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Ioman's Wrongs : A Counter-Irritant. By Life and Letters of Wilder Dwight, Lieuten

GAIL HAMILTON. Boston: Ticknor and ant-Colonel Second Massachusetts Infantry Fields.

Volunteers. Boston: Ticknor and Fields. It is the first business of the author of THE charm of this book begins with the this sprightly little book to demolish the noble face which greets you from its first Rev. Dr. Todd, who some time ago page, and which, once seen, haunts you printed a pamphlet on Woman's Rights, continually, in all the bright and manly and told woman the usual things about her words and all the heroic deeds which find sphere, and her dependence, and her di- record here. You must needs turn to it vinely established inferiority, and her sov- often as you read, and marvel at the perereignty of the affections, and her general fect expression it gives to the pure, cheerwickedness in making any effort except of ful, devoted life this brave young soldier the sort asked of Mrs. Dombey. Dr. Todd led. is such an intellectual chaos, that he had As to its external facts, it was the career to be built up before being knocked over, of multitudes : the civil pursuit suspended, and he seems in the end to be superfluous- the military life embraced with as great ly trampled upon. When our author has ardor as if it had been a long-cherished done with him, she enters upon much better purpose ; the seasoning of the good fibre in work, namely, the discussion of woman's camps; the hope, the patience, the impa. place in American society and polity. This tience; the greatly desired battle, and covtopic she treats as impersonally and frankly eted occasion, not merely to endure, but and vigorously as any of our own clear- to do, - it is so common a career, that it headed and abstractly thinking sex, and seems the story of the whole nation ; only brings knowledge of social and political the nation lived triumphing, and the indieconomy to bear upon it; while in saying vidual lives that reflected her heroism were that if she were a man she would not deny dark to her success. But the career which the right of suffrage to woman, and that be- in the letters here given is suffered, for the ing a woman she will not ask it, leaves the most part, to portray itself, was that of question in that doubt essential to the hap- a man whose excellent soldiership was piness of all seekers after truth. She ques- wrought of material noticeably fine, even tions whether the ballot would socially or in a country and a time that offered so morally elevate woman, seeing that the much of the best to war. The clear-headgreat mass of men are not so elevated by it; edness and knowledge of the world which and she is sure that it would not increase would have made a successful lawyer, and or regulate wages, which are subject only the grace and culture which might have to the laws of demand and supply, and can- won a reputation in literature, appear in not be reached by statute. Women, she the unconscious and careless letters dashed shows, are no longer shut out from trades off amid the duties and distractions of or professions, and they are ill-paid because camps; while the rare unselfishness, the they do slovenly half-work from want of tenderness and active goodness which skill. The author does not believe that the marked the character of this soldier, are typical forty thousand starving seamstresses eloquent in the testimonies of the friends in New York would be at all filled by the and companions in arms. “I have lived a ballot, but thinks they might be quite com- soldier, I die a soldier, I wish to be buried fortable in domestic service, — which it is as a soldier," he said to those who listened well to say, though the starving forty thou- to his last requests, after his mortal wound sand will never hear to it. There is such a at Antietam. Was our cause indeed so vast deal for women to do before they vote, grand, and was the national purpose so that, while she believes every woman who exalted, that such a man — so fine, so clear, desires to vote ought to vote now, she coun- so kind - could think, in death, of nothing sels her sex rather to strive for success in the better than its championship ? Seeing the businesses open to them than to dream of pitiful state into which we are so soon legislating themselves into well-paid em- fallen, it seems scarcely possible ; reading ployments. All this and more is urged, this book, we cannot doubt it. without favor to wise men who tell women We wish to say how simply and reto choose husbands and be happy, and say strainedly this story of Wilder Dwight is no more about it. The book is altogether told by one to whom the reader had been one of the most noticeable arguments upon most willing to pardon excess of pride the subject it treats.

or fondness. It is his mother who has

shaped the memoir, and with a brief mous Dictionary of Authors. Each writer's preliminary sketch of his boyhood and name is given, with a brief biographical college-life and travels abroad, has skil. statement, where the leading facts of his life fully connected the letters which contain are known, and then the titles of his works the narrative of his life from the time when are cited, with criticism from the best auhe entered the army, at the beginning thorities, and generally without comment of the war, until the time when he was where quotable criticism is wanting. The struck down at its darkest hour. Then French authors stand in about the proproperly follow expressions of public and portion of one to eight of the English, private grief and condolence; and so the and they treat commonly of historical and whole has been quietly and unaffectedly scientific topics, while their Anglo-Saxon said of facts and traits which make the fellow - colonists are the novelists, poets, reader exult to be of the same race and and preachers. Of literary clergymen, country with men like Wilder Dwight. there is indeed an extraordinary number

mentioned, and the names of many writing

officers of the British service go to swell Bibliotheca Canadensis; or, A Manual of Ca- the lists of Canadian authorship. From

nadian Literature. By HENRY J. MOR- the prevailing obscurity and oblivion, such GAN. Ottawa : G. E. Desbarats.

a name as John Foster Kirke's shines out

with remarkable effect; there are others, It is easy to see the great industry that like Haliburton's, which are also familiar, goes to the completion of such a work as though scarcely of the unfading kind. this, and all who, from taste or necessity, have to do with bibliography, must feel their indebtedness to Mr. Morgan. It has Early Recollections of Newport, R. I., from evidently been a labor of love and of patriot- the Year 1793 to 1811. By GEORGE G. ism with him; and while it has made him CHANNING, Newport, R. I. PP. 284. acquainted with more worthless books, probably, than were known even to the not “NEWPORT," said a summer resident, wisely but too well read friend of Charles “is the only place in the United States Lamb, it is a real service rendered to lit- where you are out of America.” The Engerature. The contributions to the material lish crown still decorates the top of its tallof local and provincial history, from both est steeple. There is a town-crier. It gives French and English sources, form a very one no sense of surprise to hear that the large portion of the works and authors cited; stern-post of Captain Cook's ship, the and herein the manual of Canadian litera- old “Endeavor,” is built into one of the ture is of very obvious use. As to the wharves. Where else should it be? It multitude of sermons, pamphlets, poems, marks the spot where many other endeavand novels, likewise carefully remembered, ors have gone down. their record here can at least serve as a There are single sidewalks in Newport, monument of untiring perseverance in our which are narrow enough and quaint enough, colonial neighbors, and as proof of that one would think, to lead an explorer back desire for something original and authentic to the Middle Ages; and Mr. Channing's in literature which goes before — often a book is like these sidewalks. Yet his memlong while before – a national literature. ory does not reach back to the brilliant Looking over the titles of the poems and period of Newport, but to its incipient deromances, and glancing at the criticisms on cay; it was beginning to be old when he them, an American beholds the image of

was young his own Republic of Letters as it was thirty It was said in Puritan days, in Massaor forty years ago. A celebration, at any chusetts, that, if any man lost his religion, cost, of Canadian scenes and incidents is he could find it again at some village in praised as the promise of a Canadian litera- Rhode Island. And if there could be any. ture ; and those people over the St. Law- thing in those days more varied and pecurence and the great lakes appear still guile- liar than the two hundred and ten “pestiless enough to believe that a national litera- lent heresies ” already counted up, it must ture is to be coaxed into existence and all have been put away in Rhode Island nursed into prosperity.

also, to be kept until Mr. Channing was Mr. Morgan's method in his work is born. Can it be really true that he remuch the same as Mr. Allibone's in his fa. members smoke-jacks and pewter plates,

that he saw men pilloried, and branded, and secured round the waist by a silken girdle. whipped through the streets at the cart's His head-gear was a red cap over a wig. tail ? Did people really ring the old year He rode with his arms akimbo." The out and the new year in ? Did watchmen Robin-Hood ballads must have seemed cry the wind and weather at night; and very real to the Newport boys when they were they cheered by occasional hospitali. saw this austere Friar Tuck in Lincoln ties on stormy nights, in the form of ginger green riding forth on sunny mornings; but and cider flip?

Mr. Channing admits no Maid Marian into Besides these doubtful felicities of night the tale, and evidently questions the historic wanderers, the author recalls other culinary truth of Mrs. Stowe's tender legends. delights, as, for instance “whitepot.” It It is pleasant to find that the author, true was pronounced as if written "whitpot,” to the instincts of his name, was indignant and was made of white Indian-meal and even in childhood at “the stratagem emnew milk, with enough molasses to give it ployed by the vestry [of Trinity Church] to a yellow tinge. He describes social fes- conceal the presence of colored people durtivities too; subscription assemblies, where ing service, which was effected by placing a the partners for the first two dances were frame with pear-shaped apertures at the assigned by lot; tea-drinkings where no- side of the organ, through which they could body spoke, and all the guests sat round see the minister and congregation, without the walls in high-backed chairs. “Nobody being seen.” spoke ; it was not thought genteel.” “Now Who can read without regret, in these and then a whisper might be heard, but as pages, of those palmy days of the Moravian a general rule any deviation from the strict- Church (now extinct) when they had loveest formality was discouraged.” What feasts of chocolate and buns, in which the heights of saintly virtue must men and world's people might share, on paying fourwomen have ascended in those days, through pence? Was it through such an excess of penitential exercises like these !

hospitality that this kindly church died out ? In those days boys wore deep-ruffled Why did it perish, when many a sect surshirts, the ruffles falling half-way down the vives to feed its devotees on husks? But back. Boots were a great luxury, and were the Moravian church edifice still exists in required to come as high as the knee, and Newport, transformed into a school-house, be surmounted by yellow tops. “Twice where eager boys gaze aloft at the now ina year a noted cheap shoemaker from Bris. accessible pulpit, and ponder passionate tol visited Newport to obtain the length of dreams of breaking into the building during the feet of every boy and girl.” Young some vacation, and scaling its dizzy height. men wore small-clothes and knee-buckles; The name of the structure is now modified young women usually wore sheepskin gloves by the popular tongue into “ Arabian dyed blue.

“O the simplicity of that age, Meetin’-house,” as if to match the Jewish when a thin gold ear-hoop and a few strings synagogue in a neighboring street, and as of gold beads constituted the beginning and if the descendants of Roger Williams were end of female finery!

resolved to include with a fine hospitality Mr. Channing, with a zeal becoming his all the monotheisms of the world. profession, records with especial delight the Touching schools, Mr. Channing amazes ecclesiastical oddities of those days. It was the reader with the statement, that children not the custom, it seems, for the leading were in his day furnished by their parents male parishioners to enter the house of with movable seats made of round blocks worship at the beginning, but to wait till of wood of various sizes. With what an the first prayer was over ; thus allowing to altogether jubilant roar and rumble must the pastor and the female saints one spirit those sessions have been dismissed! Evual season unchecked by grosser presences. ery recess-time must have been a ten-strike, Church services thus reversed the customs for what boy could resist the temptation to of the old-fashioned English dinner-table, set his seat spinning? The author furtherwhere the ladies and the clergy retired first. more records that such was his aversion to

He weli remembers Dr. Hopkins, who the portrait on the outside of Webster's indeed could hardly have failed to im- Spelling-Book, that he once returned a new press himself on boyish memories. For he copy in indignation at seeing the same wore, when on horseback, “a robe of stuff grim face, - and afterwards invested the called, at the time, calamanco, “a glossy amount in sugar-candy. Then the cruel woollen material of green color -- which was bookseller sarcastically denounced him before the school as having so keen an appe- put in circulation by Buffon and others, he tite for knowledge as to have eaten his nevertheless does not detract from the high spelling-book. It must have been a seri. reputation for forecast and intelligence ous matter, that portrait ; for it is said that which the subject of his investigations has William Cobbett bequeathed to Noah Web- always enjoyed. In fact, most readers will ster the sum of fifteen dollars “to enable derive from his book no little respect and him to procure a new engraved likeness of esteem for these quadruped engineers, himself for the book, that children may no mingled with a pang of regret at the widelonger be frightened from their studies.” It spread devastation made among them in is an odd coincidence, that time and the edi. obedience to the exactions of civilization. tors have not only effaced Mr. Webster's Beaver families consist usually of seven original features from the outside of his or eight members, namely, the father, the Spelling-Book, but also from the inside of mother, and the children of one and two his Dictionary.

years. The young beavers, after being We must not, however, linger too long in weaned, are fed carefully with tender shoots the seductive paths of this literary Pompeii. of willows, birches, and poplars, till they The book is full of quaint reminiscences, are able to provide for themselves. After simply and honestly told. It is egotistic, the second year they are expected to leave as it should be, but there is no personal the parental lodge, find mates, and make conceit in it; and the chief exploit of his lodges for themselves. It sometimes hapown which he narrates — the saving of a pens that they fail in effecting the desired wrecked vessel — was really quite an heroic alliance. They are then, according to the thing, if local traditions be trusted, and is Indians, permitted to remain another year here very modestly told. These pages dis- under the parental roof, where, however, play a few of the weaknesses of old age, they are in a sort of disgrace, and are comperhaps, — there are some trivialities and pelled to work at the dams, and do other some discursiveness, and we are sometimes hard labor, as a punishment for their matritaken rather suddenly from liberty-trees monial failure. Mr. Morgan does not calico frocks, – but they have also the most vouch for the latter part of this story. attractive traits of old age, - amiability and He writes throughout in an humane and tolerance. To acquire years without prej. kindly spirit, and an evident sympathy, not udices is always beautiful; may the town only with beavers, but with all the rest of which Mr. Channing celebrates grow old as the animal kingdom. He has brought to gracefully!

this work, an episode in the midst of graver

studies, the same well-trained powers of The American Beaver and his Works. By observation and reflection, and the same LEWIS H. MORGAN, Author of “The

spirit of careful and persistent research, League of the Iroquois.” Philadelphia :

which have already distinguished him in Lippincott & Co. 1868.

larger fields of inquiry. The value of his

book is much increased by a profusion of What Huber did for bees Mr. Morgan excellent illustrations, made in most cases has done in some measure for beavers. from photographs. The subject of his book is peculiarly an Mr. Morgan argues, at the close of his American one; for though beavers are book, that the beaver and other animals found in the other hemisphere, they make are guided, not by the blind power called no dams there, and a beaver without his instinct, but by a conscious intelligence, dam is nobody.

like that of man, though incomparably inMr. Morgan has spent a good part of ferior in degree. We are disposed to agree many successive summers in investigating with him ; and yet we would call attention the habits of the American branch of the to one fact which invalidates his principal family, studying them in their works, and train of reasoning, founded on structural making their personal acquaintance, so far affinities between man and the reasoning as their natural reserve and shyness would animals. In those of the animal kingdom, in admit. He has studied them on Lake whom, above all others, intelligence is proSuperior, and at the head of the Missouri, verbial, there is no such structural affinity. and supplemented the knowledge thus ac- Ants and bees have neither brain, spine, quired by a vast amount of information nor nerves; that is to say, they are without gained through the Indians and the trap. the organs in which a conscious intelligence pers. If he oversets some of the romances is universally supposed to reside.

THE

ATLANTIC MONTHLY.

A Magazine of Literature, Science, Art,

and Politics.

VOL. XXI. — MAY, 1868. — NO. CXXVII.

THE TURF AND THE TROTTING HORSE IN AMERICA.

N EARLY all the great trotting He was a handsome gray, fifteen and IV horses of America have come of three quarter hands high,* with "a one blood, - that of Messenger, an large bony head, rather short, straight English horse, imported into New neck, with windpipe and nostrils nearly York in 1788.

twice as large as ordinary ; low withers, The lineage of this horse can be shoulders somewhat upright, but deep traced directly back to the Darley and strong; powerful loin and quarArabian, who was the sire of Flying ters; hocks and knees unusually large, Childers ; and to the Cade mare, who and below them limbs of medium size, was a granddaughter of the Godolphin but flat and clean, and, whether at rest Arabian. He was, therefore, of the best or in motion, always in a perfect posiEnglish thorough-bred racing stock. tion.

All accounts concur in representing These records indicate that he had Messenger as a horse of superb form more of the form of the trotter than and extraordinary power and spirit. A the thorough-bred horse in general. groom who saw him taken off the This form, along with the extraordinary ship which brought him to this coun- vitality and endurance of his race, he try was accustomed to relate that, "the gave to his progeny; which being perthree other horses that accompanied him sistently used and trained to trot beon a long voyage had become so reduced came still more marked in these charand weak that they had to be helped acteristic particulars. The first genand supported down the gang-plank; eration of his descendants were fine but when it came Messenger's turn to road horses, many of them fast, and all land, he, with a loud neigh, charged endowed with extraordinary courage down, with a negro on each side hold- and endurance. The second and third ing him back, and dashed off up the generations possessed in still greater street on a stiff trot, carrying the ne- perfection the form and action of the groes along, in spite of all their efforts trotting horse, of which the fourth gento bring him to a stand-still."

* A hand is four inches.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, by TICKNOR AND Fields, in the Clerk's Office

of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. VOL. XXI. — NO. 127.

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