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TEXT. 13 Was then that, which is good, nade death unto me? God for

bid! but sin, that it might appear sin, working deatla in me, by that which is good; that sin, by the commandment, might be

come exceeding sinful. 14 For we know that the law is spiritual; but I am carnal, sold under sin.

· PARAPHRASE. 13 Was then the law, that in itself was good, made death to

me? Nof, by no means: but it was sin, that by the law was made death unto me, to the end that the powers of sin might appear, by its being able to bring death upon me, by that very law, that was intended for my good, that

so, by the commandment, the power of sin and corrup14 tion in me might be shown to be exceeding great; For

we know that the law is spiritual, requiring actions quite opposite to our carnal affections. But I am so carnal, as to be enslaved to them, and forced against my will to

NOTES. 13 "No." In the five foregoing verses the apostle had proved, that the law was not sin. In this, and the ten following verses, he proves the law nct to be made death; but that it was given to show the power of sin, which remained in those, under the law, so strong, rotwithstanding the law, that it could prevail on them to transgress the law, notwithstanding all its prohibitions, with the penalty of death annexed to every transgression. Of what use, this showing the power of sin, by the law, was, we may see, Gal. iii. 24.

& That .cerio raditepe van de afiwnós, “ sin exceeding sinful,” is put here to signify, the great power of sin, or lust, is evident from the following discourse, which only tends to show, that let a man under the law be right in his mind and purpose; yet the law in his members, i.e. his carnal appetites, would carry him to the committing of sin, though his judgment and endeavours were averse to it. He that remembers that sin, in this chapter, is all along represented as a person, whose very nature it was to seek and endeavour his ruin, will pot find it hard to understand, that the apostle liere, by “sin exceeding sinful,” means sin strenuously exerting its sinful, i.e. destructive nature, with mighty force.

h "Ivce yevstar, " that sin might become,” i.e. might appear to be. It is of appearance he speaks in the former part of this verse, and so it must be understood here, to conform to the scnse of the words, not only to what immediately precedes in this verse, but to the apostle's design in this chapter, where he takes pains to prove, that the law was not intended any way to promote sin ; and to understand, by these words, that it was, is an interpretation that neither holy scripture nor good sen:e will allow: though the sacred scripture should not, as it does, give many instances of putting “ being," for “appearing,” Vid. ch. jii. 19.

14 i Issuu.clizo, "spiritual,” is used here to signify the opposition of the law to our carnal appetites. The antithesis in the following words makes it clear,

TEXT. 15 For that which I do, I allow not; for what I would, that do I

not; but what I hate, that I do. 16 If then I do that which I would not, I consent unto the law, that

it is good. 17 Now then it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in

me. 19 For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh) dwelleth no good

thing: for to will is present with me, but how to perform that which is good, I find not.

PARAPHRASE. do the drudgery of sin, as if I were a slave, that had

been sold into the hands of that my domineering enemy. 15 For what I do, is not of my own contrivancek; for that

which I have a mind to, I do not; and what I have an 16 aversion to, that I do. If then my transgressing the law be what I, in my mind, am against

, it is plain, the con17 sent of my mind goes with the law, that it is good. If

so, then it is not I, a willing agent of my own free purpose, that do what is contrary to the law, but as a poor slave in captivity, not able to follow my own understand ing and choice, forced by the prevalency of my own sin

ful affections, and sin that remains still in me, notwith18 standing the law. For I know, by woeful experience,

that in me, viz. in my flesh', that part, which is the seat of carnal appetites, there inhabits 110 good. For, in the

NOTES. 15 k Oủ yovúcyw, "I do not know," i.e. it is not from my own under. standing, or forecast of mind; the following words, which are a reason brought to prove this saying, give it this sense. But if ; youtuw be interpreted, “I “ do not approve," what in the next words is brought for a reason, will be but tautology.

18 1 St. Paul considers himseif, and in himself other men, as consisting of two parts, which he calls flesh and inind, see ver. 25, meaning, by the one, the judgment and purpose of his mind, guided by the law, or right reason; by the Other, his natural inclination, pushing him to the satisfaction of his irregular sinful desires. There he also calls, the one the law of his members, and the other the law of his mind, ver. 23, and Gal. v. 16, 17, a place parallel to the ten last verses of this chapter, he calls the one flesh, and the other spirit. The two are the subject of his discourse, in all this part of the chapter, explaining particularly how, by the power and prevalency of the fleshly inclinations, not abated by the law, it comes to pays, which he says, chap. viji. 2, 3, that the law being weak, by reason of the feed, could not set a man tree from the power and dominion of sin and death.

TEXT. 19 For the good, that I would, I do not: but the evil, which I

would not, that I do. 20 Now if I do that I would not, it is no more I, that do it; but

sin, that dwelleth in ine. 21 I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present

with me.

22 For I delight in the law of God, after the inward man. 23 But I see another law in my members, warring against the law

of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin, which is in my members.

PARAPHRASE. judgment and purpose of my mind, I am readily carried into a conformity and obedience to the law: but, the strength of my carnal affections not being abated by the

law, I am not able to execute what I judge to be right, 19 and intend to perform. For the good, that is my purpose

and ajin, that I do not: but the evil, that is contrary to my intention, that in my practice takes place,

i.e. I purpose and aim at universal obedience, but can90 not in fact attain it. Now if I do that, which is against

the full bent and intention of me" myself, it is, as I said before, not I, my true self, who do it, but the true author

of it is my old enemy, sin, which still remains and dwells 21 in me, and I would fain get rid of. I find it, therefore,

as by a law settled in me, that when my intentions, aim

at good, evil is ready at hand, to make iny actions wrong 22 and faulty. For that which my inward man is delighted

with, that, which with satisfaction my mind would make 23 its rule, is the law of God. But I see in

But I see in my members" another principle of action, equivalent to a law, directly

NOTES. 20 m (ů léaw byw, “I would not." I, in the Greek, is very emphatical, as is obvious, and denotes the man, in that part which is chiefly to be counted himself, and therefore with the like emphasis, ver. 25, is called avt's I my own self.”

23 í St. Paul, here and in the former chapter, uses the word members, for the lower faculties and affections of the animal man, which are as it were the instruments of actions.

• He having, in the foregoing verse, spoken of the law of God, as a principle of action, but yet such as bad not a power to rule and influence the whole man, so as to keep himn quite clear from sin, he here speaks of natural inclinations, as

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TEXT. 24 O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body

of this death? 25 I thank God, through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then, with

the mind, I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh, the law of sin.

PARAPHRASE. waging war against that law, which my mind would follow, leading me captive into an unwiling subjection to the constant inclination and impulse of my carnal appe

tite, which, as steadily as if it were a law, carries me to 24 sin. . O miserable man that I am, who shall deliver mer 25 from this body of death? The grace

of God', through PARAPHRASE. Jesus Christ our Lord. To comfort myself, therefore, as that state requires, for my deliverance from death, I myself', with full purpose and sincere endeavours of mind, give up myself to obey the law of God; though iny carnal inclinations are enslaved, and have a constant tendency to sin. This is all I can do, and this is all, I being under grace, that is required of me, and through Christ will be accepted.

NOTES.

of a law also, a law in the members, and a law of sin in the members, to show that it is a principle of operation in men, even under the law, as steady and constant in its direction and impulse to sin, as the law is to obedience, and failed not, through the frailty of the flesh, often to prevail.

24 - What is it, that St. Paul so pathetically desires to be delivered from? The state, he had been describing, was that of human weakness, wherein, notwithstanding the law, even those, who were under it, and sincerely endeavoured to obey it, were frequently carried, by their carnal appetites, into the breach of it. The state of frailty, lie knew men, in this world, could not be delivered. from. And therefore, if we mind him, it is not that, but the consequence of it, death, or so much of it that brings death, that he inquires after a deliverer from. “Who shall deliver me," says he, “ from this body?" He does not say of frailty, but of death: what shall hinder that my carnal appetites, that so often make me fall into sin, shall not bring death upon me, which is awarded me by the law? And to this he answers, " the grace of God, through our Lord “ Jesus Christ." It is the favour of God alone, through Jesus Christ, that de. livers frail men from death. Those under grace obtain life, upon sincere intentions and endeavours after obedience, and those endeavours a man may attain to, in this state of frailty. But good intentions and sincere endeavours are of no behoof against death, to those under the law, which requires complete and punctual obedience, but gives no ability to attain it. And so it is grace alone, through Jesus Christ, that, accepting of what a frail man can do, delivers from the body of death. And thereupon, he concludes with joy, “ so thin I, being “ now a christian, not any longer under the law, but under grace, this is the “ state I am in, whereby I shall be delivered from death; I, with my whole « bent and intention, devote myself to the law of God, in sincere endeavours " after obedience, though my carnal appetites are enslaved to, and have their “ natural propensity towards sin."

25 9 Our translators read ivg aposū tū Orł, “ I thank God:” the author of the vulgate, yapıs To Oscü, " the grace or favour of God," which is the reading of the Clermont, and other Greek manuscripts. Nor can it be doubted, which of these two readings should be followed, by one who considers, not only that the apostle makes it his business to show, that the jews stood in need of grace, for salvation, as much as the gentiles: but also, that the grace of God is a direct and apposite answer to, “who shall deliver me?” which, if we read it, I thank VOL. VIII.

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NOTES.

God, has no answer at all; an omission, the like whereof, I do not reinember any where in St. Paul's way of writing. This I am sure, it renders the passage obscure and imperfect in itself. But much more disturbs the sense, if we observe the illative, therefore, which begins the next verse, and introduces a conclusion easy and natural, if the question, “ who shall deliver me?" has for answer, " the grace of God.” Otherwise it will be hard to find premises, from whence it can be drawn. For thus stands the argument plain and easy. The law cannot deliver from the body of death, i.e. from those carnal appetites, which produce sin, and so bring death: but the grace of God, througli Jesus Christ, which pardons lapses, where there is sincere endeavour after righteousness, delivers us from this body, that it doth not destroy us. From whence naturally results this conclusion, there is, therefore now, no condemnation, &c." But what it is grounded on, in the other reading, I confess I do not see.

r Autos iyw, "I my elf,” i.e. I the man, with all my full resolution of mind. Avtosoya might have both of them been spared, if nothing more had been meant here, than the nominative case to deactw. See note, ver. 20.

* Aratów, " I serve," or I make myself a vassal, i.e. I intend and devote my whole obedience. The terms of life, to those under grace, St. Paul tells us at large, chap vi. are δελωθήναι τη δικαιοσύνη, and τω Θεώ, to become vassals to righteousness, and to God; consonantly he says here aitas sya', “ I niyself," I the man, being now a christian, and so no longer under the law, but under grace, do what is required of me in that state; darów, “I become a vassal to the law “ of God," i.e. dedicate myself to the service of it, in sincere endeavours of obedience : and so aútòs iyan's “ I the man, shall be delivered from death;" for he that, being under grace, makes himself a vassal to God, in a steady purpose of sincere obedience, shall from him receive the gift of eternal life, though his carnal appetite, which he cannot get rid of, having its bent towards sin, makes him sometimes transgress, which would be certain death to him, if we were still under the law.

See chap. vi. 18 and 22.

And thus St. Paul having shown here in this chapter that the being under grace alone, without being under the law, is necessary even to the jews, as in the foregoing chapter he had shown it to be to the gentiles, he here hereby demon. stratively confirms the gentile converts in their freedom from the law, which is the scope of this epistle thus far,

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