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plunder of them. The Hottentots assert, also, I
| were ravaged or cut dowp for forage; and the that to obtain access to the hives in hollow trees, Now think, little dear, as you sit at your tea.
wretched and famished inhabitants were, in the honey bird often calls to its aid the woodpecker " Sugar-a sweet-a-lip! sugar-a-boola!"
many instances, mercilessly destroyed, being -a bird which finds in the larvæ, or young bees, If thou art a Honey-bird, who is the Bee?
bombarded in the thickets to which they had a treat as enticing to its taste as the honey is to Alas! the poor NEGRO_who suffers for thee fied with grape-shot and Congreve rockets. that of its ingenious associate. Though I cannot
In the slave-cultured Islands far over the sea, An officer (Captain Stockenstrom), who had vouch, on my own knowledge, for the truth of the
Crying, “ Charaib uloolula! Afric uloola !”
the unhappiness to be employed by the Cape latter statement, it yet seems quite in conformity
government in this deplorable warfare, furwith the general habits of this singular bird, and,
nished me with some notes which he had preat all events, may be admitted as sufficient poetical authority for a foundation to the following little THE WRONGS OF AMAKOSA.
served of a speech, delivered in his presence to fable.-T. P.]
the British commandant, in a noble and manly BY THOMAS PRINGLE, ESQ.
strain of eloquence, by a Caffer envoy-one of Tye Honey-bird sat on the yellow-wood tree,
the followers of the Chief Makanna, who had, And age he was singing—" Cherr-cherr-a, cu
in the extremity of his country's distress, voluncoo-la!"
Ulin gaba inkulu siambata tina,
tarily surrendered himself as a hostage. The
Ulodali bom' uadali pezala, A-watching the hive of the blithe Honey-bee
Umdala wadalu idale izula,
following is a brief specimen :“ Cherr-a-chert, cherr-a-cherr, cherr-a cu-c00
Yebinza inquinquis zixeliela :
“ This war, British Chiefs, is an unjust war; UHLANGA umkula yozizulina, Yebinza inquinquis nozilimela.
for you are striving to extirpate a people whom The bee-hive was built in the hollow-tree bole,
Poem by Sicana, a Caffer Chier. you forced to take up arms. When our fathers
and the white men first met in the Zuurveld “ Cherr-a-cherr, cherr-a-cherr, cherr-a cu-coo
(Albany), they dwelt together in peace. Their la !"
In the wars between the European colonists Hocks grazed on the same hill; their husbandWithout any entrance but one little hole,
and the native tribes of South Africa, many men smoked together out of the same pipes; “ Cherr-a-cherr, cherr-a-cherr, cherr-a cu-coo
mutual injuries, as in most similar cases, have they were as brethren; until the colonists (the
been inflicted; but, if the balance were fairly | Dutch Boors) became too covetous, and, when The Bees they flew in, and the Bees they flew out,
adjusted, an enormous preponderance of wrong they could not obtain all our cattle fur beads " Boom-a-boo, foom-a-boo, boom-a-buzz-soola !"
must, I fear, be placed to the account of the and old buttons, began to take them by force. And they seemed to buzz round with a jeer and a
less excusable party—the enlightened and the Our fathers were men: they loved their cattle; fiout
powerful. In support of this opinion, I shall their wives and children lived upon milk. “ Boom-a-boo, foom-a-boo, boom-bom-a-boo-la!" state a few facts from the recent history of the They fought for their property; then there was
Caffer frontier, which I had opportunities of war. Our fathers drove the Boors out of the But the Honey-bird swore by the Aasvogel's* bill, investigating upon the spot, during a residence | Zuurveld, and dwelt there, for they had justly
“ Cherr-a-cherr, Aasvogel, gobb-a-gob-oo-la!" of several years in the colony, and which, conquered it. There we were circumcised; Of their honey-comb he would soon gobble his though not altogether novel, are not, perhaps, there we married wives; and there our chilso well known as they ought to be.
dren were born. The Boors hated us, but “ Cherr-a-cherr, cherr-a-cherr, gobble-a-goolu !” In the year 1818 an internal 'war broke out could not drive us away. But you (the British)
among the Caffer or Amakosa tribes, who in came into the land; and you took into your So he flew to the Woodpecker-" Cousin,” quoth habit the beautiful country on the eastern friendship our enemies. You called the treahe,
frontier of the Cape colony; and, one of the cherous Ĝaika your brother; and you wished “ Cherr-a-cherr, cherr-a-cherr, cherr-a cu-c00
parties being worsted, their chief, Gaika, ap. to possess the Zuurveld. You came at last la! Come, help me to harry the sly Honey-bee,
plied to the colonial authorities for aid against like locusts. We stood : we could do no more. “Cherr-a-cherr, Wood-pech-er, cherr-a chop
his opponents. The Cape government of the You said to us, 'Go over the Fish-River; that hoola !”
day thought fit to interfere, and immediately is all we want.' We yielded, and came hither
became the principal in a quarrel with which to the land of our fathers. Says the Woodpecker, gravely, “ To rob is a crime, it had properly no concern. A strong military “We lived in peace with you. Some bad Tic-a-tac, tic-a-tac, chop-at-a-hoola
force was sent over the Great Fish River (then people stole, perhaps; but the nation was quiet. Besides, I hate honey, and cannot spare time, the colonial boundary), which ravaged the ter | Gaika, your friend, stole-his chiefs stole-his Tic-a-tac, tic-a-tac, snap-at-a-snoola !”
ritories of the confederate chiefs opposed to people stole. You sent him copper; you sent
Gaika, Llhambi, Jaluhsa, Habanna, Congo, | him beads; you sent him horses-on which he Quoth the Honey-bird, “Cousin, reflect, if you | Enno, and their followers, and carried off into rode to steal more. To us you sent only complease,
the colony twenty-three thousand head of cat-mandoes (plundering expeditions). Cherr-a-cherr, cherr-a-cherr, cherr-a cu-coo-la! tle, comprising nearly half the live stock of “We quarrelled with Gaika about grassThe honey-comb's half-full of juicy young bees, the clans attacked, and their chief means of no business of yours. You sent a commando; Cherr-a-chert, cherr-a-cherr, gobble-a-goola!”
subsistence; their gardens and fields of millet you took our last cow ; you only left a few
being also, to a great extent, destroyed in the calves—which died for want, along with our “Ha! ha!” cries the Woodpecker," that's a strong expedition. The exasperated tribes, incited at children. You gave half the spoil to Gaika; plea,
once by famine and revenge, and encouraged half you kept yourselves. Without milk,Tic-e-tac,"tic-a-tac, tac-at-a-foola!
by the favourable predictions of their prophet- our corn destroyed,—we saw our wives and I now see the justice of robbing the BeeTic-a-tac, tic-a-tac, snap-at-a-snoola!
counsellor, Makanna, turned their whole force children perish — we saw that we must our
against the colony; and, after cutting off se- selves perish; we followed, therefore, on the “ They're a polypode race, and have poisonous
veral inferior posts, attacked the British head-track of our cattle into the colony. We plun
quarters at Graham's Town, with an army of dered, and we fought for our lives. We found Tic-a-tac, tic-a-tac, chop-at-a-hoola!
nearly ten thousand men. A very intelligent you weak; we destroyed your soldiers. We And then they're but insects, and insects are things —
officer, the late Captain Harding, who was saw that we were strong; we attacked your Tic-a-tac, tic-a-tac, snap-at-a-snoola !"
present, assured me that the Caffers would in head-quarters: and, if we had succeeded, our
fallibly have succeeded in capturing the place, right was good, for you began the war. We So the bee-hive was harried; and, after their toil, and Colonel Willshire, the commandant, with failed, and you are here. “ Cherr-a-cherr," "tic-a-tac," "chop-at-a-hoo it, had they not, according to their chivalrous “We wish for peace; we wish to rest in our la !”
custom, sent notice before day-break that they huts; we wish to get milk for our children; The jolly birds jeered, while parting the spoil were coming “to breakfast with the British we wish to hunt for game, and to let our wives “ Cherr-a-cherr," "tic-a-tac," “ gobble-a. chief.” Thus prepared, the colonial troops, | till the land. But your troops cover the plains, goola!”
after a brief but perilous conflict, repulsed the and swarm in the thickets, where they cannot
Caffer army with great slaughter; the latter distinguish the man from the woman, and “ Poor Pigeons may prate about Natural Rights," being armed only with their national weapon, shoot all. Quoth the Honey-bird—" Coorr-a-moo, coorr-a-1
the assagai, or African javelin. A second, and “ You order us to submit to Gaika. That mur-r00-ra !” “But the merry Owl mocks such Poetical Flights,"
still more destructive invasion by the British man's face is fair to you, but his heart is black. Quoth the Woodpecker—" Hu-hu-hoo! tu-whit!
troops succeeded. The kraals or villages of Leave him to himself. Make peace with us. tu-whoor-r.a!
the confederate clans were burnt; their prin- Let him fight for himself—and we shall not
cipal chiefs were declared outlaws, and high call on you for help. Set Makanna at liberty; * Aasvogel, the South African name of the Percnop.
rewards offered for their apprehension, dead or and Llhambi, Congo, and the rest will come terus, the Sacred Vulture of the Egyptians.
alive; their cultured plots of maise and millet' to make peace with you, and keep it faith
fully. But, if you will still have war, you large portion remains so still. I made an ex- , hearts of the friends of Africa. We learn may indeed kill the last man of us but cursion through part of it, from the Winter- from the “ South African Advertiser” (a jourGaika shall never rule over the followers of berg mountain down the river Koonap, in nal distinguished for eminent ability and steady those who think him a woman."
1822, in company with Captain (now Colonel) devotion to the cause of Christian humanity), This manly appeal was in vain. The expe- C. R. Fox, and some other officers; and again, that on the 21st of March, 1832, a public dition continued to ravage the country ; until, in 1825, in another direction. The aspect of meeting of a most interesting character was having unavailingly employed every stratagem the country, though wild, was beautiful and held in the country of the Amakosa Caffers, at to get possession of the other chiefs whom the impressive : it was finely diversified with lofty the missionary station called Wesleyville. The Cape Gazette had proclaimed “ontlaws," the mountains and winding glens, with picturesque chiefs residing in that quarter assembled with British commander at length retired into the rocks and forests, open upland pastures, and their followers to meet by appointment the colony, with an additional spoil of twenty or level savannas along the rivers, sprinkled with commandant of the frontier, who was attended thirty thousand cattle,—which were partly mimosa trees; and herds of wild animals, by a number of officers and many of the most divided among the colonists who had suffered quaggas, elands, hartebeests, gnoos, koodoos, respectable colonists of the district of Albany. in the war, and partly sold, and the proceeds with many varieties of the smaller antelopes, The principal object was to afford the natives appropriated to the erection of a Christian were scattered over the verdant pastures, while an opportunity of expressing their opinions church at Uitenhage!
| troops of elephants were browsing undisturbed | respecting the advantages of Christian misMeanwhile, what became of Makanna ?- among the wooded kloofs and jungles of ever sions, which, during the last ten years, have Makanna, of all the Amakosa chiefs the most greens. But the remains of Caffer hamlets, progressively extended themselves throughout obnoxious to the colonial authorities, and who, scattered through every grassy nook and dell, the whole of Cafferland. The proceedings with a heroic self-devotion, had surrendered and now long deserted and fast crumbling to commenced by singing a hymn and offering himself as a hostage, in the hope, as he avowed decay, excited reflections of no gratifying cha- up prayer in the Amakosa language ; after to Captain Stockenstrom, in whose hands he racter, and occasionally increased, even to a which the natives were addressed by the comhad placed himself, of thereby obtaining peace painful degree, the feeling of melancholy lone- mandant and by other English gentlemen. and mercy for his country. His fate was someness which a country void of human in- ' Addresses were then successively delivered briefly as follows:-By order of the Colonial habitants never fails to inspire.
| by the principal chiefs present, viz. by Kai the Government, he was forwarded by sea from Before the Caffers were expelled from this son of Llhambi, Fundis the son of Dusani, Algoa Bay to Cape Town; there confined as a territory, a few of them had acquired some Pato, Enno, Congo, Kami, Numpethla, and prisoner in the common jail; and finally, with knowledge of Christianity, from the instruc Habanna. Several of the speakers displayed others of his countrymen, guilty of no other tions of Dr. Vanderkemp, and subsequently considerable powers of eloquence; and all offence than fighting for their native land from the missionary Williams, who resided spoke with feeling and effect in favour of the against its Christian and civilized invaders, he about two years among thein previous to his Christian religion, and expressed their full was condemned to be imprisoned for life on death in 1818; after which period, Christian conviction that the labours of the missionaries Robben Island--the Botany Bay of the Cape- missionaries were for some years prohibited by tended greatly to the improvement and trana spot appropriated for the custody of convicted the Colonial Government from entering Caffer- quillity of their country. Two or three of the felons, rebellious slaves, and other malefactors, land. After the decease of Mr. Williams, one chiefs made some striking remarks on the sindoomed to work in irons in the slate quarries., of his converts, Sicana, the captain of a kraal gular circumstances under which they were After remaining about a year in this wretched or village on the Kat river, continued to assem-now met :--that it was not, as in former times, place, Makanna, with a few followers, Caffers ble every Sabbath his heathen followers to to consult about a warlike expedition against and slaves, whom he had attached to himself worship God, and composed for their use, in the colony, or to encounter the calamities of a from among the inmates of that house of bon- his native dialect, the poem or hymn of which threatened invasion ; but that they were now dage, rose upon the guard, overpowered and a few lines are prefixed to this paper, and assembled with the Christians in brotherly disarmed them; then, seizing a boat, embarked which I have frequently heard chanted by confidence that the commandant, whose hoshis adherents in it; and would, in all proba- the Amakosa Caffers, to a low plaintive native tile attacks had often occasioned such alarm bility, have effected his escape with them, but, air. The following prose version will serve, and distress throughout their country, had as he leapt on board-the last man froin the better perhaps than one in verse, to convey to come with the English chiefs of Albany, unshore-the overloaded pinnace was accidentally the reader some idea of its imagery and tone armed and without soldiers, into the midst of upset, and the unfortunate African Chief was of sentiment:
them; and that they themselves had ventured engulphed by the raging surf and drowned. “He who is our mantle in the storm, the to meet them without a single assagai in their
Makanna, though the most eininent, was by Giver of Life, ancient, on high, is the Creator hands. This pleasing state of affairs they no means the only individual of his nation of the heavens and the ever-burning stars ; ascribed chiefly to the influence of the gospel, who was subjected to this disgraceful and ini- even UHLANGA (the SUPREME), high in hea. which had truly turned their spears into quitous treatment. Many other cases became ven, almighty, who whirls the stars around the pruning hooks; for, at the moment they were known to me during my residence in South sky. We call on him in his dwelling-place to speaking, the women and children were busy Africa, and not a few fell under my personal be our chieftain-guide ; for he maketh the in their fields over the face of the land, reaping observation, equally or even more discreditable blind to see. We adore him as the only Good, the harvest with the assagai and battle-axe. to the colonial authorities and to the British the only rock of defence, the only trusty shield, The chief Kama, amongst many other obname. Hostages and prisoners of war were the only bush of refuge. We adore UTIKA (the servations, remarked that he rejoiced in the treated as common felons; women and chil | BEAUTIFUL), the Holy Lamb, whose blood for opportunity this meeting afforded of testifying, dren, innocent of offence, were separated from man was shed, whose feet and hands were in the presence of so large an assembly of his husbands and fathers, and consigned to bitter pierced; for He, even He, is the Giver of countrymen, that he had embraced the Gospel; and degrading servitude. So late as 1827, Life, on high, the Creator of the heavens.” that he was baptized, and was resolved to live Major-General Bourke, into whose humane Since the time of Sicana (who died in 1819), and die a Christian; and he conjured those and enlightened charge the administation of Christian missions have made most gratifying who heard him, of whatever race or colour the Cape Colony bad devolved, found several progress among the Caffer tribes. More than they might be, who might be disposed to think of these unhappy exiles, Caffers and Ghonaquas, one chief of influence have recently embraced or talk lightly of such matters, to reflect that still prisoners in Robben Island, and benevo- the religion of the gospel; and the prospect of they were beings formed for immortality, and lently released and sent them back to their own this mild-tempered, high-spirited, and most to prepare themselves to meet their Maker and country.
interesting people, being, at no remote period, their Judge. Not the least remarkable (and I may add brought entirely within the pale of the Chris The assembly was also addressed in appronot the least iniquitous) result of the Caffertian church, is highly encouraging; although, priate speeches by the Chaplain of Graham's war of 1819-20, was the annexation to the at the same time, it must be confessed, that Town and by four Wesleyan missionaries preColony of a large track of the Amakosa coun the colonial policy in regard to the native sent; and the interest of the meeting was fully try, extending to about two millions of acres. tribes, though improved since 1819, is still, in sustained to the end, notwithstanding the inThis was effected by a compulsory convention several respects, extremely objectionable, and convenience of using interpreters. The whole with the native chiefs (ourally Gaica included), calculated rather to retard than promote their was closed by an impressive prayer, offered up who, with their followers, were then dislodged progress in civilization, or to increase their in the beautiful and flowing Amakosa lanand expelled beyond the Keisi and Chumi respect for the justice and morality of Chris guage, by the Chief Kama. rivers. The whole of the evacuated territory, tian nations. under the appellation of the Neutral Ground, The latest intelligence, however, from the remained unoccupied for several years, and a Caffer frontier is well calculated to cheer the
TO THE EDITOR OF THE TOURIST. | had the permission of Mr. Gilzean for flogging the family hearth of European homes,
| the man, but the latter had not seen Alexander, \ engaged twisting the supple cordage of SIR.-Allow me to solicit your insertion of nor been at Wey-hill during the period in the bignonia into close-woven baskets, the following case of barbarity to a slave, question. which is taken from The Jamaica Watchman
"I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
with which he carries the fruits of his of Sept. 5, 1832. Let the colonists disprove
garden to market, or into open ones, in such cases before they venture to tell us of
which he conveys his poultry thither. In the happiness of the negro, and of the prompt
the construction of his cottage it is of redress which is afforded them when injured.
indispensable utility. He laces with it Were the records of the Inquisition compared with those of the colonies, I verily believe the
the rafters of his roof, and supplies, by latter would be found most dark and revolting.
this means, the lateral rests for his thatch, Surely the law-officers of Jamaica will not fail
or be ties with it the leaves of the fanto institute an inquiry into this case.
palm to the lathing of the reed-cane, and Yours,
thus covers in his hut. He weaves with it, too, the temporary sacking on which
he sometimes stretches his bed-mats. As “ TO THE EDITOR OF THE WATCHMAN.Sir,-Seeing, in your paper of the ulth inst.,
it is of very considerable length, its pliant a letter, signed 'Q. IN A CORNER,' relating some
cordage being frequently found twined particulars of the death of a slave, named
into the middlemost branches of the foAlexander Kelly, at Wey-hill, in St. Mary's,
rest-tree, it is used, on occasions, as after a flogging, I beg to furnish you with a
the most continuous and effectual plait full statement of that affair.
for weirs, constructed across mountain “Alexander Kelly, the slave of a poor blind
streams, and for pots for taking fish. In man of colour, in St. Thomas's in the Vale, had, with the permission of Mr. Alexander
fact, there is scarcely a purpose to which Gilzean, his manager, and also attorney for
the rope or twine of hemp may be applied Wey-hill, married a woman of the last inen
for which this is not just as conveniently tioned place, named Elizabeth. Elizabeth
useful; and, pressed for almost every mopossessed a horse, which was kept on the pro
ment of his time, from sun-rise to sunperty with the attorney's permission. On a
set, and through half the night during Friday afternoon, about a month ago, Alexan
six months in the year, for his master's der Kelly rode the horse from Highgate, where he was employed, to Wey-hill. An application
service, the house of the negro would was immediately made to him for the horse by
be a costly work upon his hands, his garthe muleman, under the overseer's order, to THE BIGNONIA EQUINOXIALIS. den an expensive enclosure, and his everycarry coffee down to Kingston. He declined
day duties in the forest, the field, or the giving it, but led it up to the overseer, Mr. DYDINAMIA, ANGIOSPERMIA : LINNÆUS. market, affairs of much time and labour, John West, and showed the sore back of the
if the prodigality of nature did not bestow animal as the reason for his refusal. The over There is not, perhaps, in all tropical seer, however, tried to force the rope out of his vegetation, a plant which combines the
on him, in every hedge and thicket, this hand, and insisted on his giving up the animal. two-fold incidents of commonness and
handy cordage of the liana. Alexander still refusing, the overseer called for | utility so much as this species of the big
The blossom is very bright; it is rosesome persons to put him into the stocks, at the nonia. In those countries where slavery
coloured, and is about three times that of same time striking him. On the persuasion of
the engraving. There are varieties that one of the slaves (William King), he went prevails, the small pittance of time which
are white and yellow also. It is seen quietly to the stocks, into which both his feet the avarice of the master spares for the
generally garlanding its twin flowers and were put. The next night his hands were tied, domestic necessities of his bondman, would and on Sunday night handcuffs were put on. scarcely suffice to supply the things indis
twin leaves in festoons. This twin state At twelve o'clock on Monday he was laid down pensably necessary in home economy,
of the leaves and flowers is a peculiarity on the barbicue, in a roasting sun, the handcuffs which human ingenuity fabricates in other
of all the binding bignonias, but not of being still on. He was flogged with the driver's countries, had not nature bestowed them
the herbaceous or the arborescent kind. long whip, and then a bundle of guava switches was flogged out, by one or two at a time,
Its effect, when in blossom, is always every where at hand. She gives the cala
beautiful, but more particularly so when it bash, in lieu of the beechen bowl, which on the same place! On the flogging being discontinued, Alexander cried out for water
is interlaced with some pendant branched requires the art of the turner in Europe ; to be thrown over his head; he could not rise; the Bamboo, sawed in two between joint
tree, that delights in the freshness of and the driver and another were obliged to lift and joint, is a bucket tighter, neater, and
streams and waterfalls. The bark yields him and support him back again to the stocks, more compact, than any which the coop
a red, and the young pods a yellow, into which he was again put, with the handcuffs still on! The overseer superintended the
tincture. An infusion of the flowers is er makes; the close-woven integument, whole. In a short time—about half an hour
frequently used remedially in Haiti, in forming the footstalk of a magnificent
affections of the liver and spleen; it is the man died in the stocks, in handcuffs! An and gigantic species of the areca palm,
bitter, detersive, and slightly astringent. inquest was held on the Tuesday afternoon, supplies all the purposes of that matting Mr. John Blake acting as coroner, and several and thick pasteboard which patient toil |
The negroes of the English islands call overseers and book-keepers in the neighbour prepares elsewhere; while the spatha that
it the wiby and the titye; and those of the hood, the friends and associates of Mr. West,
French colonies, the liane à corde, the envelopes the ear of the maize corn in the composing the jury. A Doctor (Roberts) opened
liane à panier, and the liane nubi; the the head and body, and declared there was no same countries is little less useful than
Spaniards give it the name of la liana violence nor disease. Whether the verdict was paper or cloth to the house wife; and the as stated by 'Q. in a Corner,' I know not; but, liane or withe of the bignonia, quite as simply. if a flogging under a burning sun, and confine-efficient as twisted cord for the woodman's ment in stocks and handcuffs, be 'the visitation bundle, the marketer's pack, and the
ANIMAL LIFE. of God, then all will concur in the verdict; l gardener's trellis work.
The following is the scale of animal life but, if these things cannot come forward under
nuer It is not unusual in our West India Irom the most celebrated writers on natural that expression, the Attorney-General ought to
history :-A hare will live 10 years, a cat 10, a inguire into the matter.
colonies, at those hours assigned to the I have only to add
goat 8, an ass 30, a sheep 10, a ram 15, a dog that, if there be need, I can furnish the names negro for rest or for food, to see him, 14 to 20, a bull 15, an ox 20, a swine 25, a of all the witnesses to the whole affair, and the with his children, seated at his “ door pigeons Dames of the jury. It is said that Mr. Westmouth," a phrase with him equivalent to I raven 100, an eagle 100, a goose 100.
CANTERBURY CATIIEDRAL. “ But let my due feet never fail
and admiration. The whole perspective ther towards the east, and forming the To walk the studious cloisters pale, And love the high, embowed roof,
from the west end is, indeed, extremely termination of the whole edifice, is a With antique pillars, massy proof;
fine. The nave is separated from its circular building called Becket's crown; And storied windows richly dight, aisles by eight distinct columns on each which, together with the chapel above Casting a dim, religious light:
side, and the windows are large and ele- mentioned, was erected with the offerings There let the pealing organ blow To the full-voiced choir below,
gant. The great west window is filled made to the shrine of St. Thomas. In service high, and anthems clear,
with painted glass, representing saints, The sepulchral monuments in this suAs may with sweetness through my oar apostles, kings, and other distinguished | perb cathedral are equally numerous and Dissolve me into ecstasies,
personages, together with armorial bear-interesting. Those erected to the memory And bring all heaven before my eyes."
ings of benefactors. The great tower of various archbishops are magnificent
rests on four immense columns; and its architectural objects, and are also inCANTERBURY was very early the seat interior, which is open to a considerable structive specimens of the fashions which of Christianity, and to that circumstance, height, is finely ornamented. The north- prevailed in the ages of their construction. together with the gross superstition and ern division of the transept, or aisle, Two monuments to royal personages deignorance which, in the early history of which proceeds across the church in the mand the attentive notice of the investithis country, clouded the popular reli- vicinity of the tower, is termed the mar gator. These are situated beneath the gious notions, we owe the venerable edi. | turdom, from having been the scene of | arches which surround the chapel of the fice represented above. It would be Archbishop Becket's assassination. The Holy Trinity, and contain the ashes of difficult to relate with precision the ear great windows of this cross aisle are filled Henry the Fourth, his queen, Joan of liest history of this establishment, and with curiously-painted glass.
Navarre, and Edward, usually styled the perhaps we shall go as far back as is Between the nave and the choir is a Black Prince. The effigies of Henry and necessary, in stating that, after having beautiful stone screen, finely sculptured, his consort, habited in robes of royalty, been several times destroyed by fire, and and in excellent preservation. The choir / are placed on a large tomb enriched with rebuilt with great splendour, as we have displays the English style of architecture towered niches, pinnacled buttresses, and reason to believe, the present building in its earliest stage, and nearly before it other ornaments. Beneath the opposite was commenced about the year 1174, was methodized into a consistent order. | arch is the tomb of the renowed Black and augmented and embellished by suc | The arches are pointed, but irregular and Prince. On this monument lies a whole cessive archbishops, till it was completed graceless. This part of the church is | length figure of Prince Edward, in arin the reign of Henry V. It is a mag- I fitted up with much grandeur, but with mour. The hands are raised in the attinificent Gothic pile, and, before the Re- little attention to the ancient style that tude of prayer, the head is supported by formation, contained thirty-seven altars. , prevails in the stone-work; as an instance a helmet, and the feet rest on a lion. The Many kings, princes, cardinals, and arch- of which it may be observed, that the statue, which is of brass, and very finely bishops, lie buried in it, and contribute stalls appropriated to the deans and pre- / worked, represents a handsome but not to the interest of the place a host of bendaries are divided into compartments an athletic man. Above the tomb is an legends and historical recollections. It by pilasters of the Corinthian order. The embattled canopy, and over it hangs the -suffered in common with many other | aisles of the choir, together with parts of prince's tabard (or coat) of arms, his ecclesiastical edifices during the civil | the eastern transept, display vestiges of gauntlet, and some other relics. wars, having been, on one occasion, made the building raised in the Norman style a stable by Cromwell for his dragoons ; of architecture, by Archbishop Lanfranc. it was, however, repaired at the Restora- To the east of the choir is the chapel WONDERS OF NATURE. tion.
of the Holy Trinity; in the midst of The cathedral is usually entered through which formerly stood the sumptuous
There is a very curious plant, termed diothe south porch, which is a spacious fabric, ) shrine of Becket.
of Becket. The pavement round nea muscipula, or fly-trap, that secretes a
The pavement round ned muscipula, embattled and richly adorned. On a the spot on which the relics were placed
sweetish fluid in its leaves, not unlike honey, first view of the interior, the simple beauty is worn into hollows on every side, by the being touched, the leaf contracts, and being of
by which flies are attracted ; immediately on of the nave, and the elegance of its knees of the numerous devotees who re- a thorny, prickly nature, the animal is crushed vaulted roof, excite emotions of reverence sorted thither in pilgrimage! Still fur- to death, as if for its temerity.
ANCIENT ASTRONOMERS. Regarding them as ordinary stars, he never in 1611, his generous patron, Cosmo II., Grand :
thought of estimating their distances. On the Duke of Tuscany, invited him to Florence, that NO. Iv.
following day, when he accidentally directed he might pursue, with uninterrupted leisure, GALILEO.
his telescope to Jupiter, he was surprised to his astronomical observations, and carry on his This distinguished philosopher was born at see the three stars to the west of the planet. correspondence with the German astronomers. Pisa in 1564. He was the son of a Florentine To produce this effect it was requisite that the His fame had now resounded through all Eunobleman, and was educated for the medical motion of Jupiter should be direct, though, rope; the strongholds of prejudice and ignoprofession; but a passion for geometry took according to calculation, it was actually re- rance were unbarred, and the most obstinate possession of his mind, and called forth all his trograde. In this dilemma he waited with adherents of ancient systems acknowledged powers. Without the aid of a master he stu- | impatience for the evening of the 9th, but, the meridian power of the day star of science. died the writings of Euclid and of Archimedes, unfortunately, the sky was covered with clouds. Galileo was ambitious of propagating the great and such were his acquirements that he was on the 10th he saw only two stars to the east, truths which he contributed so powerfully to appointed by the Grand Duke of Tuscany to a circumstance which he was no longer able establish. He never doubted that they would the mathematical chair of Pisa, in the twenty- to explain by the motion of Jupiter. He was, be received with gratitude by all-by the phififth year of his age. His opposition to the therefore, compelled to ascribe the change to losopher as the consummation of the greatest Aristotelian philosophy gained him many ene- the stars themselves; and, upon repeating his efforts of human genius—and by the Christian mies, and at the end of three years he quitted observations on the 11th, he no longer doubted as the most transcendent displays of Almighty Pisa, and accepted of an invitation to the pro- that he had discovered three planets revolving power. But he had mistaken the disposition fessorship of mathematics at Padua. Here he round Jupiter. On the 13th of January he, of his species, and the character of the age. continued for eighteen years, adorning the uni- for the first time, saw the fourth satellite. That same system of the heavens which had versity by his name, and diffusing around him This discovery, though of the utmost im- been discovered by the humble ecclesiastic of a taste for the physical sciences. With the portance in itself, derived an additional value Frauenberg, which had been patronised by the exception of some contrivances of inferior im- from the light which it threw on the true sys- kindness of a Bishop, and published at the portance, Galileo had distinguished himself by tem of the universe. While the earth was the expense of a Cardinal, and which the Pope no discovery till he had reached the forty-fifth only planet enlightened by a moon, it might himself had sanctioned by the warmest recepyear of his age. In the year 1609, the same naturally be supposed that it alone was habit- tion, was, after the lapse of a hundred years, year in which Kepler published his celebrated able, and was, therefore, entitled to the pre- doomed to the most violent opposition, as subcommentary on Mars, Galileo paid a visit to eminence of occupying the centre of the sys- versive of the doctrines of the Christian faith. Venice, where he heard, in the course of con- tem ; but the discovery of four moons round a On no former occasion had the human mind versation, that a Dutchman of the name of much larger planet deprived this argument of exhibited such a fatal relapse into intolerance. Jansens had constructed, and presented to its force, and created a new analogy between The age itself had improved in liberality; the Prince Maurice, an instrument through which the earth and the other planets. When Kepler persecuted doctrines themselves had become he saw distant objects magnified and rendered received the “ Sidereal Messenger," the work more deserving of reception; the light of the more distinct, as if they had been brought in which Galileo announced his discovery in reformed faith had driven the Catholics from nearer to the observer. This report was cre- 1610, he perused it with the deepest interest; some of their most obnoxious positions; and dited by some and disbelieved by others; but, and while it confirmed and extended his sub- yet, under all these circumstances, the Church in the course of a few days, Galileo received a stantial discoveries, it dispelled, at the same of Rome unfurled her banner of persecution letter from James Badovere, at Paris, which time, some of those harmonic dreams which against the pride of Italy, against the ornaplaced beyond a doubt the existence of such still hovered among his thoughts. In the ment of his species, and against truths im an instrument. The idea instantly filled his “ Dissertation” which he published on the mutable and eternal. mind as one of the utmost importance to sci- discovery of Galileo, he expresses his hope In consequence of complaints laid before ence; and so thoroughly was he acquainted that satellites will be discovered round Saturn | the Holy Inquisition, Galileo was summoned with the properties of lenses, that he not only and Mars; he conjectures that Jupiter has a discovered the principle of its construction, motion of rotation about his axis, and states | heretical opinions which he had promulgated. but was able to complete a telescope for his his surprise that, after what had been written He was charged with “ maintaining as true own use. Into one end of a leaden tube he on the subject of telescopes by Baptista Porta,
len tuhe he l on the subiect of telescopes by Baptista Porta, the false doctrine held by many, that the sun fitted a spectacle-glass, plane on one side and they had not been earlier introduced into ob was immoveable in the centre of the world, convex on the other, and in the other end he servatories.
and that the earth revolved with a diurnal placed another spectacle-glass concave on one In continuing his observations, Galileo ap- | motion—with having certain disciples to whom side and plane on the other. He then applied plied his telescope to Venus, and in 1610 he he taught the same doctrine-with keeping up his eye to the concave glass, and saw objects discovered the phases of that planet, which a correspondence on the subject with several “ pretty large and pretty near him.” They exhibited to him the various forms of the German mathematicians with having pubappeared three times nearer, and nine times waxing and the waning moon. This fact es- lished letters on the solar spots, in which he larger in surface, than to the naked eye. He tablished beyond a doubt that the planet re-explained the same doctrine a
explained the same doctrine as true—and with soon after made another, which represented volved round the sun, and thus gave an addi. having glossed over, with a false interpretaobjects above sixty times larger; and, sparing tional blow to the Ptolemaic system. In his tion, the passages of Scripture which were neither labour or expense, he finally construct- observations on the sun, Galileo discovered bis urged against it.” The consideration of these ed an instrument so excellent as “to show spots, and deduced from them the rotation of charges came before a meeting of the Inquithings almost a thousand times larger, and the central luminary. He observed that the sition, which assembled on the 25th of Feabove thirty times nearer to the naked eye." body of Saturn had handles attached to it; bruary, 1616, and the court, declaring their
There is, perhaps, no invention that science but he was unable to detect the form of its disposition to deal gently with the prisoner, has presented to man so extraordinary in its ring, or render visible its minute satellites. On pronouneed the following decree :-“ That nature, and so boundless in its influence, as the surface of the moon he discovered her Cardinal Bellarmine should enjoin Galileo to that of the telescope. To the uninstructed mountains and valleys, and determined the renounce entirely the above-recited false opimind, the power of seeing an object a thou- curious fact of her libration, in virtue of which nions; that, on his refusal to do so, he should sand miles distant, as large, and nearly as dis parts of the margin of her disk occasionally be commanded by the commissary of the Intinct, as if it were brought within a mile of the appear and disappear. In the Milky Way he quisition to abandon the said doctrine, and to observer, must seem almost miraculous; and descried numerous minute stars which the un- cease to teach and defend it; and that, if he to the philosopher, even, who thoroughly com-assisted eye was unable to perceive; and as did not obey this command, he should be prehends the principles upon which it acts, it the largest fixed stars, in place of being mag-thrown into prison.” On the 26th of February must ever appear one of the most elegant ap- nified by the telescope, became actually mi- Galileo appeared before Cardinal Bellarmine, plications of science. To have been the first nute brilliant points, le inferred their immense and, after receiving from him a gentle adinoastrunumer in whose hands such a gift was distance as rendered necessary by the Coper- nition, he was commanded by the commissary, placed, was a preference to which Galileo nican hypothesis. All his discoveries, indeed, in the presence of a notary and witnesses, to owed much of his future reputation.
furnished fresh arguments in favour of the desist altogether from his erroneous opinions; No sooner bad he completed his telescope new system; and the order of the planets, and and it was declared to be unlawful for him in than he applied it to the heavens, and on the their relation to a central sun, may now be future to teach them in any way whatever, 7th of January, 1618, the first day of its use, considered as established by incontrovertible either orally or in his writings. To these comhe saw round Jupiter three bright little stars evidence.
mands Galileo promised obedience, and was lying in a line parallel to the ecliptic, two to While Galileo was occupied with these noble dismissed from the Inquisition." the east, and one to the west of the planet. ' pursuits at Pisa, to which he had been recalled' The mildness of this sentence was, no doubt,