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part of the Catholic system, besides dinner time came, an apparatus conpromoting the general object, works in taining a hot dinner for the sisters was special harmony with special aims. brought round to them from their home Example: it is the wish, it is the near by, and they all sat down together fixed intention, of our Roman Catholic in a nice little room to enjoy it, with brethren to have a free school in every the musical accompaniment of twelve parish in the United States sufficient hundred romping girls. for the accommodation of all the Cath Surely there is something admirable olic children resident in the parish. In and imitable in all this. the diocese of New York there are Of course there is shadow to be put sixty-one of these parochial schools, in into the picture. This amazing organwhich about twenty-five thousand pupils ization, or system of organizations, is the are taught, greatly to the relief of the accumulated practical wisdom of many cruelly crowded public schools. The re- thousand years; but it is the work ligious instruction given in these schools of imperfect human beings, and parconsists of a lesson in the catechism, the takes of their imperfection. “There is saying of a few short Catholic prayers, a provision in nature,” says Goethe, the reading of the Gospel for the day, “to prevent trees from growing up into and an occasional exhortation; the the sky.” Else, Commodore Vanderwhole occupying, on an average, twenty bilt would own all the railroads, and we minutes a day. But it is not for the should all turn Catholics immediately. sake of the direct religious instruction Every Protestant knows, or thinks he that the pastors are so desirous of knows, precisely what the defect is having parochial schools. There are which prevents this interesting tree several orders in the church which are from growing up into the sky, and devoted to the work of instruction, - spreading its branches over the whole the Christian Brothers, some of the Sis- earth. I think I know. I think it is ters of Charity, the Ladies of the Sa- because there is not a sufficient procred Heart, and many more. It is from vision in it for adapting its doctrine to these orders that the teachers of the the advancing mind of the race. Perparochial schools are drawn ; and it is haps, however, it is the modernized the Catholicising effect, upon the minds mind that is in fault. of the children, of these still, self-con Our Roman Catholic brethren, for tained, cheerful persons that the pastors example, firmly believe that miracles chiefly value. There is a marvellous are daily wrought among them. They economy, too, in the system; for these inform me, that the most noted miracle pious sisters and devoted brothers on- yet performed in the United States ocly require the necessaries of life. Dr. curred in the city of Washington on Morrogh pays into the treasury of the the 10th of March, 1824 Bishop EngSisters of Charity two hundred dollars land, of Charleston, who ranked very per annum for each sister employed in high in the estimation of his brethren, his school! The sisters live at the investigated this miracle, published an house of their order in Fifteenth Street, account of it, and appended to his narand go forth every morning to the rative the affidavits of thirty-seven perschools to spend a laborious day in sons, all of whom testified to the miracinstructing ignorance, returning at noon ulous nature of the event. Mrs. Ann and at night to their religious home. Mattingly, widow, aged thirty-four, reIt will cost Dr. Morrogh about eight siding with her brother, the Mayor of thousand dollars to sustain his school, Washington, had been afflicted for six possibly ten thousand. It would cost years with a hard and painful tumor in the city of New York eighteen thousand the lower part of the left breast, which dollars. It happened to be a snowy four of the leading physicians of the city day on which I visited this school, and pronounced incurable, and for which no one went home to dinner. But when they prescribed only palliative applicaVOL. XXI. — NO. 126.


the prayers

tions and medicines. She suffered all March instant." The Novena was bethat a woman could suffer and live, gun on the first day of March, 1824, so vomitings of blood, intense chills, pain that it might end on the tenth. As almost insupportable, a most distressing there is a difference of six hours becough, until she was reduced to a skele- tween the time at Washington and at ton, and lay at death's door. From long the place in Germany where the prince lying in bed, her shoulders and back lived, the priest appointed the hour of were ulcerated to such a degree that three in the morning for the last solemn it was torture to her to have her linen act of supplication, and so notified all changed or to move in bed. In the fifth the families and persons .concerned. year of her illness the tidings began to At nine in the evening before, Mrs. be spread abroad in America of the won- Mattingly, who apparently had not derful cures wrought in Europe through many hours to live, confessed, and re

of a certain Prince Hohen- ceived absolution. At two in the mornlohe, a venerated priest of the Catholicing, the priest who was in special Church; and some of the friends of the charge of the Novena said mass in the afflicted lady besought her to make church, and carried thence the sacraknown her sufferings to this holy man, ment to the afflicted lady's room, where and beg his intercession in her behalf. he arrived about half past two. She The pastor of her church, with the con- was then so low and so incessantly sent of the Archbishop of Baltimore, tormented by a cough, that the priest wrote to the princely priest, --- as many was apprehensive she would die before others did in all parts of the world, she had communed. The sacrament, asking his prayers for this lady's recov- however, was administered, and it cost lery. The priest ascertained, however, the lady a painful effort of six minutes that the Prince Hohenlohe had already to swallow it. The solemn ceremony made known his intentions with regard being ended, the priest wrapped up the to all sick persons out of Europe who sacred vessels and implements, gave desired his prayers. He would pray the usual blessing to the kneeling famifor such on the tenth day of every monthly (five in number, all of whom swear at nine o'clock in the morning, and he to these and the following statements), called upon all who wished to enjoy and was making his last adoration of the benefit of his intercession to fulfil the host before leaving, when he heard certain conditions. They must have a deep sigh issuing from the direction faith in the efficacy of prayers; they of the bed. He turned, and behold, must repent anew and deeply of their a miracle! Mrs. Mattingly sat up, sins; they must form an immovable stretched her arms forward, clasped her purpose to lead an exemplary life; they hands, and said, in a clear, though weak must perform a Novena, or nine days' voice, “ Lord Jesus, what have I done devotion, in honor of the Holy Name to deserve so great a favor ?" Sobs of Jesus ; they must confess, do pen- and shrieks burst from the persons ance, and receive the sacrament; and, present. The priest rose from his finally, on the appointed day, the tenth knees, and hastened to the bedside. of any month, at nine A. M., they must She raised his hand. “Ghostly father," unite in prayers with the prince, far she cried, “what can I do to acknowlaway on the other side of the ocean. edge such a blessing ?” “Glory be to

With all these conditions Mrs. Ann God!” he exclaimed ; "we may say so. Mattingly complied. The priest of her o, what a day for us !" On being asked church, two hundred of her friends and to tell what she felt, she said, “Not the fellow-Catholics, as well as some other least pain left." sick persons, shared in the Novena, She went on to say, that, being overand the archbishop of the province come by her sufferings, and in expecta"graciously promised to join in prayer tion of immediate death, she had said with them on the appointed day, joth of to herself, “Lord Jesus, thy will be “ Why!

done!” and at that instant she was the Supreme Court, had all sworn that completely relieved from all her pains. they saw this thing done, and I myself “I wish to get up,” she cried joyfully, had seen it, - nay, if: the tumor had " and give thanks to God on my been on my own body, and had seemed knees”; and so she did, and remained to myself to be suddenly healed, still kneeling for fifteen minutes without I should think it more probable that all fatigue. She walked ; she dressed her those witnesses, including myself, were self; she came down to breakfast ; she mistaken, than that such a miracle had ate heartily, and remained up all day, been performed. Such is the incredureceiving the visits' of friends and lity of a modernized mind, especially if strangers, who came in crowds to see that modernized mind has occasionally her. Every trace of the tumor was served on a jury, and so learned the gone! The ulcers upon her back had value of human testimony. vanished, and left no scar; and, what How different with Catholics! was strangest of all, the matter which

says Father Hecker, “ we those ulcers had discharged had all do not worship a dead God! Where disappeared, both from the bed-clothes is the improbability ? No one doubts and from her own night-dress!! Up- God's ability to heal bis faithful seron this last point Bishop England is vants ; why should we find it so hard emphatic. “ I am perfectly convinced,” to believe that he does so ? Proteshe says, “ that, were I disposed to col- tants usually admit that miracles were lect the testimony relating thereto, it once performed, and they still use lanwould appear to the satisfaction of ev- guage in their prayers which implies ery unbiased, impartial, and judicious an expectation of miraculous aid. We reader, unquestionable, that as miracu- Catholics have a living practical faith lous a change took place in the state of in Providence, which you Protestants the clothing of the bed and of the body think you have, and have not. And as there did in the state of the body it- where is your authority for saying that, self."

during a certain period of the world's This assertion of the excellent Bish- history, miracles were wrought, but op is safe, because upon such subjects that there came a moment when they no reader is unbiased, no reader is im- ceased to be wrought ? Why is it partial.

rational to believe in a miracle which This narrative illustrates a very im- occurred Anno Domini 32, but wholly portant difference between our Roman irrational to believe in one wrought Catholic brethren and ourselves. A Anno Domini 1868 ?” good Catholic, no matter what his rank These are not the precise words of or culture, believes in such things with- the able and devoted Superior of the out an effort. It was not necessary for Paulists, but such are some of his the faith of Catholics that Bishop ideas. I did not, do not, cannot anEngland should gather such a swer his questions. My office is of testimony. Three good witnesses merely that of reporter, and, with the would have sufficed quite as well as permission of the gentle reader, I will three dozen. But no amount or quali- continue my report in a future number ty of testimony could convince a Prot- of this magazine. I have yet to relate estant mind that Mrs. Mattingly's the special measures now on foot for the tumor was cured miraculously, and conversion of us all, and the grounds her linen miraculously cleansed. For upon which our Roman Catholic brethmy part, if the President and Vice- ren rest their confident expectation of President, if the whole Cabinet, both being in another generation or two the houses of Congress, and the judges of dominant church of the United States.



THE 'HE animal kingdom adds but two ing or unable to employ venom; and

active' poisons to the number- the various poisons with which he less fatal agents which form in bark arms his spear or dart - such as the and seed, or get new birth by annual upas of the east and the various woordozens from the chemist's laboratory, aras of South America and the Isth

These two animal poisons are fur- mus — are all found to be of vegetable nished by the race of venomous ser- origin, and to act differently from the pents and by the toad, whose ancient poisons yielded by the snakes of the and evil reputation modern toxicology various countries in question. has finally justified by discovering in It is to be presumed that the nonthe mucus of his skin a deadly and employment of a poison so fatal and rapid poison. The other animal sub- so widely diffused has been due to stances which injure we may pass over the difficulty of securing it in quantity, here, because the venom of the centi- and to the world-wide dread of serpede or the scorpion is rarely fatal, and pents, rather than to any other cause. at all events is not to be compared to Such sentiments may have had somethe potent material which the rattle- thing to do with the scientific neglect snake, cobra, or viper deals out to its which so long left these poisons to victim.

be the subjects of a hundred fabuThe venom of the serpent is certain- lous tales, while other and far less inly one of the most powerful of all the teresting poisons have been studied poisons; and it therefore strikes us over and over with never-ending care as strange, that, for devilish devices and patience. Not, however, that this to kill, men have plundered vegetable has been the only reason. Science is and mine, but have left to the ser- fearless, and carries untrembling her pent untouched his death-giving juices. all-revealing torch, with little regard to So far is this from the popular belief, the fears and prejudices which check that venom has been for ages sup- the steps of those who are not her folposed to form part of certain famous lowers and priests. But in Europe, poisons, and within a few years it was where investigators are abundant, poithought to be the chief ingredient in sonous serpents are small and rare; the well-known arrow poison of South whilst in lands where the snake exists America. The symptoms of venom- in hideous plenty, the experimental toxication are, however, distinct. It toxicologist is rarely found, or lacks only injures when placed under the the means to carry on his pursuits. In skin or deep in the tissues, and it is Europe, also, the added interest which absolutely as harmless as bread when once belonged to the subject on acswallowed. To have been used by the count of the number of serpents has poisoner it must, therefore, have been lessened with their gradual extinclodged in the tissues, a difficult task; tion; and, as man has not himself emand we should have then found related ployed this poison, it has also wanta certain set of symptoms which would ed the fascination belonging to agents be unmistakable as evidence of the which, having once figured in some character of the poison. No such his-' famous poisoning case, never again torics exist; and the doubtful case of fail of interesting the chemist and the Queen of Egypt is the only one toxicologist, who set about at once to where the venom of the serpent figures discover antidotes and detective tests upon the pages of historic poisonings. for each rare poison, as in turn it

The savage has been equally unwill- makes good this horrible claim to be


so considered. In this way the great will at least approach in completeness Palmer case brought about the most that which can be given of any of the careful study of both strychnia and tar- best-known and more accessible poitar emetic; while the equally infamous Boccarmé poisoning in Belgium The United States possess but three led to a thorough investigation of nico- kinds of poisonous serpents, known in tine, which for the first time made its popular language as rattlesnake, copappearance upon the annals of crime.

perhead, and moccasin. The first of Lacking this kind of interest, but these having been the chief subject of surrounded by a haze of the strangest study, we premise by stating that nearpopular beliefs, the serpent venom got ly all of our statements refer to this no fair examination until the research

serpent. As a poisoner it ranks side es of Francesco Redi, whose essay, by side with the cobra and viper fer de originally in Italian, 1669, is now be- lance, and probably above the copperfore me in Latin form, Amsterdam, head and the moccasin. In fact, all 1675; a small volume of " Experi- that we know at present leads us to bementa circa res diversas naturales, lieve that the venom of all serpents is speciatim illas, quæ ex Indiis ad ferun- alike in toxic character, and only differs tur.” On the title-page, a buxom fig- in degree of virulence and in amount; ure of Science receives gifts from a so that what we gather as to the chemical plumed Indian with a crocodile com- and other qualities of the venom of any fortably bestowed under his arm. Cha- one serpent may, as a rule, be said to ras, a better observer, wrote soon after apply alike to all of this terrible family. Redi. His work, entitled “ New Ex- The rattlesnake, as every one knows, periments upon Vipers, with Exquisite gets his name from the curious jointed Remedies, etc., now rendered English," appendix to the tail by which the London, 1673, set at rest many popular hunter becomes aware of his neighborfallacies, and prepared the way for the hood. We have seen one of these sets more elaborate research made by the of rattles numbering eighteen joints, well-known Felix Fontana, and first another thirty-six ; which, if the vulgar published at Lucca in 1767. Of this notion be correct, would allot to the remarkable toxicological study it is dif- owner just so many years of life. We ficult to speak too highly. Resting upon have known, however, three of these at least three thousand experiments on joints to form in forty summer days ; all classes of animals, it displays an so that it is probable the larger snakes amount of industry and scientific sa- might carry them by dozens, if they gacity which have been rarely equalled. were not so brittle as constantly to be A short chemical paper by Lucien broken off and lost. Bonaparte, and scattered records of The attitude of a large rattlesnake cases of poisoning, comprise nearly all when you come suddenly upon him is that has been added to the subject, so certainly one of the finest things to be far as concerns the viper. In the East seen in our forests. The vibrating tail Indies, Russell and Davy have since projects from coils formed by about experimented with the venom of the half the length of the snake, while the cobra, and Dr. Rusz has given us an neck, lifted a few inches, is held in excellent account of the dreaded vipère curves, the head perfectly steady, the fer de lance of Martinique, while in eyes dull and leaden, the whole posture our own country the toxicology of the bold and defiant, and expressive of rattlesnake and copperhead have been alertness and inborn courage. studied of late with every advantage Let us tease this gallant-looking repwhich the most modern methods could tile with a switch. He has power to give. From these researches collec- throw his head forward only about one tively we are able to offer a skatol: of third to one half the iength of his whole the toxicology of snake poisons which vody, so that our game is safe enough.

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