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Ir is not certainly known when or by pears to have been distinctly ascertained, the most wonderful facts to our notice. whom the microscope was invented. On that they were first used in Germany If the telescope has brought us acquaintthe one hand, we are told that one Dre about the year 1621. The telescope is ed with vast bodies which we had not prebell, a Dutchman, had the first micro-generally believed to have been invented viously conceived to exist, and thus unscope in the year 1621, and that he was in the year 1590 ; and, as a microscope measurably extended our conceptions of reported to have been the inventor of the is only a telescope inverted, the inven- the vastness of the universe, and the instrument. On the other hand, the in- tion of the one may be readily believed power of its Creator, it is no less true vention is claimed by Francis Fontana, a to have originated in the use of the other. that the microscope, though perhaps with Neapolitan, in 1646, who dates it from It may, perhaps, be matter of doubt less imposing pretensions, has laid open the year 1618. Thus far, however, ap- which of these instruments has introduced to us most unexpected revelations of the
wisdom. the power, and the providence while the other continued floating at the the wheels are protruded, they are perof the Almighty, by discovering to us in-top. When things had remained for some formed with great regularity, swiftness, numerable orders of living beings, en- time in this condition, each of these and steadiness. It is by these rotatory ordowed with numerous capacities, and swarms of animalcules began to grow gans, also, that they are supposed to provided with ample means of enjoy- weary of its situation, and appeared disc breathe. ment.
posed to change it. Both armies, there- Some very important discoveries have An example which partially illustrates fore, set out at the same time, the one lately been made by Ehrenberg in his this last remark is supplied in the engra- proceeding upwards, and the other down observations on these singular beings. ving prefixed to this article, which repre-wards, so that after some hours' journey By feeding infusoria with very pure cosents a single drop of water as it appears they met in the middle. A desire of loured substances, as indigo and carthrough a microscope,* peopled with va- knowing how they would behave on this mine, he has ascertained the existence of rious species of minute animals called occasion engaged the observer to watch | mouths, stomachs, and intestines, and animalcules, of the habits of some of them carefully, and, to his surprise, he many interesting particulars relating to which we propose to give a brief account. saw the army that was marching upwards their structure and functions. But, per
It may be observed in general of the open to the right and left to make room haps, the most astonishing view of these microscopic orders of animals, that the for those that were descending. Thus, animals, and of the wonders of the mismallest which have ever come under no- without confusion or intermixture, each croscopic world in general, is presented tice have been discovered in water. Not held on its way; the army that was going by a recent improvement in the solar that we may infer from this that there up marching in two columns to the top, microscope-we refer to Mr. Gould's inare not creatures of equally diminutive and the other descending in one column strument, constructed under the direction size inhabiting the air, or creeping upon to the bottom, as if each had been under of Mr. Cooper, and Mr. Cary, the optithe earth; the reason is simply that, from the direction of intelligent leaders, cian, and the extraordinary effect of the transparency of water, and from its Another very singular animal, whose which is daily exhibited at No. 287. confining the creatures in it, we can more existence and habits have been discovered Strand. It acts on the general principle easily bring the assistance of the micro-by the microscope, has been dignified with of the solar microscope, but is supplied scope to bear on the examination of them. the name of the Proteus, from its as- with an artificial and most brilliant light, Of these, indeed of all animated beings, suming so great a variety of shapes as produced by the mixture of hydrogen the monas is the most simple. The termo scarcely to be recognized as the same and oxygen gases on lime. The writer is the most minute creature of this genus, animal in its different transformations. had recently an opportunity of witnessing being so extremely delicate and transpa Its general shape bears a considerable the effect of this extraordinary instrurent as often to elude the highest magni- resemblance to that of the swan, and its ment, and, without describing in detail fying powers, and seeming to blend with changes are chiefly effected by its neck, the beauties or the horrors which it the water in which it swims. Another which it sometimes extends to a consi- | brought to light from the invisible world and very minute class of animalcules is derable length, and sometimes disposes | (in doing which he would be obliged to that which has been termed by Mr. Baker of it altogether. It also appears to have draw very largely on the faith of his reathe hair-like insect, on account of its the power of increasing its transparency ders), he may give some general idea of shape, being extremely slender, and fre- or opaqueness at will. There are no eyes, the spectacle by stating that the instruquently an hundred and fifty times as nor any opening in the head like a mouth, ment magnifies three hundred thousand long as it is broad. These creatures are to be discerned; but its actions clearly times, so that a drop of water appears to so small that millions of millions of them prove that it possesses the faculty of vision; cover a surface of a hundred square feet! might be contained in the space of a for though multitudes of other animalcules We cannot but anticipate some importsquare inch. Yet low in the scale of swim about with it in the same water, and ant accessions to physical science from being as they may appear to stand, its own progressive motion is very swift, this extraordinary instrument, and we owing both to their extreme minuteness yet it never strikes against any of them, confidently recommend it to the notice and the simplicity of their structure, yet but directs its course between them with of our readers as a source of much ineven these, in common with those orders astonishing dexterity.
struction and amusement. of inferior animals with which we are Another and a very perfect animal is more ordinarily conversant, exhibit indi- discovered by the microscope in rain wacations of sagacity, and of the formation ter, which has stood for some days in
ON GOOD AND BAD HUMOUR. of habits. They seem, for example, to leaden gutters, or hollows on the tops of be fond of society; for, after viewing for houses. This is called the vorticella, or THERE is no disposition more comfortable some time a quantity of them taken up wheel-animal. Its most remarkable dis- to the person himself, or more agreeable to at random, the observer will see them tinction is the apparatus from
what good health is to the body, putting a disposing themselves in a kind of regular derives its name, and which, from all de
uit de man in the capacity of enjoying every thing order. If a multitude of them are put scriptions, would appear strongly to re that is agreeable in life, and of using every into a jar of water, they will form them- | semble the paddles of a steam-boat. They | faculty without clog or impediment. It disselves into a regular body, and ascend change their shape considerably in dif- | poses to contentment with our lot, to benevoslowly to the top. When they are weary | ferent views, but it seems pretty evident | lence to all men, to sympathy with the disof this situation they form themselves into that they are circular wheels, which per-| tressed. It presents every object in the most a kind of rope, which slowly descends as form entire revolutions, and are provided
favourable light, and dispeses us to avoid
giving or taking offence. There is a disposilow as they intend; but, if they happen with cogs similar to those on the balance
tion opposite to good humour, which we call to be near the side of the jar, they will wheel of a watch. All the actions of this bad humour, of which the tendency is directly descend upon it. In one experiment, a creature., says an observer, indicate saga- | contrary, and therefore its influence is as mar small quantity of matter, containing these city and quickness of sensation. At the lignant as that of the other is salutary. animalcules, having been put into a jar | least touch or motion in the water they
"Bad humour alone is sufficient to make a of water, it so happened that one part instantly draw in their wheels; and it is man unh
| man unhappy ; it tinges every object with its
pwn dismal colour; and, like a part that is went down immediately to the bottom, conjectured that the eyes of this creature
galled, is hurt by every thing that touches it. are placed somewhere about this appara-1 it takes offence where non
It takes offence where none was meant, and PHOTOTHROU! • C. Gould's improved pocket compound mi- tus, as wn
tus, as while in the maggot state its mo- disposes to discontent, jealousy, envy, and, in oroscope, which magnifies 62. 500 times.
tions are slow and blundering, but, after general, to malevolence.-Reid on the Mind.
THE ORLEANS GALLERY OF (£800); and for the Saint John in the Desert, 1 at the end of which time all pictures sold were PICTURES.
by Raphael, he paid likewise 20,000 francs; delivered to the purchasers.
but it has been asserted that, had this last pic- The pictures reserved for the original purThe late Mr. President West used to re ture been indubitable, it must even at that chasers, at their estimated valuation, ainounted mark, that next to the merit of having painted period have cost four times that sum, as the to 39,000 guineas. Those sold during the sale a picture which should do honour to the art, works of Correggio, which cannot be placed by private contract amounted to 31,000 guiand become an ornament to the state wherein above those of Raphael, were paid for in that neas, while the residue sold afterwards by Mr. it was produced, was the credit of having | proportion.
Coxe, joined to the receipts of exhibition, brought from foreign countries works of the By the means of these various acquisitions, which were considerable, amounted to about great masters. The importation of such works the gallery of the Duke Regent contained, £10,000 more, thus leaving a valuable collectends to enrich the nation which receives during his lifetime, 485 pictures of the best tion of pictures to the purchasers, as a bonus them; it holds out a bright example for imi- choice, and in the finest state of preservation. and just reward, for securing for this country tation, and rouses and calls into action the In 1792 the then Duke of Orleans, for the so splendid a collection, and enriching it with native talents of those who feel the sacred purpose of procuring money to agitate the works of the first class. fame of emulation.
pational spirit, of which he always hoped ul- On the first morning of opening for the priThe irreparable loss which this country sustimately to profit, sold all the pictures of the vate view to the principal amateurs, the late tained in the dispersion of the magnificent Palais Royal. A banker of Brussels, named Mr. Angerstein became a purchaser of some collection which had belonged to King Charles Walkuen, bought those of the Italian and of the most important pictures in the collecthe First, a collection founded upon the sound- French schools at the price of 750,000 livres tion, in particular of the Resurrection of Laest principles of good judgment, aided by the (£31,000), who again sold them to Monsieur zarus, by Sebastian del Piombo, which he elegant and refined taste of the monarch him- Laborde de Mereville, a gentleman of fortune, immediately, and without hesitation, secured self-the subsequent diminution of its riches for 900,000 livres (£37,500). This gentleman, at the price demanded, of 3500 guineas. The in the transfer of the Houghton collection to a either as an amateur, or guided by feelings of late Sir Francis Baring was likewise an early northern Potentate--the meagre state of the national pride and philanthropy, made this
ational pride and philanthropy, made this visitor, and named a certain number of those collections which remained to us, in works of purchase with the sole view of preserving the pictures which were marked for sale, as obthe Italian school, made us strongly feel, in collection for France. For this purpose hejects which would suit his taste. The price our own case, the truth of the worthy presi- gave orders to build a superb gallery, con- demanded was 10,000 guineas; the offer made dent's remark, and the public was prepared to nected with his own mansion, in the Rue was £10,000. Mr. Bryan had no power to avail itself of the first opportunity which should d'Artois. The works were already far adoccur, to remedy, in part, these heavy losses. vanced, when the storm of the revolution vance, and the treaty was not concluded. This
The period was not far distant which of- burst out in all its force, and obliged Monsieur anecdote, which the author of these sketches fered such an occasion. The public mind of Laborde, with thousands of other refugees, to had from Mr. Bryan himself, not only proves France had for a long time been in a state of seek safety in England, whither he had the the off-handed decision and liberality which great agitation; those best acquainted with it good fortune to transport his collection, which always mark the character of a British merforesaw a storm approaching, and inany, among proved to him a resource during this period of chant, but the intrinsic value which was atothers Monsieur de Calonne, who had been re- his misfortunes. They did not, however, stop tached to the collection itself, the proprietors cently Minister of Finance, took an early op- here; for, anxious to revisit his native country, not admitting of the principle of naming a portunity of disposing of their valuable effects, for motives at present unknown, he was re- price greater than would actually be taken. or of transporting them into foreign states. / cognised by the reigning faction of the day, W. Buchunan's Memoirs of Painting.
Others, again, from inotives of a different and fell a sacrifice to the revolutionary cause. description, also disposed of their moveable The pictures of the Flemish, Dutch, and property for the express purpose of providing German schools were likewise sold in 1792 by
THE COVENANTERS. means for corrupting and inflaming the na- the Duke of Orleans, to Thomas Moore Slade, Fan inland, where the mountain crest tional spirit of the French people. Among those Esq., who paid for them 350,000 francs O'erlooks the waters of the west, was the Duke of Orleans, generally known by (£14,500), and who, by great management, And, 'mid the moorland wilderness, the pame of Philip Egalité, whose life after- succeeded in having them sent to this country Dark moss-cleughs form a drear recess, wards paid the forfeit of his ambition.
at the moment that matters begun in France Curtained with ceaseless mists, which feed Louis XIV. ceded the Palais Royal to Philip, to wear the most serious aspect. This pur
The sources of the Clyde and Tweedhis only brother, afterwards Regent of France, chase was made for the late Lord Kinnaird,
There, injured Scotland's patriot band and by him this collection was rendered the Mr. Morland, and Mr. Hammersley, in con
For faith and freedom made their stand ; finest and the most important private collec- junction with Mr Slade.
When traitor kings, who basely sold tion at that time existing in Europe. He The principal part of this magnificent col
Their country's fame for Gallic gold,
Too abject o'er the free to reignemployed some of the most celebrated artists lection, consisting of the Italian schools, was
Warned by a father's fate in vain, of the day to select for him, by purchase, the consigned, on the part of Monsieur Laborde
In bigot fary trampled down finest works of the great masters which could de Mereville, to a house of eminence in the The race to whom they owed their crown. be procured in the various countries of Europe, city of London; and it is believed that they There, worthy of his masters, came while many of the minor states, desiring to were in the hands of that house when a treaty The despots' champion, Bloody Graham,* pay their court to him, made presents to the was entered into by the late Mr. Bryan, as To stain for aye a warrior's sword, Regent of such works as were likely to yield authorised by, and on the part of, the late And lead a fierce, though fawning borde, him satisfaction, or to secure his favour and Duke of Bridgewater, the present Earl of Car
The human bloodhounds of the earth, protection. Philip employed twenty years of lisle, and the Earl Gower, now Marquis of
To hunt the peasant from his hearth! his life in forming this magnificent gallery. Stafford, for the purchase of that part of the
Tyrants ! could not misfortune teach Among the different pictures which were
That man had rights beyond your reach? collection, including also the French school,
Thought ye the torture and the stake purchased for the Regent, the prices which he which was agreed on at the price of £43,000.
Could that intrepid spirit break, paid for some of these have come down to us. When this important purchase was conclu
Which even in woman's breast withstood For the celebrated picture of the raising of ded, which secured for England one of the The terrors of the fire and flood ? Lazarus, now in the National Collection, he richest collections, and, at the same time, one Yes-though the sceptic's tongue deride paid to the chapter of monks at Narbonne the of the most valuable acquisitions which had Those martyrs who for conscience died; sum of 24,000 francs (£970), a sum certainly presented itself in modern times, it was de Though modish history blight their fame, much under its value even in those days, when termined on by these three noblemen to select And sneering courtiers hoot the name it is considered that for the Seren Sacraments a certain proportion of the pictures for their
Of men who dared alone be free of Poussin, now in the Stafford Gallery, he own private collections, and to allow the re
Amidst a nation's slavery; paid 120,000 francs (about £5000); and it mainder to be sold by private contract, under
Yet long for them the poet's lyre was well known that price never was the bar an exhibition to be made of the entire col
Shall breathe its noies of heavenly fire ; to the acquisition of whatever was truly ex- | lection.
Their names shall nerve the patriot's hand
Upreared to save a sinking land; cellent; the good fathers, no doubt, had their This exhibition commenced on the 26th of
And piety shall learn to burn reasons for ceding this celebrated picture for December, 1798, in the rooms belonging to With holier transport o'er their urn ! 80 small a sum. Mr. Bryan, in Pall Mall, and at the Lyceum,
Pringle's Ephemerides. For the Saint Roch and Angel, by A. in the Strand, neither of these places being, Caracci, which was formerly in the Church individually, sufficiently extensive to contain de St. Eustache at Paris, be paid 20,000 francs 'the collection.
The popular appellation of the celebrated Graham of It continued for six months, Claverhouse, afterwarde Viscount Dnadee:
occupied so ably by those writers. We shall, | mined, therefore, as the only way to restore THE TOURIST. therefore, quote the abstract of the Reporter so order, and to maintain their own authority, to far as answers our purpose.
| call the slaves in the neighbourhood to their MONDAY, JANUARY 28, 1833.
" When the French Revolution took place, aid, promising to give freedom to all who should the free people of colour of St. Domingo, range themselves under the banners of the Re
many of whom were persons of property and public. This was the first proclamation by any THE SAFETY OF IMMEDIATE EMAN
education, petitioned the National Assembly public authority for emancipating any part of CIPATION.
that they might enjoy the same political pri- the slaves in St. Domingo. The result of it No. III.
vileges as the whites. In March, 1790, the was, that in the north a very considerable Assembly adopted a decree on the subject, number of them joined the Republican cause
but worded so ambiguously that, in St. Do- and became free. ST, DOMINGO.
mingo, the whites and the people of colour | “Soon after this transaction, Polverel, learinterpreted it each in their own favour. This ing Santhonax at the Cape, went in his capa
gave rise to animosities between them ; dis-city of commissioner to Port au Prince, in the TAE past history and present condition of turbances ensued, and blood was shed.
west. Here he found things quiet, and cultiSt. Domingo (now termed Hayti) have been “On the 15th of May, 1791, another decree, vation flourishing. He also visited the south. misrepresented to an almost unprecedented in more explicit terms, declared that the peo He had not, howerer, been long there before extent by the opponents of negro emancipa- ple of colour in all the French islands were the slaves, having become acquainted with tion. The conclusiveness of the evidence entitled to all the rights of citizenship. This what had taken place in the north, were so which it supplies in proof of the safety and decree, on arriving at the Cape, produced an excited that he was convinced their emanciexpediency of immediate abolition has secured indignation almost amounting to frenzy among pation could not be prevented, nor even long it no inconsiderable portion of colonial notice, the whites. The two parties armed against retarded ; and that it was necessary for the and has led to the propagation of reports as each other, and camps began to be formed, safety of the planters, as well as for the publie opposite to truth as light is to darkness. The and massacres and conflagrations followed. peace, that it should be extended to the whole advocates of slavery are fully aware that, if | The report of these occurrences led the As- of the slaves in the island. Accordingly, in the facts of this case are once fully appre- sembly to rescind the decree they had passed September, 1793, he issued a proclamation to hended by the British public, they will go far in favour of the free people of colour.
that effect, dated from Les Cayes. He exhorted to remove those fears with which some con- “ The news of this repeal enraged the peo- the planters, if they wished to avoid the most template the immediate destruction of colonial ple of colour as much as the former decree serious calamities, to concur in the measure. bondage.
had done the whites, and hostilities were re- | He caused a registry to be opened to receive Hence the diligent employment of a per- newed. On this, the National Convention the signatures of those who should approve of verted ingenuity, and a wide circulation of the resolved to readopt their former decree of it; and it is remarkable that all the propriebasest falsehoods. The public judgment has | May, 1791 ; and they appointed Santhonax, tors in the south inscribed their names. He been thus misled, and the apprehensions of Polverel, and another, to repair as commis- then caused a similar registry to be opened at the misinformed and timid have been awa- sioners to St. Domingo, with a large body of Port au Prince for the west, and there the kened. Were we to admit the correctness of troops, in order to enforce the decree and to same disposition was found to prevail. All our opponents' representation, we should be far keep the peace.
the planters, except one, gave in their signafrom acquiescing in the soundness of their “During the interval which had elapsed tures. While these measures were in proconclusion. The question which we have to from 1790 to the time of their arrival in 1793, gress, in the month of February, 1794, the determine is not whether a slave population the island had presented a dreadful scene of French Convention passed a decree abolishing can, with advantage to themselves, break away carnage, caused by a civil war, not only be- slavery throughout the whole of the French from their bondage by means of a protracted tween the whites and the people of colour, colonies. Thus the Government of the motherand sanguinary war, but whether a country, but between the different parties of whites. country confirmed the freedom bestowed by enlightened like our own, cannot, with safety And it was at this time, namely, in 1791 and the commissioners, removing all doubts of its to the slave, abolish the degrading and cruel 1792, before the emancipation of the slaves validity, and completing and consolidating the system under which he suffers. Though a had been contemplated, that the great mas- emancipation of the whole slave population of slave population may be incompetent to legis-sacres and conflagrations, which make so St. Domingo.” late wisely for themselves, it does not follow frightful a picture in the history of this island, Here it becomes us to pause, and to enquire that the British nation may not institute such occurred; and all of which were caused, not with all seriousness and impartiality: What enactments as may render their translation by giving liberty to the slaves, but by quarrels were the consequences of this measure? What from servitude to freedom not only innocuous between the white and coloured planters, and were the effects of this sudden and entire but beneficial. But we are by no means dis between the royalists and revolutionists, who, Emancipation of about 500,000 slaves. These posed to shrink from an examination of the to wreak their vengeance on each other, called slaves it must be remembered were not spread facts of this case. Though not necessary for in, indeed, the aid of their slaves. And even over twenty colonies, but were located in one. our argument, we are fully prepared to show as to the bodies of armed negroes who then They had not been subjected to any preparathat the abolition of slavery in Hayti, notwith- filled the north, in particular, with terror and tory process, but were at once set loose from standing the unfavourable circumstances under dismay, Malenfant affirms that they were ori- the absolute authority of their masters, amidst which it took place, has been productive of ginally put in motion by the royalists, in order all the violence and barbarity of a civil war. incalculable good to the whole negro popula- to put down the revolutionists; and that eren in such circumstances we should not have tion-that, so far from their condition having when Jean François and Biassou commenced been surprised, if much temporary evil both deteriorated, it has undergone an almost un- their insurrection there were many white roy- to the master and the slave had resulted. But precedented improvement. In the present alists with them, and the negroes wore the we have unsuspected testimony to the con. paper we purpose giving a brief sketch of the white cockade.
trary. Colonel Malenfant, who resided in the history of the abolition of slavery in Domingo “In the year 1793 the same divisions and island at the time, gives us the following account —the effects which followed, and the present conflicts continued, notwithstanding the arri- of the conduct of the negroes.* “ After this condition of the community. Mr. Clarkson val of the commissioners; and, on the 20th of public act of emancipation," says he, (by Polhas anticipated us in his admirable pamphlet June, a dreadful commotion took place at verel,) “the Negroes remained quiet both in on The Necessity of Improving the Condition Cape François, the seamen and the white in the South and in the West, and they continued of the Slaves, foc., so that we have little more habitants being ranged against the people of to work upon all the plantations. There were to do, in the early part of this paper, than to colour, who were afterwards joined by the in- estates, indeed, which had neither owners nor abridge his account. This has been done al surgent blacks. The battle lasted two days; managers resident upon them, for some of ready in No. 70 of the Anti-Slavery Reporter, the arsenal was taken and plundered; some these had been put into prison by Montbrun; the writer of which remarks, “We could not thousands were killed in the streets, and more and others, fearing the same fate, had fed to do justice to our cause more effectually than than half the town was burnt. The commis- the quarter which had just been given up to by abstracting a great part of his (Mr. Clark- | sioners, who were spectators of this horrible the English. Yet upon these estates, though son's) statement, having first taken the pains to scene, and who had tried in vain to prerent it, abandoned, the negroes continued their labours, verify it by a reference to the authentic docu- escaped unhurt, but were left upon a heap of where there were any, even inferior, agents to ments from which he has drawn his materials.” ruins, with little more power than their com guide them; and, on those estates where no It would be but an affectation of originality mission gave them, having only about a thouwere we to go over the ground which has been sand troops at their command. They deter * Mémoire Historique, &c. p. 58.
white men were left to direct them, they be- | consisting of more than four hundred and fifty that they lived on them peaceably, and that took themselves to the planting of provisions; labourers, refused to work, and yet this plant- the negroes worked for them. but upon all the plantations where the whites ation was thought to be under the worst dis- | General Lacroix, also, who published his resided, the blacks continued to labour as quiet- cipline, and the slaves the most idle, of any in “ Memoirs for a History of St. Domingo" at ly as before." And again,* “ If,” says he, the plain. I, myself, inspired the same ac- Paris in 1819, tells us that when Santhonax ti you will take care not to speak to them oftivity into three other plantations, of which I returned to the colony in 1796, “ he was as their return to slavery, but talk to them about had the management."
| tonished at the state in which he found it." their liberty, you may with this latter word Such was the conduct of the negroes during “This,” he says, " was owing to Toussaint, who, chain them down to their labour. How did the first nine months of their liberation, or up while he had succeeded in establishing perfect Toussaint succeed? How did I succeed also | to the middle of 1791. The same author in- order and discipline among the black troops, before his time in the plain of the Cul de Sac, forms us, “ the colony was flourishing under had succeeded also in making the black and on the plantation Gouraud, more than | Toussaint. The whites lived happily and in labourers return to their plantations, there to eight months after liberty had been granted peace on their plantations, and the negroes resume cultivation." The same writer tells (by Polverel) to the slaves ? Let those who worked for them.”
worked for them.”
Now Toussaint was ce
Now Toussaint was ge- that wonderful progress in agriculture was knew me at that time, and even the blacks neral in chief of the armies of St. Domingo made in 1797. “The colony,” he says, “marchthemselves, be asked. They will all reply, from the end of 1796 till 1802. Malenfant ed, as by enchantment, towards its ancient that not a single negro upon that plantation, therefore means that throughout this period | splendour; cultivation prospered; every day
| the planters kep! possession of their estates, produced perceptible proofs of its progress." • P. 125, 3 p. 78, 4 p. 311.
s To be Continued.)
WELLS CATII EDRAL. The Cathedral Church, dedicated to in the upper ranges of the central com- simplicity and elegance. Of this chaSt. Andrew, is a magnificent cruciform partment are the statues of the twelve racter are the nave and transepts; the structure, principally in the early style of apostles, in a series of lofty niches sepa- former, one hundred and ninety feet in English architecture, with partial inser- rated by slender shafts; and in the range / length, is separated from the aisles by a tions of the decorated and later styles. immediately beneath them are figures of beautiful range of clustered columns and The foundation was laid by Wiffeline, the hierarchs, below which is a sculp- finely-pointed arches, above which are a second bishop of the diocese; and the tured representation of the resurrection, triforium of lancet-shaped arches, and a edifice was completed and improved by in alto-relievo. The entrance, which is fine range of clerestory windows, in which Bishop Joscelyne, in 1239. The west through a deeply-recessed arch, is flanked elegant tracery, in the later English style, front is a striking and superb combina- by the western towers, of which the lower has been inserted; the roof is finely tion of stately grandeur and splendid stages are comprised in the general de-groined, and the great west window is embellishment; the whole of it, together sign of the front, and the upper, which embellished with ancient stained glass of with the buttresses, by which it is divided are wreathed with pierced parapets, are great brilliancy. The choir, which is in into compartments, is replete with elabo- relieved by fine windows, and with lofty the decorated style, and of very elegant rate sculpture, from the base to the sum- canopies rising from the buttresses. The character, is one hundred and eight feet mit, in successive tiers of richly canopied central tower, which is one hundred and long from the organ-screen to the altar, shrines, containing the statues of kings, sixty feet from the base, is crowned with beyond which is the Lady Chapel, fiftypopes, bishops, cardinals, and abbots; a pierced parapet of elegant design, and five feet in length, both forming parts the mullions of the west window, and decorated with lofty angular pinnacles of one general arrangement, which, for the lower stages of the western towers, surmounted with vanes, and with smaller beauty of design, and richness of archiare similarly enriched; the canopies of pinnacles in the intervals; though of tectural embellishment, is, perhaps, unthe niches, in which these figures are en- | large dimensions, it has an airy appear- equalled; the piers and arches are of shrined, are supported by slender-shafted ance, from the proportionate size and graceful proportion; the roof is elabopillars of polished marble, and the inter- elegance of the windows. The interior rately groined, and the windows are of mediate spaces between the several series displays some specimens of the early beautiful symmetry, and enriched with are filled with architectural ornaments of English style, which are of unfrequent tracery of peculiar delicacy. There are elegant design and appropriate character. occurrence, and equally remarkable for i numerous chapels in various parts of the