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ficin his hands. At that time Robes turn influenced the legislature and the pierre frequently appeared at the bar provinces. But this very power early of the legislature, to congratulate or made him enemies ; and having been terrify them, in the name of his party. nominated deputy of Paris to the ba. Always timid and hypocritical, al. tional convention, he saw himself, ia ways dexterous in profiting by the the fifth meeting (25th of September) energy and the labours of his accom- denounced by Rabecqui and by several 'plices, he took but a secondary part other Girondins, as wanting to raise in the commotions of the 20th of himself to the dictatorship. He a Illy June and 10th of August ; did not ascended the tribune, and, after s appear in person at the head of any of very long relation of all his labours these revolis, but became on the 10th, since 1789, a relation which was oftea member of the municipality which interrupted by the Girondins, he dethen reigned in the capital; was after. fended himself by denouncing those wards president of the tribunal charged who accused him, and the assembly with trying the victims of that day, passed to the order of the day. He and lastly, member of the council of was again attacked on the 29th of justice, which co-operated with the October, by the minister Roland, by minister Danton. He, however, Rebecqui, and especially by Louret, refused the presidentship of the tribu. who pronounced against him a very nal of the 10th of August, because eloquent discourse, which mada ne he had long, he said, denounced and Roland called the Robespierride. He accused the conspirators whom this immediately strove to justify himself, tribunal was appointed to try. On assisted by his brother and Danton, the 12th of August he demanded, in who were, as well as himself, very the Jacobin club, the trial and execu. unfavourably heard; but the 5th of

tion of Custines within twenty-four November became the day of his ' bours. As to the massacres of Septriumph: he employed the whole tember, he appears to have contented time of the meeting in repelling Love himself, according to his usual custom, vet's denunciation ; he prevailed over with reaping the profit of them, the Girondins, and then went to ese without personally participating in joy his victory at the Jacobio club, them : he privately helped to fill the where Merlin de Thionville assured prisons, and to exasperate the people, him that he was an eagle, and the whom he then closed to act under Barbaroux was a reprile. Manuel the direction of Danton and others; and Collot also congratulated him i but he had a conversation with Man- the same style. From this tiine be dar on the subject of incse massacres, did not cease to seek the death of which describes him better than the Louis XVI, with incredible animolongest dissertation. (See Mandar.) sity and perseverance. On the 30:5 He had been for some time connected of November he demanded that the with Marat and Danion : le made last curant of France should be iriod use of the inpeticsity of the first, without delay, and that the penis without fearing to find a rival in lim; rent due to his crinies shoulj be ad. and though he dreaded the ascendant judged to him." On the 2d of of tbe second, he supported hiszself December le maintained, in a long by his character ard lis revolutiotary speech, that " the business was not forma, as long as he had other energies the jadgment of Louis, but an act of to combat. With the liesp of such national providence, to be exercised in auxiliaries, he already exercised great declaring that prince a trait to 100 authority over the lacobins, and by French nation and to bumanity; 200 them over the capital, which is iis in condemning him io give a greates ample w the world, in the very place public safety, of which he took the where, on the 10th of August, the direction, and to twelve committees martyrs to liberty had perished.” He which succeeded ihe ministers. The also wished to send the queen and multiplicity of denunciations and exe. malame Elizabeth before the tribu. cutions awoke in all minds a suspicion, nals, and to keep the dauphin in the a terror, which soon gave to Paris and Temple till a peace. On the 3d of to all France the air of a desert ; December he was refused permission scarcely durst people speak to cach to speak on the same subject, but on other, and every man thought he saw the 4th he spoke, notwithstanding a denurciator in the :aan whom he violent opposition, and proposed that met. Robespierre, occupied in the • Louis should be immediately con- committees with his accomplices, ap: demned to death for an insurrection." peared from that time less frequently In short, till the very day of the in the convention, and spoke there king's execution, he was continually only to be applauded. The wife and in the tribune, uttering (according to the sister of Louis XVI. perished on the expression of one of his colleagues,) the scaffold; Lyons, Toulon, Arras, the vociferations of a cannibal, and Bedoin, the Vendee, the federalized atrocious pre-judgments : it is useless departments, became mcre particularly to add, that he voted for death on the the victims of the orders issued by his day of the nominal appeal. On the committees, and executed by his pro27th of March, 1793, he again per- consuls, All the inen, however, who secuted the remainder of the house of had appeared his friends, all those Bourbon ; and, confounding their who had kept in the same line, or, to cause with that of the Girondins, speak more properly, who had preagainst whom he had long maintained pared his power, soon grew weary of a painful struggle, he demanded, on obeying a man who had no other the 10th of April, that the queen, the talent than that of appropriating to duke of Orleans, Sillery, Vergniaud, himself their success. It must also be Guadet, Gensonnc,and Brissot, should observed, that immediately after the be sent before the revolutionary tribu. 21st of May, he declared his final nal. In the midst of this contest, views, by declaring himself the pro. which was several times near becoming tector of the 73 deputies excluded fatal to him, he continued to enjoy from the convention, and opposing great power in the capital, and to pro- the passing a decree of accusation pose, from time to time, decrees more against them. On the 7th of Februi. worthy of the member of a faction ary, 1794, he again defended in the than å statesman; but at last, the Jacobin club the remainder of that events of the 31st of May, and the party called the Marais of the conven1st and 2d of June, which were ef. tion; said that these deputies, formerly fected by the Dantonists, and especi- led astray by perfidivus chiefs, were ally by the commune, much more at that time iaking a part in the salyihan by him, rendered him completely tary decisions of the assembly; and master of the convention, and laid the caused the person who had attacked foundation of that tyrannical power, them to be expelled from the society which ceased but with his life. His of Jacobins. A short time after, he most dangerous enemies among the voted that persons ennobied by the Giroucins were outlawed, the others possession of offices should be exempt arrested ; and from that time every from the general measures of police. thing trembled before him, and before several other circumstances give that revolutionary government, which reason to suppose that, if he had was consided to the committee of triumphed on the 9th Thermidor, year

2 C 2

2, (27th

2, (27th of July, 1791,) he would of Danton would yield to the curring have acted like the retributive party, of his enemy, who had taken care: and sacrificed the Jacobins to his place all his creatures in the goverzpower, while he invoked justice, hu- ment beforehand, and to remove its manity, moderation, &c. We Cordeliers from it by degrees, i shall also mention, in support of this order to deprive them of all means of remark, that he one day carried, acting. Indeed, after having in a against the sentiments of the Mon. manner shared his power with him, be tagne, a decree, in which he had in had taken care to begin depriving his terested that inert portion of the con- of his popularity, by sending him to vention, called the Ventre, or the enrich himself in Holland ; and after Marais; and that, proud of his wards a week was sufficient for him to triumph, he let slip a part of his þave Danton accused, arrested, and secret, by addressing to the Montag- seng to the scaffold with Desmoulias, nards these remarkable words :- I Lacioix, Fabre, &c. In the course shall reach you that it is by the majo. of the same month (April) he also rity that laws are made." These dif.. delivered over to the revolutionary ferent causes acted by turns to remove tribunal the remainder of the party of from him his friends and his enemies. the commune, and of that of the The faction of the commune, or tlie Cordeliers, whom he termed atheists; Hebertists, which had contributed and, froin that time till his fall, is more than any other to rid him of the power found no more rinks. In Girondins, was the first to separate August, 1793, he had condescended f:om tbe committees, and consequently to preside in the convention, which from Robespierre, Proud of the vic- he himseif called his machine of the tories which it had till that tiine made but it was always in the Javoboda the Montagne gain, it thought itself and in the committees thai he preable to reign alone, and to dictate pared the execution of his projects; laws to the convention ; but the good and the words, " it is necessary;" fortune, or the address of Robespierre, it must be so,"? " I will tiave 16," found means to bring against it at at last became his daily expressions, once the Jacobins and the Cardeliers, Though he spoke litèle in the assen. (it had just separated itself from the bly, he often occupied the tribune in latter faction, and it sunk, in March, the Jacobin club, signified his orders 1794, under their united efforts. there with the greatest despotism, aud Danton, Desmoulius, and other Cor. on the Ilth of February, 1794, even deliers, laboured inore at its ruin than caused two inembers to be expelled for Robesbierre ; but he, according to having presumed to oppose his opinios his custom, contrived to reap all the What is worthy of remark is, that benefit of it. It was after this very France, groaning under the contests victory, however, that he had a still of the different parties, rejoiced for i more terrible eveiny to contend with short time in the blows which Robes *That Danton, whose energy bad been pierre gave them, hoping yet to be 80 u çful to him, and in whose shadow less unhappy under a single tyrant, he hau so ofien walked, while he The royalists, besides, thanked bio Jetested him, had helped to sweep' for baving dragged the most viola away the other factions before him ; revolutionists to the scaffold, 2. the two parties, of which they were almost forgot the laws of blood 1 the head, then alone remained, and which he had a part ; among clicts it was necessary that one or the other that shocking decree passed agalis should sink. But it was to be ex. the English and Hanoverian prisoners, pected that the inconsiderate boldness which the armies constantly refun

to execute. It was in the beginning to shew some suspicion of the commitof May that he announced, by Barere, tee of public safety, which occasioned the usual organ of his cominanus, his on the Ilih a debate, in which Robes. new plan of religion, which gained pierre spoke with de.potism, and his him yet more applause, but which confidents Barere, and Billaud-Varen. inust have proved to every thinking nes (who were to be his accusers 'a man, that the tyrant thought himself month afterwards) put Tallien to at length master of the government, silence when he undertook the defence since he who had till that time at. of Bourdon; the two last and their tempted only to destroy, thought of friends saw thai they were irretrievably rebuilding. In June he presided, for ruined, and from that time they ici the second tin:e, in the convention, doubled their efforts to overthrow and this is the period when the reign Robespie rre. Of this he was not of terror was carried to its height, ignorant ; but forgetting the system and (to say the truth) that also when of attack which had always succeeded he was least present, either at the with him, and remaining deaf to the convention, or at the committees. In advice of St. Just, who united intre. silence, however, was then gathering pidity tu coolness, he temporized and a storm, which was soon to overthrow tuined himself. After having passed him ; nevertheless it is certain that if, several days in retirement, employed content with having destroyed all the in projecting, while he ought to have first men of the convention, and with been acting; after having cooled, every day decir.ating all France, he rather than warmed his partisans, by had spared only his colleagues, among indecisive speeches made in the Jacobin whom there was no longer any one club, he appeared again on the 26th who ventured to pretend to the first of July, 1794, in the convention, and rank,' his power would probably still ascended the tribune to extol his own have b er of some duration : bút virtue.' He endeavoured to gain over cowardly, tiinid, and suspicious, feel. the Plaine, by reminding it that he ing his weakness, and thinking to mask had always defended it, and especially it with barbarity, or rather seeking to that he had opposed the accusation of create himself a support in the mode- the 73. He then declaimed against tate party, by sacrificing to opinion, the committees, of which several memwith which he wished to prop himself, bers (Billaud-Varennes among others) the principal agents of the revolution were leaving hiin; some because they áry government, and particularly the saw the storm gathering over his greatest part of the deputies who hat head; others, because they had learnt been intrusted with missions, he ai). that their names were in their turn nounced the design of punishing the placed on the lists of proscription. criines and wasteful expenses of his Bourdon again ventured to begin the colleagues, and of loading them with attack first, by demanding that Robes. the crimes which; when conquerors, pierre's' speech should be referred to they re-charged on him ; and he thus the examination of the committees forced to resistance men who would, before it was sent to be printed, under perhaps, ' have desired nothing more' pretence that errors might have got than to serve and command under him'; into it: Errors! into a speech of the sight of the danger re-animated Robespierre's. This expression struck their courage, and certain of their des. all ears; the party was firmly contruction, they resolved to try at least nected, it was thought time to act, to save themselves by a bold stroke. and Vadier, Cambon, Charlier, BilOn the 10th of June, Ruamps, and laud, Panis, Amar, Bentabolle, Thi. especially Bourdon de l'Oise, ventured rion, and Breard, spoke successively

against

against the despot, but with a half. radox! How the mildest religion on boldness which slicwed the terror that the earth should be, as it has always he inspired. Barere alone, still un. been, called in aid to sanction the must oertain, pronounced only insignificant atrocious crimes; and how inen have phrases, incapable of compromising dared in profanely invoking it, to mak: him with either of the two parties. laws so repugnant to it that they liê. In the mean time Robespierre per- ver could be obeyed until the laws of ceived all the danger that threatened God were broken. I cannot better him : he saw that the greatest part of describe the state of religion amonzat the members of the government were the English, than by a short history abandoning him, either through of the Apostle of the reformation. hatred, or that they might not fall with him; and on the night between the 26th and 27th he assembled his

THE LIFE AND DEATH OF intimate friends. •St. Just pressed

HENRY VIII. him to act immediately; he delayed He was born in 1491, and began it for twenty-four hours, and that to reign in 1509. He raised his fa. delay was his sentence of death. In vorites, the instruments of his crimes, vain St. Just wished to speak the next from the depth of obscurity to the day in the convention ; his voice was pinnacle of grandeur, and after setting drowded : Tallien began the contest them up as tyrants, put them to death again, Billaud-Varennes finished the like slaves. He was pre-eminent in tearing of the veil, and Robespierre religion : first quarrelling with Luther, having rushed into the tribune, cries whose doctrines he thought too repubof “ Down with the tyrant !” imme. lican, he became defender of the Cadiately drove him from it. Then the tholic faith; and then quarrelling with people vied with each other in de. the Pope, who stood in the way of his elaiming against the overthrown idol, murders, he was twice excommunicat. and in giving him the last blows. ed. He made creeds and articles, and However, threatened on all sides, he made it treason not to swear to them; shen ed more courage than he was he made others quite opposed to them, suspecied of possessing; he still pre- and made it treason not to swear to sumed to threaten the convention, and them: and he burned his opponents to say with an air of superiority to with slow fire. He burned ar hyste. Tallien, who demanded permission torical girl, the maid of Kent, for her speak ia order to bring back the debate opinions. He disputed with a foolish to its real subject, “ I shall be able to school-master on the Real Presence. bring it back »

and burned him to convince him. Hie (To be continued.)

beheaded Bishop Fisher and Sir Tho

mas Moore, for not swearing that his Of the Reformation, own children were bastards. He robot By COUNSELLOR SAMPSON. bed the churches, and gave the reve.

,nue of a convent to an old woman for IN order to understand the new a pudding. He burned a lovely young hardships which the Irish were now to woman (Anne Ascue) for jabbering of endure, it is good to take a short view the real presence. of the state of Religion in England. He was in love as in religion, deliWe shall hear no more now of mere cate and tendet. He first married his Irish and degenerate English. For, sister-in-law, and because her childrea from this time, their persecutions as. Jied, divorced her ; married her maid sume a new form, and are carried on of honour, and made pariiament and in the name of God! Inexplicable pa. clergy declare he had done well. He

bebeaded

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