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superiority in vessels of the Dreadnought type over the German navy on the basis of an existing fleet law.

The shipbuilding program authorized for 1912–13 provides for the following new construction: Four large armored ships, 8 lightly armored ships, 20 destroyers, a group of submarines, i coast-guard cruiser, 4 oil-tank steamers, 1 water-tank vessel, and 2 tugs.

During the year there were completed the battleships Conqueror and Thunderer, each of 22,500 tons displacement; the Centurion and King George V, of 24,000 tons; as well as the battle cruiser Princess Rojal, of 26,350 tons, a sister ship of the Lion; and the New Zealand, of 18,800 tons.

Of four battleships authorized in 1910 two have been completed, and of those of the 1911 program the Iron Duke and Marlborough were launched this fall. These ships are of about 27,000 tons displacement. The four battleships of the 1912 program are, according to press reports, to be armed with eight 15-inch guns, to displace 27,000 tons, and have a designed speed of 25 knots. Í'wo of these ships were laid down in October, while the contracts for the other two were awarded in November. The battle cruiser Tiger, authorized in 1911, has been laid down, and will displace approximately 29,000 tons. All capital ships now building, excepting those of this year's program, will be armed with 13.5-inch guns.

The contracts for the eight lightly armored cruisers were awarded during October. These ships, according to the First Lord of the Admiralty, are to be “the smallest, cheapest, and fastest vessels, protected by vertical armor, ever projected for the British Navy.'

The contracts for the 20 new destroyers have been awarded. It is believed that these vessels will have a displacement of 1,000 tons.

Of the submarines authorized, neither the number nor the size has been officially announced.

GERMANY.

The total naval estimate for 1912-13 amounts to $110,715,043, as compared with $107,232,000 for 1911-12.

The fleet law has been amended so as to provide by 1920 a fleet to comprise 41 battleships, 20 large cruisers, and 40 small cruisers, an increase of 3 battleships and 2 small cruisers. It is proposed to build 6 submarines yearly, and by allowing a life of 12 years to maintain an establishment of 72 boats. The amendment further provides for the maintenance in full commission of about four-fifths of the fleet.

The naval appropriation bill for 1912–13 authorized the following new construction: One battleship, 1 battle cruiser, 2 small cruisers, 12 destroyers, 6 submarines, and 1 submarine salvage ship. As usual, there is an increase in the personnel to meet the increased needs of the service. Provision is made for 282 additional officers and 5,454 enlisted men.

During the year there were completed the battleships Oldenburg of 22,435 tons, the Kaiser and Friedrich der Grosse of 24,110 tons displacement. The battle cruiser Goeben has been completed; she has a displacement of 22,632 tons, mounts ten 11-inch guns, and on trials attained a speed of 28.6 knots.

FRANCE. The total naval appropriation for 1912 amounts to $81,692,832, as compared with $80,371,109 appropriated for 1911.

The shipbuilding program authorized for 1912 provides for the following new construction: Three battleships, 9 submarines, and 1 transport. The original program authorized two battleships, but a third was provided for to replace the Liberté.

There has been no addition of capital ships to the fleet during the year, but increased activity has become manifest in all shipyards, and work on the new construction is progressing rapidly. Nine destroyers and several submarines have, however, been completed during the year.

The battleships of the 1912 program will mount ten 13.4-inch guns in center-line turrets. A four-gun turret is under consideration for future ships.

JAPAN.

The total naval estimate for the year 1912–13 amounts to $46,158,216, an increase of $2,926,971 over the estimates for 1911–12. The unexpended balance of the existing appropriation, "Expenses for maintaining naval preparation,” amounts to $123,839,443, to be expended in six years, up to and including 1916–17. The allotment for maintenance and construction for 1912–13 amounts to $24,144,446, as against $21,768,673 for the year 1911-12.

During the year the following ships have been completed: The battleships Settsu and Kawachi, both of 20,800 tons, armed with twelve 12-inch guns; and three 4,950-ton cruisers, the Yahagi, Hirado, and Chikuma; two 600-ton destroyers and one submarine.

The battleship Fuso, authorized in 1911, has been laid down. She is to have a displacement of approximately 30,000 tons and mount 14-inch guns. Three battle cruisers of the 1911 program have been laid down in Japan. They are of the Kongo class, 27,500 tons displacement, armed with 14-inch guns, and a designed speed of 29 knots.

RUSSIA. The naval estimates for 1912, ordinary and extraordinary expenditures, amount to $84,630,780. This is an increase over the budget as voted last year of $28,061,933.

The naval program as prepared under the direction of the minister of marine and authorized by the Duma includes the following items: (1) For new construction, fitting out and enlargement of ports, etc., $221,450,000. (2) For completion of ships building and current expenses, $403,245,000. Item (1) constitutes the small shipbuilding program which is to be executed in five years.

The new construction includes 4 battle cruisers, 4 protected cruisers, 36 destroyers, and 12 submarines for the Baltic, 4 protected cruisers for the Black Sea, 2 protected cruisers and 6 submarines for the Pacific. It was decided that the annual installments should be asked for as separate yearly credits.

The only addition to the fleet during the year has been the Novik, a destroyer of 1,260 tons displacement, with a speed of 36 knots. There are under construction, however, 7 battleships of 23,000 tons, 4 battle cruisers of 28,000 tons, 9 destroyers, and 6 submarines.

ITALY.

The naval appropriation for 1912–13 amounts to $41,893,420. Of this amount $21,722,536 is for the maintenance of existing vessels and for new construction now in hand or to be commenced.

The naval appropriation law does not specify the number or type of ships to be laid down, this being left to the discretion of the navy department, but the following new construction has been decided upon: Two battleships, 6 destroyers, 6 torpedo boats, and 6 submarines.

During the year there were completed the battleship Dante Alighieri, of 18,600 tons displacement, mounting twelve 12-inch guns in four center-line turrets, i scout cruiser of 3,220 tons, besides several torpedo craft and submarines.

There are under construction, besides the 2 battleships provided for this year, 5 battleships, 2 scout cruisers, and several' torpedo craft and submarines.

AUSTRIA.

The total naval estimates for 1912 amount to $28,167,714. Referring to the program adopted by the Austro-Hungarian delegations in the autumn of 1910, which authorized an expenditure of $63,417,200 for shipbuilding in six installments during the years 1911 to 1916, inclusive, the amount apportioned for this year for new construction is $13,601,000, which is to be expended on the ships now building. The amount apportioned for 1912 ($13,601,000) was increased by the granting of an extraordinary credit of $8,120,000 on October 14, 1912, by the delegations. The total amount appropriated for the navy for the year 1912 is, therefore, $36,287,714. The only new construction provided for this year is one mining vessel of 1,000 tons displacement.

During the year the battleship Viribus Unitus, of 20,010 tons displacement, mounting twelve 12-inch guns in four center-line turrets, has been added to the fleet. Three battleships, 3 small cruisers 6 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats, and 7 submarines are under construction.

PROGRAMS FOR 1913–14. The programs for 1913-14, so far as they have been determined or published, are as follows:

GREAT BRITAIN. The program for 1913–14 has not as yet been published, but the Government has been committed by a statement of the first lord of the Admiralty to the laying down during the year of at least five first-class armored ships. This number will be augmented by the proposed gift of £7,000,000 by the Canadian Government for the construction of three first-class ships, and by the acceptance of the offer of the Federated Malay States of a first-class armored ship to cost two and one-half million pounds, payable within five years. The date for the construction of these gift ships has, however, not been made public. Provision for the construction of scout cruisers, destroyers, and submarines will undoubtedly also be made.

According to recent press reports (London Daily Telegraph of Jan. 6, 1913) the naval estimates for 1913–14 will reach an aggregate of nearly $243,325,000. This represents an increase of between $19,466,000 and $24,332,500 over the estimates for 1912–13.

GERMANY.

The total naval estimates for 1913-14 submitted to the Reichstag in the latter part of November, 1912, amount to $111,288,618. The ordinary recurring expenditure is $46,935,805; the nonrecurring ordinary expenditure is $52,179,113; the extraordinary expenditure is $12,173,700; this is an increase over last year's (1912-13) final estimates (the ordinary estimates and the supplementary estimates being taken together) of $573,574.

Increase of personnel is provided as follows: Two hundred and twenty-three additional officers, 6,125 enlisted men. The total strength of the personnel of the Navy will in 1913 be 3,394 officers and 69,495 men.

The provisions for new ships are according to the program laid down in the fleet law, and provide for the construction of 2 battleships, 1 battle cruiser, 2 small cruisers, 1 gunboat, 1 torpedo-boat flotilla (12 boats), and $4,760,000 for submarine construction and experiment. The construction of a new imperial yacht was also appropriated for.

FRANCE.

The naval estimates for 1913–14 submitted to the Chamber of Deputies carries a total appropriation of $89,028,626. Of this amount $22,946,738 is for new construction and provides for the laying down of 2 battleships, 3 destroyers, 3 submarines, and 1 river gunboat. It also includes the first installments for the two battleships provided in the fleet law for 1914. Those two ships were to have been begun January 1, 1914, but recent advices indicate that at least one will be laid down at Lorient October 1, 1913.

A further increase in the present shipbuilding program is under discussion.

JAPAN.

The naval estimates for 1913-14 have not yet been submitted. A new shipbuilding program has been under discussion for some time, but the details are not known. Press reports vary as to the number of capital ships; various advices indicate that 7 battleships and 6 battle cruisers, 2 to be laid down yearly, will be asked for, while others state that on account of economical reasons three ships only of the Fuso type, to be completed in five years, will be demanded.

RUSSIA.

From press reports the naval estimates for 1913-14 amount to $119,229,250, which includes $36,012,100 for the objects of the new program, $9,343,680 for completing the four battleships of the Gangut class, and $14,599,500 for the ships building for the Black Sea. The new program calls for the construction of the following units: 4 battle cruisers, 8 cruisers, 36 destroyers, 12 submarines.

AUSTRIA.

From press reports the naval estimates for 1913 recently passed by the delegations amount to $28,939,000. Of this amount $13,885,200 constitutes the extraordinary credit for new construction allotted for the year 1913 and $15,054,000 the ordinary expenditure. The personnel is hereby increased as follows: One rear admiral, 3 captains, 5 commanders, 31 lieutenants, 12 midshipmen, 5 medical officers, 27 engineers, 6 paymasters, and 1,500 petty officers and men. The strength will be increased from 14,000 men to 21,000 men in 1916.

According to the London Times of January 6, 1913, Admiral Count Moulecuccoli's demand for the immediate construction of a new Dreadnought division in place of the old 5,600-ton battleships of the Monarch class was not accepted, but was referred to a subsequent conference which is expected to meet a few weeks hence. It is suggested that the decision will then be taken to begin the building of the new Dreadnoughts in 1914 instead of 1915, as was originally planned.

ITALY.

The naval estimates have not yet been made public. Two battleships are to be begun during the year, and it is reported that there is a proposal to lay down two additional vessels in certain circumstances.

Vessels completed during 1912.
ENGLAND.

FRANCE.
Tons.

Tons. Conqueror, battleship.

22,500
9 destroyers.

5,958 Thunderer, battleship

22,500
11 submarines

5,480 Centurion, battleship.

24,000 King George V, battleship.. 24.000

11,438 Princess Royal, battle cruiser.

26, 350

JAPAN. New Zealand, battle cruiser. 18, 800 Settsu, battleship.

20, 800 Amphion, cruiser.... 3, 440 Kawachi, battleship.

20,800 Chatham, cruiser. 5, 400 Yahagi, cruiser.

4,950 Southampton, cruiser 5,400 Hirado, cruiser.

4,950 Dublin, cruiser.

5, 400 Chikuma, cruiser Melbourne, cruiser.

4,950 5,400 2 destroyers..

1,200 19 destroyers.. 17,017 1 submarine.

322 8 submarines. 5,840

57,972 186,049

RUSSIA.
GERMANY.
1 destroyer.

1,260 Oldenburg, battleship.

22, 435 Kaiser, battleship..

24, 110

ITALY. Friedrich der Grosse, battleship.

24, 110 Goeben, battle cruiser

Dante Alighieri, battleship... 22, 632

18, 600 Magdeburg, cruiser.

4,478
Quarto, cruiser

3, 220 Breslau, cruiser..

4,478
1 destroyer...

670 Strassburg, cruiser.

9 torpedo boats. 4,478

1,035 12 destroyers...

7,800
9 submarines..

2,920 6 submarines 3,600

26,445 118, 121

AUSTRIA.
Viribus Unitis...

20,010 H. Rept. 1557, 62-3 -3

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