and portable produce were annihilated, and had now

not one syllable from him of their want or disthe negroes, from the emancipation of the as it were to be recreated ; and was not this the

tress, or of the severity of exaction or the cruelty latter! If in the midst of a civil war, when very state of all others in which we might have

of treatment to which they are subject. But if, they had been encouraged in pillage and mur- expected to see realized those prophetic wailings

turning our eyes from the agricultural class, we der by their masters, they could profit by the of returning barbarism which we are lold must in

take a view of the general state of society in this bestowment of freedom, with how much more fallibly accompany negro freedom? But what is

community of emancipated slaves, we shall find ertainty may we calculate on the happy ef- the historical fact? It is, that in spite of all the

that they have made such advances in the im. fects which would issue from a similar Boon | ruin which had thus overspread the island ; in

provement of their social and political institutions

as infallibly indicate great progress in the arts of in our comparatively thinly populated islands! | spite of the innumerable discouragements which

civilized life. combined to obstruct industrious effort, and the It is in vain to reason with those who refuse

The documents produced by Mr. employment of capital in prospective plans of agrito admit the soundness of such an inference.

Mackenzie prove that Hayti possesses a regular cultural improvement; in spite of all the disor

constitution of government; a code of laws evi. But to return to our narrative. General | ganising and demoralising circumstances in which

dently founded on good sense and justice; an Vincent, a military officer and proprietor of St. I the people of Hayti have since been placed ; they

adequate administrative system of jurisprudence ; Domingo, arrived in France with a communi- have coniinued to struggle with their difficulties,

a fiscal establishment which appears to be well cation from Toussaint, just at the moment of and have risen superior to them ; they have con.

regulated and effective ; a well-disciplined military the peace of Amiens. He instantly repaired tinued to improve their social and civil condition,

force; and a police which seems to give security to Buonaparte, then first consul, and endea- and, instead of declining in civilization, as we

to person and property. The whole of its laws, voured to dissuade him from the prosecution were assured would infallibly be the case, they

too. are clearly and intelligibly expressed, so as

to be level to the capacity of the most ignorant, of his design, assuring him that he could not have been progressively advancing in it, not only

and, being printed and universally circulated, are succeed, and that the peaceable and prosper

since 1826, when their independence was declared,
but previously to that period ; and a decisive

accessible to all ; so that every Haylian may ous state of the colony rendered it unnecesproof of such advance is to be found in the single

easily make himself acquainted with all his social, sary. But his efforts were ineffectual, and

fact, that, in the interval between 1804 and 1824, banishment to the Isle of Elba rewarded his

civil, and political rights, relations, and duties, Hayli more than doubled its population."*

while every thing connected with them is open also manly and faithful conduct The armament

It is probably known to most of our readers sailed, and the happy and flourishing island

to ihe examination and criticism of strangers."* that the West India party have represented

Mr. Buxton, in his examination before the became a scene of outrage, cruelty, and blood. The French army was commanded by Le

agricultural labour in Hayti to be as coercive Lords' Committee, was asked, Clerc, who, having perfidiously seized Touis

as in our slave islands, and the condition of “ Have you made inquiries into the moral consant, was opposed by Dessalines, afterwards

the labourer to be worse than that of the dition of the inhabitants of Hayri, or the free emperor of the island. The atrocities which

slave. Let such statements be reconciled people of colour in our own colonies; and what is

with the following facts before they are again were practised by the planters have never been

the result of those inquiries, if you have made exceeded amongst the most savage tribes. proposed for our belief:

them ?-1 have made inquiries as to Hayti, and Having induced the French Consul to under

"The Hayrian laws have utterly abolished

the result of those inquiries is, that the people are take the expedition, they endeavoured, by every slavery. They proscribe and wholly abolish the

iu a very prosperous state indeed, and that there use of the whip, both as a stimulus io labour and means which craft and worse than Spanish

is by no means any great proportion of crimes

amungst them; that is the result of the inquiries cruelty could dictate, to insure its success

as an instrument of punishment. They give to But all their efforts failed. The proud milithe whole body of the people the same equal

I have been able to make. led. tary of France won no honour on the plains whatever be his colour. The law is the same for The proua milla | rights. Every man is admissible to all offices,

“ Does that prosperity consist of the mere con

forts of their own, or are they exporting ?-I beof Hayti, and the miserable remnant of their force was ultimately compelled to retire in • Report of the Lords, p. 850.

• Ibid. p. 862.

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