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along the summit, played hotly with grape; 1 high rocks, and a dragoon was seen to try the and their troopers, galloping over the glacis of depth of the stream above, but two shots from

OF THE MENTAL PRINCIPLE IN Almeida, poured down the road, sabring every the 52nd killed horse and man, and the car

FISHES. thing in their way. Ney, desirous that Mont-casses floating between the hostile bands brun should follow this movement with the showed that the river was impassable. The whole of the French cavalry, and so cut off the monotonous tones of a French drum were then Such was the fish creation-a race of betroops from the bridge, sent five officers in suc- heard, and in another instant the head of a ings, both feeling and thinking, in that parcession to urge him on; and so mixed were noble column was at the long narrow bridge. ticular structure of body and residentiary elefriends and enemies at this moment, that only | A drummer and an officer in splendid uniform ment to which they were assigned. Like the a few guns of the fortress durst open, and no leaped forward together, and the whole rushed vegetable tribes, they have been made to be courage could have availed against such over- on with loud cries: the depth of the ravine at useful to man, both in contributing to his whelming numbers. But Montbrun enjoyed first deceived the soldiers' aim, and two-thirds sustenance and in supplying him with many an independent command; and, as the attack of the passage were won ere an English shot important conveniences. But, independently was made without Massena's knowledge, he had brought down an enemy; yet a few paces of the human race, they have been created to would not stir. Then the British regiments, onward the line of death was traced, and the be happy beings in themselves. From their with singular intelligence and discipline, ex- whole of the French leading section fell as one vast numbers and varieties, and the comparatricated themselves from their perilous situa-man. Still the gallant column pressed for- tively small knowledge which man has of tion; for, falling back slowly, and yet stopping ward; but no foot could pass the terrible line: them, and the few out of their numerous speand fighting wherever an opportunity offered, the killed and wounded rolled together, until cies which have been converted to his use, we they made their way through a rugged coun- the heap rose nearly equal with the parapet, may assume that they were made principally try, entangled with vineyards, in despite of and the living mass behind melted rather than on their own account, and for the display to us their enemies, who were so fierce and eager gave back.

of our Creator's mind, power, thoughts, inventhat even the horsemen rode in amongst the The shouts of the British now rose loudly, tions, and imagination. They enlarge our enclosures, striking the soldiers as they mount- but they were as confidently answered ; and in knowledge of his omnipotence, and give us ed the walls or scrambled over the rocks. half an hour another column, more numerous ocular sensations of its multifarious poten

As the retreating troops approached the than the first, again crowded the bridge. This tiality. river, they came upon a more open space; but time, however, the range was better judged, Fish seem to be more exclusively confined the left wing being harder pressed, and having and, ere half the distance was won, the multi- to themselves than any other classes of animal the shortest distance, arrived while the bridge tude was again torn, shattered, dispersed, and life. For, excepting the few species of birds was still crowded, and some of the right wing slain. Ten or twelve men only succeeded in and amphibious quadrupeds which seek them distant. Major M‘Leod, of the 43rd, seeing crossing, and took shelter under the rocks at as food, no animal but man knows or notices this, rallied four companies on a hill just in the brink of the river. The skirmishing was them. They live in an element which is morfront of the passage, and was immediately renewed ; and a French surgeon coming down tal to all but themselves; and no other creajoined by a party of the 95th; and at the same to the very foot of the bridge, waved his hand- ture, nor even man, can molest them, but as time two other companies were posted, by kerchief, and commenced dressing the wounded they choose to float near the surface of their brigade Major Rowan, on another hill flanking under the hottest fire; nor was his appeal un- waves, or to be tempted by the baited hook the road ; these posts were thus maintained heeded: every musket was turned from him, that descends deeper. But they are equally until the enemy, gathering in great numbers, although his undaunted countrymen were pre- unfitted and unable to have any concernment made a second burst, when the companies fell paring for a third attempt. The impossibility with other beings. They die in no long time back. At this moment the right wing of the of forcing the passage was, however, become if removed from their habitual fluid; and thus 52nd was seen marching towards the bridge, too apparent, and this last effort, made with they are entirely beings of the world of waters, which was still crowded with the passing fewer numbers and less energy, failed almost and have no functions or faculties for any troops. M‘Leod, a very young man, but with as soon as it commenced.

other region or mode of existence. In general, a natural genius for war, immediately turned

they are made to be helpless to all assailants. his horse round, called to the troops to follow,

Animals have teeth and claws, or horns, and and, taking off his cap, rode with a shout

other weapons for fight or escape, but few fish towards the enemy. The suddenness of the


have such endangering instruments. They are thing, and the distinguished action of the man, It was an eve of Autumn's holiest mood ;

an instance that an innumerable class of aniproduced the effect he desired ; a mob of The corn-fields, bathed in Cynthia's silver light,

mated beings may exist in great comfort and soldiers rushed after him, cheering and charg- Stood ready for the reaper's gathering hand, activity, whose prevailing character is that of ing as if a whole army had been at their And all the winds slepi soundly. Nature seemed, inoffensive and unresisting helplessness. They backs; and the enemy's skirmishers, astonished In silent contemplation, to adore

are subjected to death, and several of their at this unexpected movement, stopped short; Its Maker. Now and then the aged leaf

species receive the termination of their being, before they could recover from their surprise

Fell from its fellows, rustling to the ground; at times, by serving as the food to others; but the 52nd crossed the river, and M'Leod, follow. i And, as it tell, bade man think on his end.

most of those whose life is not thus intercepted ing at full speed, gained the other side also On vale and lake, on wood and mountain high,

enjoy it for a duration which few other aniWith pensive wing outspread, sat heavenly without a disaster.

mals experience. As the regiments passed the bridge, they Conversing with itself. Vesper looked forth


But they are principally interesting to the planted themselves in loose order on the side of From out her western hermitage, and smiled;

contemplative student for the curious modifithe mountain. The artillery drew up on the And up the east, unclouded, rode the moon,

cation which they exhibit of the principles of summit; and the cavalry were disposed in par- With all her stars, gazing on earth intense,

life and of mind. They show the phenomena ties on the road to the right, because two miles As if she saw some wonder walking there. of these as they occur in the finny forms, funchigher up the stream there were fords, and,

POLLOK. tions, and element. We see, in them, fish beyond them, the bridge of Castello Bom; and

mind and fish feelings, and find similarities it was to be apprehended that, while the 6th

between these and the faculties of the higher corps was in front, the reserves and a division


orders of animals, and of ourselves, which deof the 8th corps, then on the Agueda, might Poets are Nature's priests; their hallow'd eyes

serve all the attention they may excite, and pass at those places, and get between the divi- Behold her mercy-seat within the veil ;

enlarge our conception of the nature of the sion and the Celerico; the river, was, however, From their melodious lips the nations hail

intellectual qualities. They contribute to rising fast from the rains, and it was impossi- Her oracles, and learn her mysteries.

prove, that life and mind do not arise from ble to retreat farther.

With pure and pious hearts, then, let them prize form, nor depend upon it; for they exhibit The French skirmishers, swarming on the Their consecration : shall they hold for sale these as equally existing in every configuration, right bank, opened a biting fire, which was

The gift of heaven? and tempt mankind to rail and in despite of diversity. No changes of returned as bitterly. The artillery on both At glorious powers-profaned for lusts or lies!

figure prevent or suppress them; nor does the sides played across the ravine: the sounds were Thus Phineas and Hophni dared profane

matter of the bodily substance united with God's altar-till their father's house was curs'd, repeated by numberless echoes; and the smoke,

them either cause or destroy them. Life and | And they destroy'd ; and even the ark was ta'en rising slowly, resolved itself into an immense

| mind are, therefore, independent of all mate

From the lewd nation that such vileness nurs'd. arch, spanning the whole chasm, and sparkling Men highly privileged are prone to ill :

rial structure, and are some great principles with the whirling fuzes of the flying shells. Yet Israel then had SAMUEL--we have WORDS

added to it and co-existing within it. --Sharon The enemy gathered fast and thickly; his WORTH still.

Turner's Sacred History of the World. columns were discovered forming behind the

T. P.

Second Voyage. - In the year 1564, Mr. | boats went into a river called Casserroes, and, THE TOURIST. John Hawkins, having met with so good suc- having dispatched their business on the 6th,

cess in his first undertaking, resolved upon a returned to their ships, which were at anchor MONDAY, JANUARY 28, 1833. second voyage, for the coast of Guinea, and at Taggarrin. They continued on the coast

from thence, with negroes, to the West Indies. till the 29th, and then, having completed their

For this voyage he had two ships and two number of negroes, set sail for the West Indies. PROPRIETARY RIGHTS EXAMINED.

barks: the JESUS, of Lubeck, of seven hundred Being becalmed at sea, for eighteen days, they As the advocates of Negro slavery in Eng. tons; the Solomon, of one hundred and forty did not arrive at the Island of Dominico tiil land lay much stress upon the proprietary rights tons; the Tiger, of fifty; and the Swallow, of the 9th of March, when they were reduced to of the West Indian body, dignifying them with thirty tons. With these he departed, on the the very brink of despair for want of water; the title of vested interests, it may assist the 18th of October, from Plymouth. The same and then, with great danger of being cut off readers of The Tourist, in forming a correct day, they met, about ten leagues out at sea, by the cannibals, only got some rain-water, judgment on this subject, if they have brought the Minion, one of the queen's ships, com- which drained from the hills and lay in pudbefore them a true account of the origin of mauded by Captain David Carlot, and the dles in the dales. these vested interests, as given by the naval John Baptist, of London, who were likewise They departed the 10th, the 15th had a historian LEDIARD, in his history, published in bound for Guinea; but the Minion, leaving the sight of the Testigoes, and the 16th arrived at two volumes, folio, in 1735.

John Baptist in the company of Mr. Hawkins, the Island of Margarita, where they were The first English slave-factor appears to went in search of the Merlin, of London, who kindly entertained by the Alcalde, who furbave been Captain, afterwards Sir John, Haw- had been separated from them. The 21st, nished them with bullocks and sheep. But kins; the accounts of whose three first enter- they had a violent storm that continued for the governor not only refused them the liberprises in this way are as follows:-

three and twenty hours, during which they | ty of trafficking there, and denied them a This John Hawkins was the son of Mr. lost the company of the John Baptist and the pilot whom they had actually hired, but William Hawkins of Plymouth, who was in Swallow, and the other three ships received sent a Caravela to inform the governor of St. great esteem with King Henry VIII., as a prin- considerable damage. The 23rd, they met Domingo of their arrival, who thereupon sent cipal sea-commander, and of whose Voyages I with the Swallow again, ten leagues to the a command to the Spaniards, all along the have already given an account in that king's northward of Cape Finisterre. The wind con- coast, to have no dealings with the English. reign. He had made several voyages to the tinuing contrary, on the 25th they put into Hawkins, finding there would be no traffic Canary Islands, where he got all the intelli- Ferrol, in Galicia, where they stayed five days. for him here, departed on the 20th, and came gence he was able to procure of the state of The 26th, the Minion joined them there, håv on the 22nd to a place on the continent, called the West Indies, of which he had before re-ing had the unhappiness to see the Merlin Santa Fe, where they found excellent waterceived some knowledge from the instructions blow up, and her hulk sunk, all that were in | ing, and some other refreshments. From given him by his father. Among other things, her being drowned, excepting a very few whom hence they departed on the 28th, and the next he was assured that negroes were a very good they took up iniserably burnt.

day passed between the continent and the cominodity in Hispaniola, and that they were The 30th they all set sail together; the 4th Island of Tortugas. They kept along the coast easily to be had in great numbers on the coast of November they had a sight of the island of till on, the 3rd of April, they came to a town of Guinea. Having opened his mind to his Maderia ; and the 6th, of Teneriffe. There called Burboroata. friends, he soon found adventurers for this they stayed till the 20th; and, then departing, Here Hawkins was obliged to ride at anchor undertaking, among whom were Sir Lionel arrived on the 25th at Cape Blanc, on the and solicit fourteen days for liberty of traffic; Ducket, Sir Thomas Lodge, Mr. Gunson, his coast of Africa. Here they took in several and when he at last obtained this freedom, it father-in-law, Sir William Winter, Mr. Brom- | refreshments, particularly fish; and, departing was clogged with an article of such extravafield, and others. Three ships were provided the 26th, came the 29th to Cape Verd, in the gant duty to the king of Spain as would more for this enterprise : the Solomon, of one hun- | latitude of fourteen degrees and a half. Here than have eat up the profit; finding, therefore, dred and twenty tons, commanded by Mr. they proposed to have taken some negroes by, that nothing was to be done by fair means, on Hawkins himself, as general; the Swallow, of force, but the Minion's crew betrayed their the 16th, he landed a hundred men well one hundred tons, Thomas Hampton, cap- design, and prevented them. They, therefore, armed, and marched directly up to the town. tain; and the Jonas, a bark of forty tons. In departed on the 7th of December, and came By this means he brought the Spaniards to this small fleet Mr. Hawkins took only a hun- | the next day to the island of Alcatrarga. Here reason, who afterwards suffered him to traffic dred men.

the two ships rode at anchor, while the two peaceably, and upon paying a moderate duty. First Voyage.He departed from the coast barks went to the island of the Sapies, called Third Voyage.-The year 1567, Captain of England in the month of October, 1562, La Formio, where they landed with eighty John Hawkins (or as Camden calls him Mr. and sailed first to Teneriffe, where he took in men in armour, thinking to take some negroes, John Hawkins, afterwards Sir John Hawkins, several refreshments. From there he went to but they were too nimble for them.

a merchant) of whose two first voyages I Sierra Leone, by the natives called Tegarin, on The 14th, they came to the Island of Sam- have already given an account, undertook a the coast of Guinea, where he made some stay, bula, where they staid several days, and took third voyage to Guinea and the West Indies. and during that time got into his possession, every day some of the inhabitants, burning and He went himself as captain-general, in the partly by the sword, and partly by other means, ravaging their towns. The 21st, having their ship Jesus, of Lubeck, one of the Queen's upwards of three hundred negroes, beside seve- i negroes on board, and being furnished with ships, of seven hundred tons, which had been ral commodities which that country affords. what provisions they wanted, in great plenty, his admiral-ship in the foregoing voyage. Be

With this booty he set sail for Port Isabella, they set sail and arrived the next day at the River sides this he had five other ships under his in the island of Hispaniola, in the West In- of Callowsa, at the mouth of which the two command; the Minion, Captain John Hampdies; where he found a good vent for his ships came to anchor, while the two barks, ton, the William and John, Captain Thomas English commodities and some of his negroes; with the John's pinnace, and the Solomon's Bolton, the Judith, Captain Francis Drake, but was obliged to be on his guard against the boat, went up the river, and returned with two together with the Angel, and the Swallow. He treachery of the Spaniards. caravets loaded with negroes.

set sail the 2nd of October, from Plymouth, From Port Isabella he went to Puerto de The 27th, the Portuguese having informed and had tolerable weather for five days; but, Plata, where he likewise trafficked, but still in them of a town of negroes, called Bymbo, where being then forty leagues north of Cape Finis danger. Thence be sailed to Monte Christi, they said they would find a great quantity of terre, they had so violent a storm, for four another port on the north side of Hispaniola, gold if they would hazard the attack, Haw days, that the ships were separated, all their where he was allowed to traffic peaceably, and kins resolved to try his fortune : but by the boats lost, and the Jesus almost disabled for sold the rest of his negroes. He made so good carelessness and avarice of the men, who se- | the voyage. But, the storm ceasing on the a return that he not only loaded his three parated, every man his own way, in search of 11th, they pursued their course. ships with hides, ginger, sugar, and a good booty, they only brought of ten negroes, with On the coast of Guinea they took in, after quantity of pearls, but he freighted two hulks the loss of seven of their best men (among whom great difficulties and the loss of many of their with hides and other commodities, which he was Mr. Field, the captain of the Solomon) men, about 500 negro slaves, and sailed with sent to Spain. Having thus finished his com- and twenty-seven men wounded. The 28th they them to the islands of the Spanish West Indies, merce, he went out by the islands of the returned to their ships, where, in the mean departing from Guinea the 3rd of February, Caycos without entering farther into the Bay; time, four men had been killed, and one 1568, to sell them to the Spaniards, as he and so, returning with good success and great wounded, by sharks; and on the 30th they de. had a right to do, by virtue of a treaty, yet advantage to himself and his co-partners, ar-parted for Taggarrin.

subsisting, between Charles V. and Henry rived in England, September, 1663.

The first of January, 1565, the barks and VIII.

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The 7th and 20th of March, they had sight | the pages of European history till the end of morbid diffidence which possessed him, of the Island of Dominica, in 14 degrees. time : but, so long as it continued, ships and for any public employment, that he deFrom thence they coasted from place to men proceeded from the ports of Great Britain. I

n; clined accepting the appointment; and place, as to Margarita, Carthagena, Capo de to the peaceful shores of Africa, where, under la Vela, and others; where, with some diffi- the notion of a traffic or trade, they burned the

| from the excitement of mind it had occaculty, they carried on a tolerable good trade. habitations, desolated the country, and stole sioned he soon after relapsed into the

At Rio de la Hacha all commerce with the inhabitants, to transport them against most unhappy state of mental aberration. them was prohibited, till landing two hundred their will to a foreign shore, there to compel | Shortly after his recovery he retired, at men they took the town by storm, with the loss them, by means the most cruel and revolt- | the wish of his brother, into a state of of two men only, after which they were allow- | ing, to submit to an unremunerated toil. From mg; to submit to an unremunerated toil. From

complete retirement of

complete retirement at Huntingdon, and ed to carry on a private trade by night.-Le- such transactions as these do the West Indian diard's Naval History, vol. 1.

han here contracted an intimacy with the

body derive the proprietary rights and rested Such was the commencement of the slave- interests, of, which they talk so loudly, and

family of a Mr. Unwin, resident there, trade, which continued, with no material change on which they rest claims so formidable in a which proved one of the chief solaces of in its characteristic features, for more than pecuniary point of view, and urge them so per- his after life. After the death of Mr. two centuries; till its abolition by act of par- tinaciously.

Unwin, he removed with his widow and liament. Its details will remain a blot upon

daughter to Olney, in 1767, and employed himself chiefly in reading, and visiting and relieving the poor. His life was but little marked with important events until 1773, when, in the language of one of his biographers, “he sunk into such severe paroxysms of religious despondency that he required an attendant of the most gentle, vigilant, and inflexible spirit. Such an attendant he found in that faithful guardian (Mrs. Unwin), whom he professed to love as a mother, and who watched over him during this long fit of

depressive malady, extended through seve200LLUD

ral years, with that perfect mixture of tenderness and fortitude which constitutes the inestimable influence of maternal protection.” His recovery was slow; and his state of mind, meanwhile, was such as necessarily precluded him from any vigorous or continued study. He continued, however, to amuse himself with reading

such new books as his friends procured COW PER'S RESIDENCE AT WESTON, BUCKS.

for him, with writing short pieces of poe" His virtues formed the magic of his song.”—Cowren's EPITAPIT.

try, tending some birds and hares which

he had tamed, and drawing landscapesThere is an unfailing and melancholy count of ill health. At fourteen he was an art which he began to practise late in interest attaching to every thing which placed at Westminster School; but so life, but in which he nevertheless acquired concerns this extraordinary man. The sensitive a nature as his was but ill fitted considerable excellence. His state of genuineness of his character, the benevo- | for the rude collisions which it necessarily mind, at this time, may be best learned lence of his heart, and the severe mental encountered in this institution; and though from a passage in one of his letters. “ So sufferings which imbittered his life,—all he appears to have been by no means long,” says he, “as I am pleased with lay powerful claims to our sympathy and averse from, nor unskilful in, the youthful | my employment, I am capable of unwearegard. He was, indeed, a martyr to sports in which his companions engaged, ried application, because my feelings are sensibility. All the resources of his ge- yet the preponderance of unhappiness all of the intense kind. I never received nius appear, by a strange fatality, to have from their conduct was such, that in his a little pleasure from any thing in my life: been directed against his happiness. Of advanced years he always looked upon if I am delighted it is in the extreme. him it may truly be said, as it was of one this period with the most painful recollec- The unhappy consequence of this temof his most illustrious contemporaries, that tions. In 1749, he left Westminster, and perament is, that my attachment to any “his imagination was but too prolific—a was articled to an attorney for the space occupation seldom outlives the novelty of world of itself; in which he dwelt amidst of three years, during which he appears to | it.” chimerical alarms, and started like Pros- have enjoyed more of gaiety than at any At length he was persuaded, by the pero at the spectres of his own creation.” | period of his life in the company of his kind entreaties of his friend and com

The very narrow limits which we can friend Thurlow (afterwards Lord Chan-panion, Mrs. Unwin, to prepare a volume allot to this article, will allow of our cellor). At the expiration of the term of of poems for the press; and, accordingly, giving but a brief and naked detail of the his articles he entered the Temple with a in his fiftieth year, he presented his first main circumstances of his history. view to the further study of the law. This work to the public, comprising the"Table

John Cowper, the father of the poet, I occupation was manifestly but little suited | Talk," “ Hope," the “ Progress of Error,” was Rector of Berkhamstead, in Hertford- to such a mental character as his, and his &c.; and from that time continued to shire, where the latter was born, Nov. 26, extreme diffidence appeared to cut him compose, chiefly at the suggestion of 1731. From his infancy he appears to off from all hope of professional advance- Lady Austen, a woman of great taste and have been of the most delicate constitu- ment. Through the interest, therefore, of talent with whom he had the happiness to tion, both of mind and body. In 1737 | his family, he was nominated to the office become intimately acquainted. To her he was sent to a school at Market-Street, 1 of reading clerk and clerk to the private suggestions we owe “the Task," which in Hertfordshire, under the care of Dr. I committees of the House of Lords. But was published in 1784, “John Gilpin," Pitman, but was removed from it on ac- so utterly incapacitated was he, from that and other minor poems. In 1785 be pube lished his “ Tirocinium," and his trans



almost imperceptible motion of his fingers, lation of Homer in 1790. From this

show that he is following out the strain in his WILLIAM COWPER, ESQ.,

own soul, through all its dying gradations, the time the pensive tone of his feelings ap

BORN IN HERTFORDSHIRE, 1731 ; pears gradually to have deepened; and

instrument is actually as dumb as the musi

cian is deaf. I have heard him play ; but to the loss of Mrs. Unwin, by death, in 1795, BURIED IN THIS CHURCH, 1800. bring him so far required some management, seems to have subdued 'for ever all the

so great is his horror of being any thing like | Ye who with warmth the public triumph feel energies of his mind. After some further

exhibited. Had he been plainly asked to do attempts to improve his Translation of Of talents, dignified by sacred zeal,

the company that favour, he would have fatly

refused; he had to be cheated into it. Every Homer, and the composition of some Here, to devotion's bard devoutly just,

person left the room except Beethoven and the minor poems, he sunk, in the year 1800, Pay your fond tribute due to Cowper’s dust!

master of the house, one of his most intimate under a malady originating rather in his | England. exulting in his spotless fame. acquaintances. These two carried on a conmorbid habits of mind than in physical Ranks with her dearest sons his favourite name.

versation in the paper book about bank stock. decay. Of his published works it is hardly

The gentleman, as if by chance, struck the keys necessary to speak either in the way of Sense, fancy, wit, suffice not all to raise

of the open piano, beside which they were criticism or of eulogium. Their merits So clear a title to affection's praise ;

sitting, gradually began to run over one of are of a high and rare order; and perhaps His highest honours to the heart belong;

Beethoven's own compositions, made a thou.

sand errors, and speedily blundered one pasnone in our literature have gained a more His virtues formed the magic of his song.

sage so thoroughly, that the composer condegeneral or a more favourable reception

scended to stretch out his hand and put him among all classes of readers. Perhaps

right. It was enough; the hand was on the their unexceptionable moral tendency is at once their most obvious and their high

piano; his companion immediately left him BEETHOVEN.

on some pretext, and the rest of the company, est distinction. Cowper is one of the few BEETHOVEN is the most celebrated of the

who were in the next room, from which they imaginative writers who might at the close living composers at Vienna, and, in certain could see and hear every thing, were patiently

waiting the issue of this tiresome conjuration. of life take a scrutinizing review of their departments, the foremost of his day. His

Though | Beethoven, left alone, seated himself at the entire works, and not find a line which, | powers of harmony are prodigious. in that hour of calm

piano. At first he only struck now and then a not an old man, he is lost to society, on acand enlightened count of his extreme deafness, which has ren

few hurried and interrupted notes, as if judgment, they could wish erased. If, dered him almost unsocial. The neglect of afraid of being detected in a crime; but grahowever, there is one class of his writings his person which he exhibits gives him a

a dually he forgot every thing else, and ran on to which entire justice has not been done, somewhat wild appearance. His features are

during half an hour in a phantasy, in a style we should say it is his correspondence. strong and prominent; his eye is full of rude

extremely varied, and marked, above all, by

the most abrupt transitions. The amateurs We think his letters distinguished by energy; his hair, which neither comb nor

were enraptured; to the uninitiated it was every species of excellence of which that scissors seem to have visited for years, overshadows his broad brow in a quantity and con

more interesting to observe how the music of order of composition is susceptible; and fusion to which only the snakes round a Gor

the man's soul passed over his countenance. we cannot better describe or eulogize gon's head offer å parallel. His general

He seems to feel the bold, the commanding, them than by adopting the words of one behaviour does not ill accord with the unpro

| and the impetuous, more than what is soothing whose discernment and taste are equally mising exterior. Except when he is among

or gentle. The muscles of the face swell, and demonstrated by his criticisms and his his chosen friends, kindliness or affability are

its veins start out; the wild eye rolls doubly compositions: 17 I have always considered not his characteristics. The total loss of hear

wild ; the mouth quivers, and Beethoven looks the letters of Mr. Cowper as the finest

ing has deprived him of all the pleasure which like a wizard overpowered by the demons society can give, and perhaps soured his tem

whom he himself has called up.-Tour in specimen of the epistolary style in our per. He used to frequent a particular cellar,

Germany. language. To an air of inimitable ease

where he spent the evening in a corner, beyond and carelessness they unite a high degree the reach of all the chattering and disputation of correctness, such as could result only of a public room, drinking wine and beer, RESPIRATION OF THE SPIDER.

om the clearest intellect combined with eating cheese and red herrings, and studying the most finished taste."

the newspapers. One evening a person took a A HOUSE spider was placed by a gentleman It would be difficult to speak in too

seat near him, whose countenance did not on a small platform, in the middle of a glass

please him. He looked hard at the stranger, full of water, the platform being about half an high terms of his moral and religious

and spat on the floor, as if he had seen a toad; inch above the surface. It presently made its character. It was eminently distinguished

| then glanced at the newspaper, then again at escape, as might have been anticipated, by by purity and devotion, while his singular the intruder, and spat again, his hair bristling | suffering a thread to be wafted to the edge of gentleness and suavity of disposition, if it gradually into more shaggy ferocity, till he | the glass. The person who witnessed this, was inconsistent with the manliness and closed the alternation of spitting and staring suspecting it might have been assisted by the majesty which is frequently associated by fairly exclaiming, “What a scoundrelly water, being so nearly on the same level, with such distinguished talents, yet had

phiz !” and rushing out of the room. Even poured some of the water away, and placed the effect of irresistibly attracting to him

among his oldest friends he must be humoured the spider as before. It descended by the stick

like a wayward child. He has always a small that supported the platform, till it reached the warmest and best affections of all. I

paper book with him, and what conversation the water, but, finding no way to escape, it After saying thus much of Cowper, it takes place is carried on in writing. In this, returned to the platform, and, for some time, may seem almost superfluous to add that too, although it is not lined, he instantly jots employed itself in preparing a web, with he was the indignant and unsparing ene- down any musical idea which strikes him. which it loosely enveloped the abdomon by my of colonial slavery. Perhaps there

These notes would be utterly unintelligible, means of the hinder legs. It now descended, was no subject which elicited from him

even to another musician, for they have thus without hesitation, to the bottom of the water,

no comparative value; he alone has in his when the whole of the abdomen was covered such powerful expressions of horror and

own mind the thread by which he brings out with a web, containing a bubble of air, prodisgust as the system referred to-a fact of this labyrinth of dots and circles the richest bably intended for respiration, as it evidently to which his works every where offer and most astounding harmonies. The moment included the spiracles. The spider, enveloped abundant testimony.

he is seated at the piano, he is evidently un- in this little diving-bell, endeavoured on every His remains were buried in St. Ed conscious that there is any thing in existence side to make its escape, but in vain, on acmund's Chapel in the church of Tast but himself and his instrument; and, consi count of the slipperiness of the glass; and, Dereham, Norfolk, and a monument was

dering how very deaf he is, it seems impossible after remaining at the bottom for about thirerected over his grave, on which was in

that he should hear all he plays. Accordingly, teen minutes, it returned, apparently much

when playing very piano, he often does not exhausted, as it coiled itself close under the scribed the following epitaph, from the bring out a single note. He hears it himself little platform, and remained afterwards withpen of his friend, Mr. Hayley :

in the "mind's ear.” While his eye, and the l out motion.





“In four years and three months, and Priscilla got thirty-nine each. “ Under the most mitigated system, slavery is still labour obtained by ...

under this change of management, Domingo and Lena got twelve each force; and if by force, I know not how you can stop short of that degree of force which is necessary to extract involuntary exertion. A motive there

there were forty-four births, and only went to the sick-house UNDER PRE

forty-one deaths, giving an increase TENCE OF BEING STIFF WITH THE must be; and, ransack your invention as you will, it comes at last to this

of three in the number of the gang." LICKS. Inducement or Compulsion : Wages or the Whip."-Mr. Burton's Speech in the

It was no pretence with

Thus, by humane treatment, and la. Santy. I got some peppers out of House of Commons, May 24, 1832.

bour stimulated by reward, the gang the garden, and STEEPED THEN IN The time is well nigh arrived when the question must be

of 288 became 291, showing an in- HOT WATER, AND BATHED PRISCILLA

crease of three; and the planter's own AND DOMINGO. promptly disposed of, whether the cultivators of the soil now in benefit is thus stated by himself :- July 14.-"Santy brought home bondage in the colonies are to continue their labour from that “The annual nett clearance of the at four o'clock. Gave him thirtyuniversal stimulus, the desire of reward, or from that unnatural estate (which had previously been nine severely.

heavily encumbered) was above three July 31.-" Had an iron collar stimulus by which their labour nas been so long unaneous times more than it had been for ten put round Santy's neck, and gave exacted, the lash. The present tract is undertaken in no acri- years before.”

him thirty-nine for his last trip.” monious spirit towards those who are so unfortunate as to re

The flogging and pickling is thus main still unconvinced that the higher motive of reward will

carried on throughout the year. yield as profitable a result as the debasing corporeal chastise

Thus, in the course of seven years,

from 1812 to 1819, by cruel treat. ment now exercised throughout the colonies. It may in some

ment and coerced labour, the gang measure influence even the prejudiced colonist to place before

of 140 declined to 86, showing a dehis view, in contra-position, such proofs as the history of negro

crease of 54. This decrease of the labour affords of the different results from the two systems. In

material, by which the estate can be

successfully worked, will show that doing so, one or two instances will serve as well as more. I

a process far other than a clearance shall, therefore, give but two-one of foreign slaves, the other

of the estate was rapidly going forof British slaves.

ward.t WAGES.

It will perhaps be said that I have drawn from a source · In Mexico, 150 Spanish free blacks, In Cuba, 150 Spanish black slaves ..

which should be considered as an exception to the general with occasional additions when the produce no more than 180 tons of kindness of treatment on a West India estate; but why should season is late, or the work has been sugar, or 403,200 pounds weight. * I think so? It has occurred that the Piercefield manager's own retarded by accidental causes, pro

account has been accidentally revealed : where the whole canduce 450 tons of sugar, or 1,008,000

not be seen, we must judge by the part that can be seen. Could pounds weight.

access be had to similar documents from other estates, I doubt Here we have palpable, commercial proof, in pounds avoir

not that the same course of flogging and pickling would be dupois, of the balance in favour of free labour over slave

shown up. The extravagance to which the apologists of slavery labour.

resort in extenuation of the cruelties laid to their charge was In the next instance, I shall not be able to bring out the exhibited by the city pro-slavery champion recently at an antideficit against slave labour so arithmetically palpable--that is, slavery lecture, held at Brunswick Chapel, Mile End. To not in pounds avoirdupois—as in the foregoing; but I shall avert the indignation raised hvar place life against life, instead of sugar against sugar, and that in rubbing Cayenne pepper into the eyes of their victim. Mr. in one of our own colonies.

was hardy enough to express his entire belief that the WAGES.


girl rubbed the pepper into her own eyes.* In Barbadoes.-I shall give the In St. Christopher's. I shall give

I have another proof in favour of the negro, which, were course of proceeding with a gang of the course of proceeding with a gang

there no others on record, would fully satisfy me that the whip 288 negroes belonging to Mr. Joshua of 140 negroes belonging to Mr. Steele. Wells.

| late him to labour. Mr. S. says—"As a beginning of By what one dare hardly to speak

In a conversation which I held, a few months ago, with a my general plan, I had, towards the of as an accident, the Plantation end of the year 1783, taken the whips Journal of the manager of the estate West India planter of twenty-seven years' standing, he reand all power of arbitrary punish- of Piercefield fell into the hands of lated the following anecdote :-A cotton-field was in course of ments, from all the overseers and their the most eminent of the negro's picking, when the evening of Saturday drew nigh, and the white servants, which occasioned my friends. I proceed to give extracts chief overseer to resign, and I soon therefrom, and their dissonance with

overseer made an exclamation to this effect : “ Before Monday dismissed all his deputies, who could the course of proceeding in the Bar-comes round, half the cotton remaining unpicked will be lost." not bear the loss of their whips. badoes estate, on the other side, will On this, one of the gang advanced, saying, “ Massa, suppose ." I resolved to make a further ex- prepare my readers for a material dif- you pay-a-we, we pick him to-morrow, massa ;” to which all periment, in order to try whether I ference of result.

cheerfully consented. Here the negroes were willing, after the could not obtain the labour of my May 29.-"Dick Orton complained negroes by voluntary means instead that Mary Daniel had stolen two large full week's labour, to surrender their day of rest, so far as it of the old method, by violence; when, bunches of Bananas out of the Banana was a day of rest, and the benefit to arise from their market for a small pecuniary reward over and Walk. At two o'clock the gang was concerns, to attain an immediate and tangible benefit by their above their usual allowances, the called over, and she was severely pu- extra labour. With such evidence as this in proof of their wilpoorest, feeblest, and, by character, nished. the most indolent negroes in the whole “Priscilla was also punished for lingness to labour freely for an adequate remuneration, is not gang, cheerfully performed the holing quitting the watch, &c."*

the outcry against emancipation mere drivelling ? N. P. of my land for canes (generally said June 7.-" Priscilla came in and to be the most laborious work) for less received thirty-nine. She brought than a fourth part of the stated price Betsy, who was also punished. Pu See Dr. Dickson's Mitigation of Slavery. paid to the undertakers for holing. I nished also Domingo, Lena, Betsy + See Appendix to Mr. Stephen's Delineation of Slavery, 2nd volume. repeated the like experiment the fol- Peters, Joe and Mary Daniel, for So preposterous a supposition as this squares with nothing but what is lowing year with equal success; and, missing grass last night. Santy said to have been the decision of a Dutch jury in a matter of some INTRICACY on the 18th of November, 1789, I brought home at noon by Scipio and for want of satisfactory evidence. In a squabble between two men, one susgave all my slaves tenements of land, Adams. Gave him, at two o'clock, tained the loss of his nose, said by him to have been bitten off by his antaand pecuniary wages by the hour, the thirty-nine, SEVERELY, AND THEN gonist. The party so charged declared his innocence, and asserted that the day, or the week, for their labour and PICKLED HIM.

sufferer was himself the perpetrator. On these conflicting assertions the jury services."

June 8.--" This morning, Santa consulted long, and the case turning wholly on general character, in which

the party first charged had a preference, he was at leagth acquitted under

the following verdict :-" That as nothing could, by man, be declared to be • See the Report of Mr. Ward, envoy to Mexico, made to the Right Hon. absolutely impossible, a man might bite his own nose off.” The gentleman G. Canning, March 13th, 1826.

must unquestionably have formed one of this Dutch jury.

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