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them to make a great many changes to make the compass more reliable as we have tried it out. We have tried it out on several ships.
The CHAIRMAN. Has this compass gotten to that stage of development where it is regarded as standard and reliable?
Admiral ANDREWs. Yes, sir. It is not subject to any external influence whatever, and the words“ battle compass” really describes it very accurately; that in battle the ship can steer a course; a number of them can turn and steer parallel courses without any deviation from it, such as you have in a magnetic compass. It is impossible with a magnetic compass to compensate it down in the battle station. It is impossible to have a reliable magnetic compass in the conning tower, which has 6 or 8 inches of steel; you can not compensate it, and if you do get it anywhere nearly compensated, then it has no directive force, so if the ship makes a sudden change of course, say, eight points, your compass does not show it at all; it just comes around very slowly, and it has so very little directive force that you can not steer an accurate course by it. The only magnetic compasses which are accurate and can be used, and are used for navigational purposes, are those which are in exposed positions on the bridges, which would be shot away in an action, and that is why they call these others battle compasses.
The CHAIRMAN. How long have you been manufacturing and developing this compass?
Admiral ANDREWS. It has been going on now for a matter of two years, and we have reports of experiments with a German compass and have experimented with a compass of the Sperry Gyroscopic Co., and we find that the American product is superior, and we have them on ships; we have had one out at the Naval Observatory here for trial, and we have increased the requirements so that every trouble that has arisen on board ship is removed. These requirements have been met by the makers, with the result they have had to raise the price somewhat.
The CHAIRMAN. You stated a moment ago that you had required · various changes to be made in it in order to perfect it or make it better?
Admiral ANDREWS. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. Have you reached that stage in it where you will not need to make further changes from experimentation ?
Admiral ANDREWS. I can not say that no further changes will be made. We consider it now satisfactory, and that result, with an absolutely brand new thing, could not have been arrived at except with the concurrence of these makers, who have been willing to spend a large amount of money in experiments. This instrument is like any other in that it will be subject to improvements from time to time. The necessity for these improvements, however, will hardly develop unless the Navy goes ahead with it, as we will put it to a severer test than will be found elsewhere.
Mr. 'Loud. With these improvements coming in, and the probability of a large reduction in the price of these compasses, a large reduction in their cost in the very near future, would it not be well to go a trifle slow in installing them-not install them too liberally at the present time?
Admiral ANDREWS. No. You say a large reduction, Mr. Loud, but I do not think it will be a large reduction. They will come down gradually, but not like that.
Mr. Loud. Some things of that nature we are likely to think perfect at the outset, when within a little time they will develop a thing much better, and we wish we had waited before we installed these.
Admiral ANDREWS. If you adopt that policy with everything I do not think you would ever get anywhere. We know, for instance, that the German compass would cost us more than the Sperry compass. The Germans, however, are not hesitating about putting them in. They are putting them in more widely than we are. The Navy is now practically the only purchaser of this instrument, and unless we continue its use it is doubtful if the factory would be able to go ahead with its development. The only changes which will probably be made in this instrument are those which will be suggested by the Navy and can only be brought to our attention by the extensive use of the instrument itself.
Mr. Loud. The difference in expense would not figure in comparison with the improvements, you think!
Admiral ANDREWS. To the benefits? No; I think our policy in this matter is perfectly sound.
Mr. Loud. How many do you require this year?
Admiral ANDREWS. We ask for $120,000. That would be 12 sets. Compared with the benefits and the exactness in navigation usage it is nothing at all; $120,000 is nothing at all for the benefits you gain. I should like to say in regard to this battle compass that I do not think the English have touched it at all. We have taken it up in the Navy in this country, and the Germans have the Anschutze compass, and I look for the time very soon when the merchant marine will take it up, because it means such accurate navigation in the question of getting through fog and all that. There is no error about the compass and it is very valuable. I have already told some of these Lake steamship companies about it and they are taking it up now themselves. They would only have one compass, but it would be a splendid thing for them, because they carry cargoes of iron ore, which affect the magnetic compass, and they load and unload with electric winches, which affect the magnetic compass, and the gyroscopic compass is entirely unaffected by any of those influences. We are also irying a gyro-horizon for use in a fog, which, I think, will develop so we can take a sight of the sun or stars with this artificial gyrohorizon, when you can see overhead, but have no horizon on account of fog. That will be another very valuable thing. Also, in the observatory and in the Hydrographic Office we are making, or starting to make, very great changes and improvements in navigation methods and navigational instruments.
The CHAIRMAN. If you will turn to page 51, in the note, showing the distribution of the proposed appropriation for Bureau of Equipment, there is to be assigned to the Bureau of Navigation $563,200 ?
Admiral ANDREWS. Yes, sir; that includes all of the Bureau of Equipment appropriations which were transferred to the Bureau of Navigation
The CHAIRMAN. For the purchase of all other articles at home and abroad and battle compasses.
Admiral ANDREWS. Contingent equipment and ocean and lake surveys, equipment of vessels, and battle compasses.
The CHAIRMAN. Yes, sir. I should like for you to put in your hearing a statement corresponding with that as to what was allotted for each of those items this year and what unexpended balance you had from each of those items. I will ask you to put in the hearings any information or suggestions you may have.
Admiral ANDREWS. I will put in everything I think will bear at all on this matter.
On page 51 of the first draft of the bill the item of $100,000, placed under the Bureau of Navigation for the purchase of all articles of equipage, at home and abroad, etc., is an error, and it will be noted that this $100,000 is not included in the total for Bureau of Navigation, which amounts to $563,200. The word 'of this portion was transferred to the bureau as authority for the purchase of navigating instruments at home and abroad, and also for the payment of labor and the manufacture of such articles at the various navy yards, but the $100,000 mentioned is included in the item next above, the total of which is $350,000. During 1912 the balances under these various items, reading “For the purchase of all other articles of equipage at home and abroad and supplies for seamen's quarters, etc.," for the Bureau of Navigation was $20,762.60. Attention is invited to the statement under the bureau's estimates of instruments and supplies explaining this balance.
Battle compasses, $120,000. There had been no appropriation corresponding to this during the year 1912. For 1913 we had an appropriation of $120,000, all of which will be expended.
The contingent equipment was $200,000. The balance under this item for 1912 was $1,242.03. Attention is also invited to the preceding statement in the hearing regarding this balance.
Ocean and lake survey, $90,000. The total of this appropriation for 1912 was $75,000, after which there was a balance of $668. Attention is also invited to the preceding statement in the hearing regarding this appropriation.
The CHAIRMAN. There is one question I wish to ask you about extended enlistments. I have heard that there were a good many applications for extended enlistments for one year and very few for more than one year. Based on this theory that it is the policy of the department not to send a man to sea where he has only a year or less than a year to serve, and that they are enlisting for one year-extending the enlistment for one year-with a view of getting the enlistment and not having service at sea. I wish to call your attention to that.
Admiral ANDREWS. No; that is not true. The only way that could happen would be with a man who happened to be on shore; but the number of men on shore is so few, those who have proper billets, like men in the bands, for instance, at the navy yard, and men at training stations, and men on recruiting duty, and all those at the training stations, as a rule, are the older men, who have finished going to sea anyway. I can conceive of a man in the bands doing that, but it would be recognized, if he did that, and we would send him for that year; if he was due to go, we would send him for that year to a ship near by. For instance, 'if a man at the Boston
Navy Yard who was in the band reenlisted we would put him on a Boston ship for that year; we would not keep him out of service simply because he only extended his enlistment for a year. There is nothing in that at all. For instance, if he only extended his enlistment one year that might keep us from sending him out to China, because we do not send men out there unless they have two years to
But if we find any tendency like that we will send them off anyway.
The CHAIRMAN. So that he would not simply be on shore?
Admiral ANDREWS. No, indeed. During the three months this extension of enlistments has been in effect 89 men have extended their enlistments for one year, 7 for two years, and 41 for four years.