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civil wars against the Protestant sectaries. But when the members of the established church perceived, that the rapid steps which James adopted would soon place the Catholics in a condition to rival, and perhaps to overpower her, they were obliged to retract and explain away many of their former hasty expressions of absolute and unconditional devotion to the royal pleasure. The king, and his Catholic counsellors, saw with astonishment and indignation, that professions of the most ample subjection were now to be understood as limited and restricted by the interests of the church. In the height of their resentment, even the church of England's pretensions to a peculiar degree of loyalty were unthankfully turned into ridicule, in such bitter and sarcastic terms as the following, which occur in a pamphlet published expressly “ with allowance," i, e, by royal permission.

“ I have often considered, but could never yet find a convincing reason, why that part of the nation, (which is commonly called the church of England) should dare appropriate to themselves alone the principles of true loyalty; and that no other church or communion on earth can be consistent with monarchy, or, indeed, with any government.

“ This is a presumption of so high a nature, that it renders the church of England a despicable enemy to the rest of mankind : For, what can be more ridiculous than to say, that a congregation of people, calling themselves a church, which cannot pretend to an infallibility even in matters of faith, having, since their first institution, made several fundamental changes of religious worship, should, however, assume to themselves an inerribility in point of civil obedience to the temporal magistrate ? Or, what can be more injurious than to aver, that no other sect or community on earth, from the rising to the setting sun, can be capable of this singular gift of loyalty ? So that the church of England alone, (if you have faith enough to believe her own testimony,) is that beautiful

spouse of Christ, holy in her doctrine, and infallible in her duty to the supreme inagistrate, whorn (by a revelation peculiar to herself) she owns both for her temporal and spiritual head. But I doubt much, whether her ipsa dirit alone will pass current with all the nations of the universe, without making further search into the veracity of this bold assertion."

A New Test of the Church of England's Loyalty.

Note XIII.

Or Isgrim's counsel.-P. 134. This name for the Wolf is taken from an ancient political satire, called “ Reynard the Fox;" in which an account is given of the intrigues at the court of the Liou ; the impeachment of the Fox;

his various wiles and escapes; finally, his conquering his accuser in single combat. This ancient apologue was translated from the German by the venerable Caxton, and published the 6th day of June, 1481. It became very popular in England; muu we derive from it all the names commonly applied to animals in table, as Reynard the fox, Tybert the cat, Bruin the bear, lagrim the wolf, &c. The original of this piece is still so highly esteemed in Germany, that it was lately modernized by Goethé, and is published among his “ Neue Schriften.” It is probable that this ancient satire might be the original of “ Mother Hubbard's Tale," and that Dryden himselt may have had something of its plan in his eye, when writing “ The Hind and Panther.” As it had become merely a popular story-book, some of his critics did not fail to make merry with his adopting any thing from such a source. Smith. I have heard you quote Reynard the fox. Bayes. Why, there's it now; take it from me, Mr Smith, there is as good morality, and as sound precepts, in The Delectable History of Reynard the Fox, as in any book I know, except Seneca. Priy, tell me, where, in any other author, could I have found so pretty a name for a wolf as Isgrim ?”.

Note XIV.
The wretched Panther cries aloud for aid
To church and councils, whom she first betrayed ;
No help from fathers or trarlition's train,
Those ancient guides she taught us to disdain,
And by that Scripture, which she once abused

To reformation, stands herself accused.-P. 135. The author here prefers an argument much urged by the Catholic divines against those of the chuich of England, and which he afterwards resumes in the Second Part. The English divines, say they, halt between two opinions ; they will not allow the weight of tradition when they dispute with the church of Rome, but refer to the scripture, interpreted by each man's private opinion, as the sole rule of faith; while, on the other hand, they are obliged to have recourse to tradition in their disputes with the Presbyterians and dissenters, because, without its aid, they could not vindicate from scripture alone their hierarchy and churchgovernment. To this it was answered, by the disputants on the church of England's side, that they ou ned no such inconsistent opinion as was imputed to them ; but that they acknowledged, for

• The Hind and the Panther Transversed, p. 14.

their rule of faith, the word of God in general: that by this they understood the written word, or scripture, in cintradistinction to the Roman rule of scripture and traditions; and as distinguished, both from the church o; Rome, and from heretics and sectaries, they understood by it more particularly the written word or scripture, delivering a sense, owned and declared by the primitive church of Christ in the three creeds, four first general councils, and harmony of the fathers.

Dryden's arguinent, however, had been, by the Catholics, thought so sound, that it is much dwelt upon in a tract, called, A Remonstrance, by way of Addre-s to both Houses of Parliament, from the Church of England," the object of which is to recommend an union between the churches of England and of Reme. The former is there represented as holding the following language :

“ You cannot be ignorant, that ever since my separation from the church of Rome, I have been attacked by all sorts of dissenters : So that my tate, in this encounter, may be compared to that of a city, besieged by different armies, who fight both against it and one another; where, if the garrison make a sally to damage one, another presently takes an advantage to make an attack. Thus, whilst I set myself vigorously to suppress the papist, the puritan seeks to undermine me; and, whilst I am busied to oppose the puritan, the papist gains ground upon me.

If I tell the church of Rome, I did not forsake her, but her errors, which I reformed; my rebellious subjects tell me the same, and that they must make a thorough retormation ; and, let me bring what arguments I please, to justity my dissent, they still produce the same against me. If, on the other hand, I plead against the puritan dissenter, and show, that he ought to stand to church-authority, where he is not infallibly certain it commands a sin ; the papist presently catches at it, and tells me, I destroy my own grounds of reformation, unless I will pretend to that iniallibility which I condemn in them.

“ Matters standing thus betwixt me and them, why would it not be a point of prudence in me, (as I doubt not but you would esteem it in a governor of that city I lately mentioned,) to make peace with one of my adversaries, to the end I may with more ease resist the onsets of the other?"





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