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THOMAS CLARKSON, Esq., was born be regretted, as the materials which relate / Our object, in furnishing a brief sketck in 1761, and was educated at St. John's to a subsequent and more interesting pe- of the life of this estimable man, is to College, Cambridge. We know nothing riod of his life are more numerous than acquaint our readers with the extent of of his early history-a matter the less to our space will allow us to insert. I his labours in the Abolition controversy,
and to familiarize them with some of the I reflected upon them, or rather upon the ( considerably aided the parliamentary efdetails of the controversy itself. Mr. , authorities on which they were founded, | forts of Mr. Wilberforce. He did not Clarkson's attention was first drawn to the the more I gave them credit. Coming in pursue this course without much opposiAfrican Slave Trade in 1785. Dr. Peck- sight of Wade's Mill, in Hertfordshire, I tion. The same parties who now oppose hard, the Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge, sat down disconsolate on the turf, by the | the abolition of Slavery were then equally proposed, in that year, to the senior road-side, and held my horse. Here a strenuous in their opposition to the aboliBatchelors of Arts, the following subject thought came into my mind, that, if the tion of the Slave Trade. The most viofor a Latin dissertation : Is it right to contents of the Essay were true, it was | lent and infamous means were employed make slaves of others against their will ?" | time some person should see these cala- | to counteract the labours and to blast the Mr. Clarkson having, the previous year, mities to their end. Agitated in this character of Mr. C. Even his life was obtained a prize for the best Latin disser manner, I reached home. This was in sometimes threatened. This was particutation, felt he should sink in the estima- the summer of 1785."*
larly the case at Liverpool. “ The temtion of his college, if he did not succeed. After this, Mr. Clarkson translated and per of many of the interested people of this year also.
published his Dissertation, and, at length, Liverpool had now become still more irriUnder the in Auence of this literary determined on sacrificing the fair prospect | table, and their hostility more apparent, ambition, he commenced his inquiries. of preferment in the church which he than before. I received anonymous letHe soon found himself at a loss for ma- had, in order to devote himself entirely ters, entreating me to leave it, or I should terials on which to form an enlightened to this work of mercy. In 1787 a com otherwise never leave it alive. The only judgment respecting the African trade, mittee was formed in London, for the effect which this advice had upon me was and repaired to London to obtain them. purpose of procuring and putting into to make me more vigilant when I went Having procured the information which circulation authentic information respect-out at night. I never stirred out at this he needed, he began his work; but ing the Slave Trade. Mr. C. was the time without Mr. Falconbridge; and he he had not proceeded far before his most active member of this body. He never accompanied me without being well mind underwent a thorough revolu- called on the leading members of the two | armed. Of this, however, I knew notion. It would be injustice to the Houses of Parliament, soliciting their at- | thing until we had left the place. There subject to substitute any phraseology in tention to the subject, and furnishing was certainly a time when I had reason the place of his own unaffected and them with whatever information he had to believe that I had a narrow escape. I touching narrative :-" But no person procured. Amongst other persons he was one day on the pier-head, with many can tell the severe trial which the writing called on Mr. Wilberforce; and it is in others, looking at some little boats below of it proved to me. I had expected teresting to know the reception which at the time of a heavy gale. Several pleasure from the invention of the argu- was given to this subject by that distin- persons, probably out of curiosity, were ments, from the arrangement of them, guished and philanthropic statesman, hastening thither. I had seen all I infrom the putting of them together, and when it was first proposed to him. “On tended to see, and was departing, when I from the thought, in the interim, that I my first interview with him, he stated noticed eight or nine persons making towas engaged in an innocent contest for frankly, that the subject had often em-wards me. I was then only about eight literary honour. But all my pleasure was ployed his thoughts, and that it was near or nine yards from the precipice of the damped by the facts which were now his heart. He seemed earnest about it, I pier, but going from it. I expected that continually before me. It was but one and also very desirous of taking the trou- they would have divided to let me through gloomy subject from morning to night. I ble of inquiring further into it. Having | them ; instead of which they closed upon In the day-time I was uneasy--in the read my book, which I had delivered to me and bore me back. I was borne night I had little rest. I sometimes never him in person, he sent for me. He ex- within a yard of the precipice, when I closed my eyelids for grief. It became pressed a wish that I would make him discovered my danger; and, perceiving now, not so much a trial for academical acquainted with some of my authorities among them the murderer of Peter Green, reputation as for the production of a work for the assertions in it, which I did after- and two others who had insulted me at which might be useful to injured Africa. | wards to his satisfaction. He asked me the King's Arms, it instantly struck me And, keeping this idea in my mind ever if I could support it by any other evi- that they had a design to throw me over after the perusal of Benezet. I always dence. I told him I could. I mentioned the pier-head; which they might have slept with a candle in my room, that I | Mr. Newton, Mr. Nisbett, and several | done at this time, and yet have pleaded might rise out of bed and put down such others to him. He took the trouble of that I had been killed by accident. There thoughts as might occur to me in the sending for all these. He made memo- was not a moment to lose. Vigorous on night, if I judged them valuable, con randums of their conversation, and, send- account of the danger, I darted forward. ceiving that no argument should be lost ing for me afterwards, showed them to One of them, against whom I pushed in so great a cause. Having, at length, me. On learning my intention to devote myself, fell down. Their ranks were finished this painful task, I sent my Essay myself to the cause, he paid me many | broken, and I escaped, not without blows, to the Vice-Chancellor, and soon after- handsome compliments. He then desired | amidst their imprecations and abuse." wards found myself honoured, as before, me to call upon him often, and to ac- ! We should be glad to pursue our narwith the first prize.
quaint him with my progress from time to rative of Mr. Clarkson's labours, but "As it is usual to read these essays pub-| time. He expressed also his willingness our limits forbid. Such of our readers
to afford me any assistance in his power as wish to know more of the details of prize is adjudged, I was called to Cam- in the prosecution of my pursuits.”+ 1 the Abolition controversy, we refer to bridge for this purpose. I went and per-. From this period Mr. C. was employed his History, from which we have quoted. formed my office. On returning, how- in visiting the different sea-ports of the | This work, though little read at the preever, to London, the subject of it almost | kingdom, in order to obtain, from persons sent day, is one of the most deeply inwholly engrossed my thoughts. I became, engaged in the Slave Trade, authentic teresting publications which our language at times, very seriously affected while upon information of the manner in which it supplies. It is written with all the simthe road. I stopped my horse occasion was conducted. The facts elicited, in the plicity of truth, and will serve to disally, and dismounted and walked. I fre-course of his inquiries, were of the most close the falsehood and hypocrisy of quently tried to persuade myself, in these revolting and atrocious character, and many statements which the colonists now intervals, that the contents of my Essay could not be true. The more, however, I
• History of the Abolition, vol. i, p. 208.
put forth. We need not attempt al nomy, which became the leading passion of were supported by numerous astronomical obformal delineation of Mr. C.'s charac- his life. Quitting a profession uncongenial to servations; and, in 1530, Copernicus brought ter. His moral worth was seen in the such pursuits, he went to Bologna to study astro- I to a close his immortal work
nomy under Dominic Maria; and, after having tions of the Heavenly Bodies. unwearied and disinterested labours which
enjoyed the friendship and instruction of that! But, while we admire the genius which trihe prosecuted for upwards of twenty able philosopher, he established himself at umphed over so many difficulties, we cannot years. Enlightened posterity will enrol Rome in the humble situation of a teacher of fail to commend the extraordinary prudence his name amongst the benefactors of his mathematics. Here he made numerous as- with which he ushered his new system into species; while the consciousness of hav tronomical observations which served him as the world. Aware of the prejudices, and even ing aided the triumph of humanity must
the basis of future researches; but an event of the hostility, with which such a system
con oririt in this soon occurred which, though it interrupted for would be received, he resolved neither to console and gladden his own spirit in this
a while his important studies, placed him in a startle the one nor provoke the other. He latest stage of his earthly pilgrimage. Sit
situation for pursuing them with new zeal. allowed his opinions to circulate in the slow May he and his distinguished coadjutor, The death of one of the canons enabled his current of personal communication. The Mr. Wilberforce, yet survive to witness uncle, who was Bishop of Ermeland, to ap- points of opposition which they presented to the entire abolition of Colonial Slavery! point him to a canonry in the chapter of Frau-established doctrines were gradually worn
Mr. Clarkson was the author of the enberg, where, in a house situated on the brow down, and they insinuated themselves into refollowing works :-“ Essay on the Slavery
of a mountain, he continued, in peaceful seclu- ception among the ecclesiastical circles by the
sion, to carry on his astronomical observations. very reluctance of their author to bring them and Commerce of the Human Species,
During his residence at Rome his talents had into notice. In the year 1534, Cardinal particularly the African. 8vo. 1786.”—
been so well appreciated that the Bishop of Schonberg, Bishop of Capua, and Gyse, 16 The Impolicy of the African Slave Fossombrona, who presided over the council | Bishop of Culm, exerted all their influence Trade. 8vo. 1788.”_" The Comparative for reforming the Calendar, solicited the aid to induce Copernicus to lay his system before Efficiency of the Regulation and Aboli of Copernicus in this desirable undertaking the world; but he resisted their solicitations; tion of the Slave Trade. 8vo. 1789." At first he entered warmly into the views of and it was not till 1539 that an accidental cir“ Letters on the Slave Trade, &c. 4to.
the council, and charged himself with the cumstance contributed to alter his resolution.
determination of the length of the year and of George Rheticus, Professor of Mathematics at 1791."__" Three Letters to the Planting
the month, and of the other motions of the Wirtemberg, having heard of the labours of and Slave Merchants. 8vo. 1807.”—
sun and moon that seemed to be required; but Copernicus, resigned his chair, and repaired " The Portraiture of Quakerism. 3 vols. he found the task too irksome, and probably to Frauenberg to make himself master of his Svo. 1807."-" History of the Abolition, felt that it would interfere with those inter- discoveries. This zealous disciple prevailed &c. 2 vols. 8vo. 1808.”—“Memoirs of esting discoveries which had already began to upon his master to permit the publication of William Penn. 2 vols. 8vo. 1813.”_ | dawn upon his mind.
his system; and they seem to have arranged a “ Thoughts on the Necessity of Improv
Copernicus is said to have commenced his plan for giving it to the world without alarm
inquiries by a historical examination of the ing the vigilance of the church, or startling ing the Condition of Slaves, &c. 8vo.
opinions of ancient authors on the system of the prejudices of individuals. Under the dis1823.”
the universe; but it is more likely that he guise of a student of mathematics, Rheticus sought for the authority of their great names published, in 1540, an account of the manuscript
to countenance his peculiar views, and that he volume of Copernicus. This pamphlet was ANCIENT ASTRONOMERS. was more desirous to present his own theory as received without any disapprobation, and its
one that he had received, rather than as author was encouraged to reprint it at Basle, NO. 1.
one which he had invented. His mind had in 1541, with his own name. The success of
been long imbued with the idea, that sim- these publications, and the flattering manner COPERNICUS.
plicity and harmony should characterize the in which the new astronomy was received by In the century which preceded the birth of arrangement of the planetary system; and, in several able writers, induced Copernicus to Newton, the science of astronomy advanced the complication and disorder which reigned place his MSS. in the hands of Rheticus. It with the most rapid steps. Emerging from in the hypothesis of Ptolemy, he saw insuper-) was accordingly printed at the expence of the darkness of the middle ages, the human able objections to its being regarded as a re Cardinal Schenberg, and appeared at Nuremmind seemed to rejoice in its new-born presentation of nature. In the opinions of the berg in 1543. Its illustrious author, however, strength, and to apply itself with elastic vigour Egyptian sages, in those of Pythagoras, Philo- did not live to peruse it. A complete copy to unfold the mechanism of the heavens. The laus, Aristarchus, and Nicetas, he recognized was handed to him in his last moments, and labours of Hipparchus and Ptolemy had in his own earliest conviction that the earth was he saw and touched it a few hours before his. deed furnished many important epochs and sup not the centre of the universe; but he appears death. This great work was dedicated to the plied many valuable data ; but the cumbrous to have considered it as still possible that our Holy Pontiff, in order, as Copernicus himself appendages of cycles and epicycles with which globe might perform some function in the says, that the authority of the head of the they explained the station and retrogradations system more important than that of the other church might silence the calumnies of indiviof the planets, and the vulgar prejudices which planets; and his attention was much occupied duals who had attacked his riews by argua false interpretation of Scripture had excited with the speculation of Martianus Capella, ments drawn from religion. Thus introduced, against a belief in the motion of the earth, who placed the sun between Mars and the the Copernican system met with no ecclesiasrendered it difficult even for great minds to moon, and made Mercury and Venus revolve tical opposition, and gradually made its way escape from the traimmels of authority, and round him as a centre; and with the system of in spite of the ignorance and prejudices of the appeal to the simplicity of nature.
Apollonius Pergæus, who made all the planets age.- Brewster's Life of Sir Isaac Nexton, * The sovereign of Castile, the generous and revolve round the sun, while the sun and moon noble-minded Alphonso, had long before pro were carried round the earth in the centre of scribed the rude expedients of his predeces the universe. The examination, however, of
LIFE. sors; and when he declared that, if the heavens these hypotheses gradually dispelled the diffi Swift down the pathway of declining years, were thus constituted, he could have given the culties with which the subject was beset, and, As on we journey through this vale of tears; Deity good advice, he must not only have felt after the labours of more than thirty years, he Youth wastes away, and withers like a flower, the absurdity of the prevailing system, but was permitted to see the true system of the The lovely phantoms of a fleeting hour. musthave obtained some foresight of a more sim heavens. The sun he considered as immovable 'Mid the light sallies of the manting soul, ple arrangement. But neither he nor the as- in the centre of the system, while the earth
The smiles of beauty and the social bowl,
Inaudible the foot of chilly age Lronomers whom he so liberally protected seem revolved between the orbits of Venus and
Steals on our joys, and drives us from the stage, to have established a better system, and it was Mars, and produced by its rotation about its left to Copernicus to enjoy the dignity of being axis all the diurnal phenomena of the celestial
Hodgson's Translator from Juvenil. the restorer of astronomy.
sphere. The precession of the equinoxes was This great man, a native of Thorn, in Prus- thus referred to a slight motion of the earth's sia, following his father's profession, began his axis, and the stations and retrogradations of
SELF-LOVE. career as a doctor of medicine; but an acci the planets were the necessary consequence of
MEN own each little fault and failing, dental attendance on the mathematical lec- their own motions combined with that of the
But of their heavier sins-not one; tures of Brudzevius excited a love for astro-earth about the sun. These remarkable views
A thousand 'gainst their memories railing,
l've wandered o'er yon field of light, THE ORIGIN OF THE BUILDING OF , ing of corresponding magnificence; to prose- 1
cute the undertaking money was wanted, Where daisies wildly spring,
And traced the spot where fays of night ficiency of the treasury; and a monk of Saxony |
Flew round on elfia wing: The views of Julius II. were as distinguished opposing the authority of the church pro
And I've watched the sudden darting beam for the encourage pent of talents as his ambi
Make gold the field of grain, duced this singular event, that whilst the most tion was impetuous and unbounded in the
Until clouds obscured the passing gleam, splendid edifice which the world has ever seen exercise of sovereign power. It was a favourite
And all frowned dark again. was building for the Catholic faith, the reliobservation of his, that LEARNING elevated the lion to which it was consecrated was shaken
Then awake, awake!—each warbling bird
Now hails the dawning sun; lowest orders of society—stamped the highest
Labour's enlivening song is heard, value on nobility-and, to princes, was the Angelo.
For the young day has begun. most splendid gem in the diadem of sovereignty. He was no sooner seated on the
Is there to Contemplation given throne, than surrounded by men of genius.
An hour like this sweet one, Michael Angelo was among the first invited to
Awake! awake! the flowers unfold,
When twilight's starless mantle's riven
And tremble bright in the sun, his court, and he accompanied his invitation
By the uprising sun ? And the river shines a lake of gold, with an order for a hundred ducats to pay
When feathered warblers fleet awake,
For the young day has begun. his expences to Rome. After his arrival some
His breaking beams to see, The air is blithe, and the sky is blue, time elapsed before any subject could be de
And hill and grove, and bush and brake, And the lark, on lightsome wings,
Are filled with melody? termined upon for the exercise of his abilities; From bushes that sparkle rich with dew,
Then awake, awake!--all seem to chide at length the Pope gave him an unlimited
To heaven her matin sings.
Thy sleep, as round they run ; commission to make a mausoleum, in which Then awake, awake, while music's note
The glories of heaven lie far and wide, their mutual interest should be combined; but Now bids thee sleep to shun;
For the young day has begun. the sculptor may be said to make the monu Light zephyrs of fragrance round thee float,
Time's Telescope. ment for himself, when it only serves to record For the young day has begun. an illustrious name that will live in the page of history: he alone makes it for another, where a tablet is necessary to retard the hour of oblivion.
Having received full powers, Michael Angelo commenced a design worthy of himself and his patron. The plan was a parallelogram, and the superstructure was to consist of forty statues, many of which to be colossal, and interspersed with ornamental figures and bronze basso-relievos, besides the necessary architecture, with appropriate decorations, to unite the composition into one stupendous whole.
When this magnificent design was completed, it met with the Pope's entire approbation, and Michael Angelo was desired to go
SUDO 0000 into St. Peter's to see where it could be conveniently placed. At the west end of the church, Nicholas V., half a century before, began to erect a new tribune, but the plan had not been continued by his successors : this situation Michael Angelo thought the most appropriate, and recommended it to the consideration of his Holiness. He inquired what
CHICHESTER CROSS, SUSSEX. expence would be necessary to complete it; to which Michael Angelo answered, “a hundred The crosses, of which the above is a these few years, the population of the thousand crow ns." “ It may be twice that specimen, were erected by our forefathers city having greatly increased, a more sum,” replied the Pope ; and immediately in many ancient cities and towns, as mo convenient Market-place was required, gave orders to Giuliano da Sangallo to con
numents of Christianity; and, in the and, in supplying this want, it was prosider of the best means to execute the work.
genuine spirit of popery, they constructed posed to demolish the cross. From this Sangallo, impressed with the importance and grandeur of Michael Angelo's design, many
many of them with much care, and ex- fate, however, it was saved, by the intersuggested to the Pope that such a imonument | pended considerable siums in their embel vention of certain members of the corpoought to have a chapel built on purpose for it, lishments. Their situations and specific ration, to whom the antiquary owes a where local circumstances might be so at- objects were various : frequently at the considerable debt of gratitude. tended to as to display every part of it to ad- entrance of churches, to impress a feeling From some deeds still extant, it appears vantage; at the same time remarking, that I of devotional reverence for the edifice, that this cross was completed about the St. Peter's was an old church, not at all adapted for so superb a mausoleum, and any
and its sacred uses; frequently, on high year 1500; but the name of the architect, alteration would only serve to destroy the cha
roads, as at present in many countries of and the total expence at which it was racter of the building. The Pope listened to | Europe, to remind the traveller of the built, are unknown. It is considered one these observations, and, to avail himself of respect due to religion. They are also of the finest structures in the florid Gothic them to their fullest extent, ordered several | found in Market-places, where they were style which England contains. Its form architects to make drawings; but in consider-designed, by the associations connected is octangular, with pier buttresses at each ing and reconsidering the subject, he passed with them. to enforce integrity and fair angle, surmounted with pinnacles: on he determined to rebuild St. Peter's itself;
dealing; sometimes, on the site of bat- the summit are vanes, bearing the arms and this is the origin of that edifice which tles, to commemorate victory or peace, of the see. In each of its eight sides is took a hundred and fifty years to complete, and sometimes they were erected to mark an entrance under an arch; on four of and is now the grandest display of architec- | civil or ecclesiastical boundaries.
these sides are niches, formerly occupied tural splendour that ornaments the Christian | The Cross at Chichester was designed by figures, and, on the other four, are world.
as one of the Market Crosses, to which dials, facing the principal streets. It is - By those who are curious in tracing the re. mote causes of great events, Michael Angelo,
we have alluded, and of which one was also ornamented with a bust of Charles perhaps, may be found, though unexpectedly,
to formerly to be found in almost every the Second, in whose reign it was first thus to have laid the first stone of the Re | town which had a religious foundation. / repaired. formation. His monument demanded a build-' To this use it was applied until, within
from one improvement to another till at length
HAMPTON COURT PALACE. We owe this stately building to the his reign, it became one of his principal | made his escape on the 11th of Novemambition and luxury of Cardinal Wolsey. residences. Queen Elizabeth also fre- ber of that year. He became the lessee of the manor of quently resided here.
| King William III. was particularly Hampton in the early part of the reign of In January, 1604, Hampton Court partial to this residence, and employed Henry VIII., and expended large sums palace was the scene of the celebrated the skill and taste of Sir Christopher of money in converting the manor-house conference on the subject of conformity, Wren in effecting considerable alterations into a palace, so gorgeous that, to avoid held before King James, as moderator, in it. In its present state it consists of the envy it occasioned, he gave it to the between the Presbyterians and the mem- | three principal quadrangles, the eastern, king in 1526. After this time, however, bers of the established Church; the most middle, and western ; of which the first he occasionally inhabited it (probably as important result of which was the order contains the state apartments, which are keeper), and made it the scene of bound of the new translation of the Bible, exceedingly superb, and decorated with less magnificence and pomp, more espe- which is now generally received.
some valuable pictures by the old mascially when, as the king's representative, In 1625, Charles I. retired to this pa- ters. Among the works of art which he entertained the French ambassadors lace, to avoid the ravages of the plague; embellish this palace the Cartoons of Rathere in 1527. Subsequently to this, and in August, 1647, he was brought phael hold by far the most distinguished Henry added considerably to the extent hither as a captive, and remained in a place. of the palace, and, in the latter part of state of splendid imprisonment until hel
THE CAPTIVE OF CAMALU.
O CANALU--green Camalu!
'Twas there I fed my father's flock, Beside the mount where cedars threw,
At dawn, their shadows from the rock; There tended I my father's flock
Along the grassy margined rills, Or chased the bounding bontébok, *
With hound and spear, among the hills. Green Camalu! methinks I view
The lilies in thy meadows growing; I see thy waters bright and blue
Beneath the pale-leaved willows flowing ; I hear, along thy valleys lowing,
The heifers wending to the fold, And jocund herd-boys loudly blowing
The horn-to mimic hunters bold.
My brothers too _Green Camalu,
Repose they by thy quiet tide ?
And left them-lying side by side :
They fired the huts above the dying !--
I wish that mine were with them lying !
Ye wild harts on the woody hills;
And vultures slake in blood iheir bills:-
To Nature's common doom resigned;
But thraldom brutifies the mind.
A captive in the spoiler's hand,
To crouch beneath his proud command-
His blows, bis bitter scorn to bide!
Had with my slaughtered kinsmen died !
Where once I fed my father's flock,
And Amakosa's heart is broke,-
My homeless heart to you doth fly,-
To hide its wounded breast--and die.
Yet, ere my spirit wings its flight
Unto death's silent shadowy clime,
Who, high above the clouds of Time,
Of stars wheel round thy bright abode,
Of every race the Father-God !
Destroying hail, nor parching drought,
Nor pestilence by famine brought :
Who wept for Amakosa's wrongs-
For unto Thee all power belongs."
Throughout all lands in triumph go;
And blood and tears shall cease to flow ;-
And o'er the deep her arms extend
And prove indeed her ChristiaN FRIEND!
Methinks I see the geelhout-tree,
That shades the village-chieftain's cot; The evening smoke curls lovingly
Above that calm and pleasant spot. I see my sire-I had forgot
The old man rests in slumber deep. My mother dear!-ske answers not
Her heart is hushed in dreamless sleep.
• Bontebok, Antilope Scripta.
+ The yellow-wood tree, podocarpus elongata, in appe arance resembling the cedar,
• Utika, a word of Hottentot origin, signifying The Beautiful, now used by most of the South African tribes as the name of the Supreme Being the Christian God.
+ The Caffer name for Dr. Vanderkemp.
I In the Amakosa tongue as follows:- Amanhla uknsa kuaku makolu; yenza gokuaku-Akandaunios, amanbla, asinkosiné papakete."