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them, was even tempted to have him supreme power, intrusted him with arrested; but he passed over into the military dispositions, which were France, and settled near Toulon, calculated at the same time to s cura which at the same time yielded to the their own success, and to dimich English: he was then nothing inore the effusion of blood, through titt thau an officer of artillery. Salicetti, salutary terror which was produced i? who knew him, painted him out to the assemblies of the sections of Paris, Barras, as a person who would serve by the firing of cannon chaise wiila usefully at the siege of this place, powder only, till a very late horror where he soon made himself remarked the night. Bonaparte retain to by the commander in chief, Dugom. -command of Paris for some tin aitcr mier, who one day said to the repre. the instalment of the directory, and sentatives : " Let this young man fix then married madame Beaut...niivs your attention ; if you do not advance Being appointed a few days aliar to him, I will answer for it that he will the chief command of the arisy of contrive to raise himself." The cool, Italy, he alone did not appear asto. Dess and intrepidity which he shewed oished at this sudden elevation, and in at the defence of fort Pharon, where answer to those who made observations many gunners perished, and of which on his youth, he said, “ 111 6ix he served the battery almost alone, months I shall be an old general, or I furnished the representatives of the shall be dead.” He opened the campeople with an opportunity for this paign on the 22d of Germinal, year advancement. Accordingly Barras 4, (17th of March, 1796,) shewing

and Freron promoted him to the rank to his army, from the top of the Si of general of brigade. He contri- mountains, the fertile plains of

buted greatly to the re-taking of Tuu. Piémont and of Lombardy, as a vast

lon, but was less fortunate against field of glory, and of resources against - Ajaccio, which was then occupied by the wants of every kind to which they

the English, and whence he was re- were a prey. This appeal to courage pulsed by his cousin Masseria, who was not deceived at Montenotte, at had embraced the cause of England. Millesimo, at Dego, nor at Mondovi. Napoleon Bonaparte retired to Nice, The brilliant success of these days where he again gave himself up to the struck terror into the armies of Ausstudy of the military art, but in the tria, separated the king of Sardinia midst of these uccupations the con. from the coalition, and secured to ventionalist Beffroi had him arrested France, Savoy and the counties of withuut cause, towards the end of Nice, of Tende, and of Beuil, by the 1794, in consequence of the re-action cession of Tortone and Coni, Without of Thermidor. He did not long slackening in the pursuit of the enemy. remain the victim of this injustice, and the promptitude of his marches enabled went to Paris, where he remained for him to pass the Po near Placentia, some time without being employed, almost without obstacle, and the duke and vainly solicited Aubry, who was of Parma also saw himself forced to then charged with the military departe accept an armistice, which he obtain. ment in the committee of public safety, ed on condition of delivering up two Young Bonaparte conceived so much millions of money, 700 horses, proviregret at it, that he requested to go sions, &c. The austrian general Beauto Constantinople, but was not per. lieu thought he could defend the paso mitted. He was at Paris on the 12th, sage of the Adda better, but the en13th, and 14th of Vendemiaire, year thugiasm of the troops, already so

4, (9th, 10th, and Ilth of October, powerful, and the impetuosity of the * 1795.) Barras, invested with the generals at the head of the columns,

rendered

R2

rendered vain the defence of the bridge of Mantua, and hastily abandons his of Lodi by thirty pieces of artillery, inirenchments and 140 pieces of artile which swept its whole extent of one lery. The battles of Salo, Lolado, hundred fathoms. This victory made Castiglione, the retaking of Peschiera, the duke of Modena also buy a peace; the occupation of Trente, and of the he paid ten millions to France, and straits of the Brenta, obtained by gave up twenty pictures, chosen from gaining the battles of Roveredo and his gallery. Bonaparte then entered Bassano, sovn restored to the French Milan and Pavia, of which he soon their superiority and their former posihad to punish the revolt. He at first tions. It was at this period that ge. sent the archbishop of Milan to try neral Bonaparte made himself remarked means of conciliation, which were re- for an instance of coolnes, and presence jected. Immediately the gates of the of mind that characterizes him to city were forced open by a cannonade, “well to be passed over by the historian. and the municipality shot on the spot. He had advanced with 1,200 men only After this expedition he had to march as far as Salo and Gavardo ; a hostile to new dangers, which he contrived general, at the head of a body of to diminish" beforehand by exalting 4,000 menn, believed for a moment the courage of his troops. After the that this body, se inferior to his own, battle of Lodi, the enemy having re. was in his power, and summoned it to tired behind the Mincio, the French yield. " Go and tell your chief," army passed it in their presence, and answered Bonaparte himself, “ that if thus completed the victory of Borghet. he meant to insult the French army, I to, carried their out.posts as far as am here, that it is himself and his body the Tirol, and invested Mantua; Bo who are prisoners, and that if he has naparte then occupied Tuscany, ex- not in eight minutes laid down bis pelled the English, and obtained from arms, I will put his troo; s to the the grand duke 6000 fire-locks, and sword.” The terrified messenger a heavy contribution. The pope after communicated his fears to the general wards submitted to conditions nearly of the enemy, who desired a parley, similar, and put Bologna, Ferrara, but some movements of troops having and the citadel of Ancona into the added to his alarm, he accepted the hands of the French. Lastly, Bona capitulation. In the midst of his parte also secured the king of Naples, defeats, Wurmser executed the bold and carried the influence of his arms project of throwing himself into Manfrom the strait of Sicily to the passes tua, which he defended till the second of the Tirol. Fortune appeared for of February, 1797. A new army of a moment to be abandoning him, but 50,000 meu then re-appeared under he soon fixed her by the ascendant of generals Alvenzi and Davidowich, to his genius and of his activity. Old join the remnant of that of Wurmser, marshal Wurmser had succeeded which had retired into the Tirol. Beaulieu in the command of the army, The bloody battles of St. Michael and which had been just re-inforced with of Segonzano, that of Arcola, as 25,000 men. That of Bonaparte, on celebrated as that of Lodi, for the ex. the contrary, had been weakened by ertions of the generals, and that enan immense line, and the occupation of thusiasm of glory which carried Bonaa great number of attacked places, parte to seize a standard, and place on every point of the two banks of himceli at the head of the columns, the lake of Guarda ; it was repulsed reduced this army also, which the effor an instant. Its general immediately forts of the court of Vieona again changes his plan ; le suspends the afterwards increased with 45.000 nien, works already advanced for the siege The battles of Rivoli, of the Coroba, of Anguiari, were again decisive, and army, being either organized by the the total defeat of general Provera, Venetian government, or the unfore unuer the wails of Mantua, which he seen effect of a spontaneous commo. was coming to succour, adorned the tion. As soon as the French had triumph of Bonaparte with the stane ceased to pursue the Austrian army, dard embroidered by the hands of the one of their divisions entered Venice empress for the volunteers of Vienna. and Verona, where 300 French had At the same time some intercepied bren slaughtered: the lion of St. letters excited some suspicions of the Mark was every where overthrown, court of Rome ; general Bonaparte and the place of the ancient senate broke off the truce, seized the march was filled with a municipality ; but of Ancuna and fort Urban, and after at the definitive treaty, France yielded some slighi skirmishes with the troops the spoils of this republic to Austria. of the pope, forced Pius VI. to send Bonaparte afterwards employed himself him negociators, who concluded the for a short time in organizing the new treaty of peace of Tolentino. It is government of the Cisalpine republis; remarked, that in this negociation, the the. he wen: to Paris, in December, pope was always treated by Bonaparte 1797, to present to the directory the with great respect; he also at the treaty of peace of Campo-Forinio, same time authorized the French emin which gave occasion for a pubilc cere. grant priests to remain in Italy. mony, in which broke forth the testi. Shortly afterwards Mantua yielded, movies of the national joy and gratiand terminated this campaign), which (ude. Being appointed plenipotenti. was rendered illustrious by fourteen ary at the c ngress of Rastadt, he soon victories in pitched battles, and seventy suspected, by the slowness of the disbattles in which the French had made cussions, that peace was not desired 100,000 prisoners, and taken 2,500 there, and immediately returned to pieces of canon, &c. &c. Bonaparte Paris to prepare the Egyptian expeteing then convinced of the necessity dition. In the dangers and uncer. of going to extort peace, even in the tainties of this operation, in which the Austrian capital, from the emperor, remainder of the French paval force, who alone was left of the coalition, and the flower of the troops and the prepared to cross the mountains of the generals were employed, all Europe Tirol; and the passages of Piave and saw only the design on the part of the of Tagliamento were soon forced. The directory of removing, at the price of batiles of Cassasola, of Clausen, of the greatest sacrifices, Bonaparte, Tarvis, of Hundermak, &c. where whose influence they dreaded; but Prince Charles made vain efforts to the importance of this expedition, and rally the Austrian army'; and the the effects (much better appreciated subsequent seizure of the passes of since the loss of Egypt) which it was Inspruck, of the two Carinthies, and to produce on the English commerce of Carniola, opened the hereditary in India, bave since shewn that this countries on all sides to the French project was entirely of his own choice. army, which was now only thirty As the directory had given him, after leagues fron Vienna. It was then the creaty of Campo-Formio, the that Francis the Second domanded to command of the army of England, Begociate, and that the preliminaries he renuinded the troops in his procla. were signed at Leoben, which were mation of the 21st of Floreal, that afterwards converted into a treaty of they formed one wing of that army. peace at Campo-Formio. : During The squadron, composed of 194 ves. this invasion,' an mourrection had sels, which sailed from Toulon on the broken out in the rear of the French 30th of Floreal, year 6, (19h of

May, May, 1798,) came, on the 21st of being come within six leagues of Cairo,

Prairial, within sight of the island of learnt that the twenty-three beys had Gozo, and joined the convoys sailing assembled, with all their forces, on from Civita-Vecchia and different the heights of Embabe, which were ports of Italy. On the refusal of the defended by sixty pieces of candon. grand-master of Malta to permit them Bonaparte first animated the courage to take in fresh water at the springs of his troops by this grand idea, of the island, the troops were landed, " Consider that forty centuries como and after a slight cannonade, and a template us from the top of these sally of the besieged, performed with Pyramids ;". and he theo disposed bio great circumspection, this important army as in the preceding actions, that place surrendered on the 23d. The is to say, in square battalions, by die commander, Dolomieu, was very useful visions reciprocally flanking each in this operation. Bonaparte left 3000 other. The Mamelukes covering the men in the town, and set sail on the plain, overwhelmed all the wings, and 16t of Messidor. It was out at sea, sought for a weak point to penetrate; and a week before his arrival in Egypt, they were every where suffered to apthat he acquainted his army with its proach within fifty paces, and then : destination. Nelson had reached Alex. double side and front fire carried disandria three days before hiin, but, be order into the ranks of this cavalry, ing deceived by the delay which the on the superiority of which Muraltaking of Malta had caused, and Bey was accustomed to rely. The thinking himself mistaken about the entrenchments of Embabe were imme aim of the expedition, he returned to diately after carried, and the enemies Malta and Sicily. Bonaparte then made their retreat with so much preo approached the coast of Egypt, and cipitation, that a part threw themselves gave orders for the landing of the into the Nile. During this action, a troops on the very night of his arriral French fleet, which had ascended the before Alexandria,, notwithstanding Nile, had a very warm fight to sur the contrary winds and the obstacles tain with that of the Mamelukes, of a surging sea. The army immedio whose admiral it blew up. This battle ately fell upon Alexandria, and after cost the enemy 2000 horsemen, 4000 a contest which lasted the whole day, camels, and 50 pieces of artillery, this town was taken). Bona parte re. and it must have convinced them at vived the inhabitants by a proclama. the superiority of European tactics. tion, which was followed by an agree. Cairo yielded, and the two principal ment between him and the mufti and beys having separated themselves, ge principal scheiks, by which their neral Desaix was commissioned to reproperty and their political and religi- pulse Murat-Bey into Said, while ous institutions were secured. Bona. Bonaparte drove Ibrahim-Bey beyond parte caused the soldiers killed at the the desert which separates Syria from taking of the town, to be buried at Egypt. At the same time he wrote the foot of Pompey's pilar, and their to the governnent concerning the names to be engraven on it. Four disaster of the French fleet at Abou days after he turned his course towards kir, and attributed to the fault which Cairo by the difficult way of Demane admiral Brueis had committed in not hour, ordering one division to seize having gone to Corfu. To his report, Rosetto, and to ascend the left bank general Bonaparte expressed an opinion of the Nile. The battles of Rasmanie that this misfortune would put an end and Cheibresse served to enable Bona- to the hesitations of the Porte, and parte to form a just estimate of the would throw that power into the arms enemy, and to fix the manner of fighi- of the English. ing them. The commander in chief. (To be Continued.).

4. Memirs

Memoirs of J. G. DANTON, tropolis increased yearly ; in 1792 ho One of the Members of the French Con- was one of those who organized the vention.'

events of June 20th, and prepared J. G. Danton, an advocate to the those of August 10th, by appearing Council, was born at Arcis-sur-Aube, on the 8th at the bar of the assembly, on the 26th of October, 1759, and to declare if the king's depositions beheaded the 5th of April 1794. were not decreed, the section of the His height was Colossal, his make Cordeliers would rise, and trample on athletic, his features strongly marked, the government. Louis XVI. having coarse, and displeasing ; his voice been removed from the throne on the shook the domes of the halls, his 10th, Danton became a member of elocution was vehement, and his images the provisional executive council, ob. gigantic.

tained the appointment of administra. These qualities contributed to give tor of Justice, and usurped the nomihim influence in the districts towards nation of agents to the army, and to the beginning of the revolution ; and the departments, which gave him ophe ever tenaceously adhered to his ori. portunities of engaging many to his ginal intention, which was the same interests, Gold poured on the miniswith Robespierre's, to obtain the dic- ter from all sides, and by him was tatorship. He was successively the abundantly distributed to reward atro. friend of Mirabeau, of Marat, and citie!), and purchase adherents. Prud. Robespierre, whose victim he became. homme gives the following account of In 1790 he called on the National As. his elevation to the ministry :sembly, in the name of forty-eight « On the 11th of August, at three sections of Paris, to require Louis o'clock in the morning, Fabre and CaXVI. to give up his ministers, who mille Desmoulins went to his bedhad lost the confidence of the nation. side, to inform him that he was the lo February, 1791, he was elected, administrator of Justice ; this is not member for the department of Paris. all," added Fabre, • You must make After the arrest of Louis XVI. at me keeper of the seal,' • And me,' Varennes, he presided at the meeting said Camille, one of your secretain the field of Mars, when the king's res.' • Bùt,' replied Danton, who deposition was demanded. In conse- was but half awake, • are you quite quence of this, he was forced to re sure that I am appointed minister?' main some time concealed; but, he yes,' answered the two candire-appeared with more boldness than dates, and we will not leave you ever. He proposed to the Jacobins without the promise of these two to compel the payment of the national places.' Very well,” said Daoton, debt by the wealthier part of the be it so;' and all was arranged ace community; and, in case of their res cording to the desire of these two pa. fusal, to take the same steps against triots.” No sooner was he admitted them as the nobles and the priests. into the ministry, than he caused the An attempt was made to arrest hin gates of Paris to be shut, and declarin the meetings of July, of which he ed against domiciliary searches, and was appointed elector ; but Damiens, the sending of armed men to the fronthe officer charged with the execution tiers. He explained to the legislature of this order, was himself arrested as the necessity of producing a sensation • violator of the majesty of the peo. in the heart of Paris, and through Paple. In November, Danton was ap- ris in the departments, in favour of pointed deputy attorney for the com- the revolution, which had recently munc of Paria. His power in the me. been brought about, and he powerful

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