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settlement of the Border disputes, the release of the desired effect; the Lords of the Congregativu prisoners on both sides, and the establishing a were encouraged to strike another blow, sound and lasting tranquillity on the frontiers of In an armistice concluded at the Links of Leith the two kingdoms, the seat of ancient and fierce on the 24th of the preceding month of July, it enmities. These commissioners were the infam- was covenanted-1. That the town of Edinburgh ous James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, who, a few should use what religion they pleased. 2. That years later, involved Queen Mary in disgrace and no one should be prosecuted for religion. 3. That destruction; Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington, no garrison should be placed in Edinburgh. A father of the celebrated secretary of Mary; and dispute arose concerning the possession of the Sir Walter Car, or Ker, of Cessford, ancestor high church of St. Giles in Edinburgh, which

of the Dukes of Roxburgh. Sir Ralph Sadler the queen-regent desired to retain for the ever· thought fit to postpone the meeting to the 11th cise of the Catholic worship, and which the

of September, and the Scottish commissioners do Reformers were equally eager to occupy. But, in not appear to have been sensible of the fact that, fact, John Knox was determined to drive the in the meanwhile, those of England were actively Romish clergy from every church, from every corresponding with the insurgents. Great caution altar, whether public or private, and thus, immewas used in that matter. In conformity with diately after the agreement of the Links of Leitb, Cecil's advice, a comfortable letter was drawn up he extended his demands, insisting that mass between Sir Ralph Sadler and Sir James Croft should not be said even within the precincts of to the Lords of the Congregation, expressing their the palace of Holyrood. Sadler granted the hearty sorrow at understanding that their godly Lords of the Congregation for the present £2000, enterprise, tending principally to the advance-telling their envoy, that if they made a good use ment of God's glory, and next to the safeguard of it, and kept the secret, and the queen's honour and defence of their natural country from the untouched, they should soon have more. Balconquest of the French nation, should be unfor naves returned well satisfied to the Lords of the tunately stayed and interrupted.' But this letter | Congregation, who took the money as secretly as was not sent to its destination; and it seems to possible. In the same long letter, in which he have been stopped in consequence of the journey reports all that had passed with Balnaves, Sir into Scotland of the son and heir of the Duke of Ralph informs Cecil that there were other ScotChatellerault, who had been in England in close tish Protestants, as Kirkaldy of Grange, Ormesconference with Cecil, by means of whom the ton, and Whitlaw, “which have spent much for necessary encouragement might be transmitted this matter, whereof they be earnest prosecutors; to the insurgents by word of mouth, thus dimin- and, having lost fifteen or sixteen months' pay, ishing the chance of committing Queen Elizabeth which they should now have had out of France," as a fomenter of the rebellion.

looked for some relief, and had been put in some The ex-regent's son, who at this time bore his hope thereof; “but," continues Sadler, “because father's former title of Earl of Arran, stole into we have been so liberal of the queen's purse, Scotland with an English pass, under the assumed albeit it pleased her majesty to commit the same name of Monsieur de Beaufort, and he was accom to the discretion of me the said Sir Ralph, yet panied by Master Thomas Randall, or Randolph, we would be glad to know how her highness an able and intelligent agent of Queen Elizabeth, liketh or misliketh what we have done before we an adept in secret intrigues, who assumed, for the do any more.” Elizabeth was obliged to send nonce, the name of Barnyby.' This Randall, or down more money to Berwick, some of which Randolph, alias Barnyby, remained a consider- was paid to Kirkaldy, Ormeston, and Whitlaw, able time in Scotland, being in fact the resident and some, it should appear, to the Earl of Arran, envoy of Elizabeth to the Lords of the Congre- the son of the Duke of Chatellerault the ex-regation. He occasionally corresponded directly gent. In a day or two Arran was safely delivwith the queen's council, but more generally with ered in Teviotdale to one of his friends, who Sir R. Sadler. On the 8th of September, three undertook to convey him surely and secretly to days before the appointed meeting with the com- his father in the castle of Hamilton; and it apmissioners of the Queen-regent of Scotland, Sadler pears to have been after this return of his son wrote to inform Cecil that Mr. Balnaves had at that the ex-regent fully declared for the Lords last arrived at midnight from the Lords of the of the Congregation. Meanwhile, on the apCongregation, and had made him “the whole dis- pointed day, Sadler, with Croft and the Earl of course of all their proceedings from the begin- Northumberland, met the commissioners of the ning." English money and promises hail workicaud queen-regent upon the frontiers. A dispute about I Sadler's State Papers.

the wording of their respective commissions con2 In the passport M. de Beaufort, alias Arran, was designated sumed some time, and then, with proper diploas “a gentleman of our good brother the French king;" Barnyby, matic slowness, Sadler proceeded to businesslias Randolph, as a gentleman appointed to accompany him.

business which, like all Border disputes, could be of the chief port and entrance into that part of lengthened ad infinitum. During these discus Scotland ;” and the Lords of the Congregation sions Knox sent his preachers over the country; attempted to get possession of Edinburgh Castle, the queen-regent "fell into a great melancholy in which, however, they were defeated by Lord and displeasure;" the Congregation began to as- Erskine the governor, who professed to observe semble, and the Frenchmen began to devise means ' neutrality between the contending parties, and for their own defence. Had she but known half refused to admit either Protestants or Catholics. the intrigues that were at work, the queen-regent In spite of all the precaution of the English had good reason to be melancholy. Her secre- queen and the marvellous address of her agent, tary, William Maitland, wrote to Sadler's asso- Mary's mother was not altogether blind to what ciate, Sir James Croft, desiring him to have no was passing, and she complained, through her less good opinion of him than heretofore, and commissioners, that, without her license and offering his service to the queen's majesty (Eliza- knowledge, many of the Scottish insurgents were beth) in anything that he could : "and further," allowed to pass through England into Scotland, says Croft in a joint letter, "he sent me word that and also out of Scotland into England, to work he attended upon the regent in her court no longer mischief to her government. It is indeed certain. than till he might have good occasion to revolt that the Cardinal of Lorraine, and others who unto the Protestants.” At the same time, how directed the councils of that very youthful couple, ever, more troops arrived from France, and more would have made Francis and Mary quarter the French money was placed at the disposal of the English arms under any circumstances; but notqueen-regent and her party. John Knox was withstanding this, Elizabeth, with reference to greatly alarmed as to the French money, and he her own conduct, could not justly allege that the immediately besought Elizabeth to counteract its first provocation to their mortal quarrel prodangerous effects to the Protestant interests by ceeded from Mary. It is almost idle to consider sending more English money into Scotland. On this as a moral question, or as an affair directed his recent return from Geneva through England personally by the two rival princesses; but as be had had an interview with Cecil, and evidently many writers have viewed it in this light, it may had arranged beforehand the plan of his opera- be proper to make prominent one or two little tions. He corresponded afterwards with the facts. Mary was only in her seventeenth year, English secretary and others in England; and on her husband was nearly a year younger, and both the 21st of September, under the feigned name were entirely guided by others.

Elizabeth was of John Sinclear, he wrote to Sadler's colleague, in her twenty-sixth year, the mistress of her own Croft, a remarkable letter from St. Andrews. council and actions, an experienced and most After mentioning the return of the younger competent person. If, therefore, a false and unArran, and how the Lords of the Congregation fair direction was given to the policy of Mary, it had departed for Stirling to join him and his was her misfortune, or an offence for which father, the Duke of Chatelleranlt, at Hamilton morally she was not accountable, but in ElizaCastle, he passed at once to the question of beth such a thing would be her own crime. money, and told Mr. Secretary that unless more The ex - Regent Chatellerault took occasion money was sent, especially for some chiefs whom openly to declare himself on the French fortifyhe had named in writing, it would be impossible ing Leith, and he told the queen-regent that she for them to serve in this action.?

must either dislodge them, or be sure that the Those who take the least favourable view of nobility of Scotland would not suffer nor endure the character of John Knox can hardly suspect it. The regent replied that it was surely as that he wanted money for himself, but he knew lawful for her daughter to fortify where she the world and the mercenary character of most pleased in her own realm as it was for him, the of the Scottish chiefs; and, besides, the sinews of duke, to build fortifications for himself at Hamilwar appear really to have been wanting, and the ton Castle, and that she would not remove the Catholic party, as we have seen, were drawing French from Leith unless she were compelled by funds from France. For a time it was a struggle force. As soon as these matters were known at of the purse between England and France. Eli Berwick, where agents and spies were constantly zabeth, at all times parsimonious, was at the pre- going and coming, Sadler wrote a short but sensent poor and embarrassed, and yet, under the tentious letter to his old acquaintance the duke, wise guidance of Cecil and Sadler, she continued assuring his grace that if it might lie in so poor to send gold down to Berwick. Meanwhile the a man as he was to do his grace any service, he French fortified Leith, as if “intending to keep should find him most willing and ready thereto, themselves within that place, and so be masters to the uttermost of his power at all times. The

duke and the Lords of the Congregation supKnox had arrived in Scotland only on the 2d of May of this

2 Sadler, Papers.

pressed the abbeys of Paisley, Kilwinning, and

present year, 1559.

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Dunfermline, burning all the images, idols, and making in that country against Scotland, with Popish stuff in the same, and by means of Alex- earnest advice to the lords to seek aid of Engander Whitlaw, a godly man and most affec-land; "which letter,” adds the adroit agent, “I tionate to England,” they assured Sadler that they guess to savour too much of Knox's style to would take the field after harvest against the come from France, though it will serve to good French-only they wanted some more money, with purpose." out which they should not be able to keep their The queen-regent by this time had conveyed men together. At the same time Knox sued all her property out of Holyroodhouse and Elinagain for relief for certain Scottish leaders whom burgh, into Leith. At last, the Lords of the he would not name, but whom Sadler set down Congregation, with the Duke of Chatellerault, as the Earl of Glencairn, the Lairds of Dun, Or- and his son the Earl of Arran, at their heal, meston, and Grange, and Alexander Whitlaw. La marched upon the capital: the regent, with the Brosse and the Bishop of Amiens had arrived with French and the Scottish lords of the Catholic party a few troops at Leith, and more were expected. who yet adhered to her, withdrew at their apIn this posture of affairs Sadler recommended the proach within the fortified lines of Leith, there immediate spending of £4000 or £5000, which to await aid from France. The lords called a he thought might save the queen's highness a parliament, and summoned to Edinburgh all the great deal another way. While they were get- gentlemen living upon the Borders, upon pain of ting ready this money in England the regent treason in case of non-attendance. On the 224 wrote to the duke, reproving him for joining of October Balnaves reported that all hope of with the Lords of the Congregation, and accusing concord had that day been taken away, by reason him and the said lords of their practices with that blood had been drawn largely on both sides. Queen Elizabeth. At the same time the regent At the same time he pressed for more money, and spoke of a new agreement, offering to leave off asked for some English gunpowder. Two days fortifying Leith, to secure liberty for all men to after, the Lords of the Congregation themselves use their conscience, and to send the French out addressed Sadler, telling him that they had deof otland by

certain day; but the duke an- prived the queen-regent of her authority, by swered that he could do nothing without the common consent of all the lords and barons preLords of the Congregation. The sum of £3000 sent at Edinburgh-that they had openly proin French coin was down at Berwick by the 10th claimed her deprivation, had inhibited her offiof October; and from Berwick it soon found its cers from executing anything in her name, and way into the pockets of the Lords of the Congre had further denounced “her French and assisgation ; but still those chiefs were slow in taking tants” as enemies to the commonwealth. Touchthe field; and Sadler, through Thomas Randolph, ing the lords' request for more money and for alias Barnyby, told them that they ought to be gunpowder, Sadler replied that he trusted they more diligent in this great and weighty business. would consider secrecy above all things—that he A few days afterwards Sir Ralph was still more did not see how he could send them powder pressing, telling the Lords of the Congregation without an open show and manifestation of Elithat they ought "to take their time while they zabeth as an enemy to the French, who were have it, and thereby prevent the malice of their then in peace and amity with her: and yet he enemies." Randolph, who was moving about adds, if they can devise which way the same may with the Scottish lords, assured Sadler that some- be secretly conveyed unto them, in such sort as thing would be done presently, for the queen- it could not be known to come from England, he regent had set forth her proclamation, and the could be well content that they had as much Lords of the Congregation had also set forth their gunpowder as might be spared from Berwick proclamation “as vehement on the other side, conveniently. And likewise for money, he was with full determination to fall to no composition,” , in good hope of having some to send them soon, By this time continual vexation and alarm had but he prayed that they would use such precaubroken the health of Mary of Guise. “Some,”, tions and mysteries as the importance of the writes Randolph, “think that the regent will matter and the honour of Queen Elizabeth re. depart secretly; some that she will to Inch-quired, and be more close and secret in their keith, for that three ships are a- preparing. doings and conferences. Knox, who could reaSome say that she is very sick: some say the devil cannot kill her.” In the same secret de

Leith. Knox, in his history, says that there was skirmishing, spatch, which, like most of the rest, was written but without great slaughter. in a cipher, Randolph says that the prior of St. * In praising himself, Balnaves seems to cast a reflectiou on Audrews has just sent to the Earl of Arran a his colleagues. He tells Randolph to assure their bonours, the powerful letter said to be received out of France, had brought with him had gone farther than £5000 would have

English commissioners, in his name, that the little money be containing many uews of the great preparations sone intrusted to anybody else.

2 This blood was drawn in skirmishes outside of the works of

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preparations, and intimated to the Lords of the of the French now in Scotland did not exceed Congregation that she was now ready to enter 3000 men. An English army, amounting to 6000 upon a treaty with them. The Scottish lords men, under the Lord Grey de Wilton, having chose for their negotiator the able William marched by Berwick to Preston on the 6th of Maitland of Lethington, who had now deserted April, 1560, joined a considerable force brought from his post of secretary to the regent, a step thither by the Lords of the Congregation; and he had been contemplating for some time. If while the fleet blockaded the port of Leith, and the English queen had any lingering doubts and prevented the arrival of any succour from France, misgivings as to braving a war, they were soon the united armies of Scotland and England laid removed by this truly accomplished diplomatist. siege to the town on the land side. The Marquis On the 27th of February she concluded, at Ber- d'Elbeuf had embarked for Scotland with a large wick, a treaty of mutual defence, which was to force, but his transports were scattered by a last during the marriage of the Queen of Scots storm, and either wrecked on the coast of Hol. with the French king, and for a year after; she land or driven back to France. In this way the solemnly promised never to lay down her arms English fleet had no opportunity of distinguishtill the French should be entirely driven out of ing itself in battle. The land troops soon gav Scotland ; and she gave equally solemn assuran- glaring proofs that they had in a great degre ces that she would not attack the liberties, laws, lost the habit of discipline, and that they wer and usages of the Scots.'

unskilfully commanded. They opened their tre: In the month of March, notwithstanding the ches in ground utterly unfit for the purpose, ar storms of winter, the English fleet, which con- their guns were so badly pointed as to make litt': sisted of thirteen large ships of war, besides tran- or no impression on the bastions which the Fren" sports, appeared in the Firth of Forth, and at a had thrown up, or on the walls of Leith. The critical moment, for 4000 Frenchmen, horse and line of circumvallation was loose and ragged, 2 foot, had been detached from Edinburgh and so little vigilance was used, that for some tir Leith, and were then engaged in ravaging the the French broke through it with impunity. fertile and Protestant county of Fife. D'Oisel, soon appeared that Leith, “though not thou: their general, who had not proceeded unmolested, inexpugnable, would percase be found of s and who was checked by the appearance on his strength as would require time, and that left flank of numerous Scottish bodies under the greatest want which the Scottish chieftains prior of St. Andrews, Lord Ruthven, and Kir- fear was lack of money; for, otherwise, they kaldy of Grange, was transported with joy at the of good courage. This courage, however, sight of the gallant fleet, which he mistook for the been damped by sundry suspicions and mi long-promised ships of D’Elbæuf, and he wasted ings. At the very commencement of hosti: a great deal of valuable gunpowder in firing a even while the Scotch and English wer salute. But, presently, Winter, the English ad- gaged with the French, Sir James Croft miral, hoisted his flag, and at that unwelcome Sir George Howard had an interview wit sight D'Oisel turned, and began a difficult and queen-regent in Edinburgh Castle. This ci: dangerous retreat. He, however, reached Edin- stance instantly excited the suspicion of the ? burgh, where he found the queen-regent in an of the Congregation, who apprehended th: alarming state of health. Forseeing the dangers zabeth had empowered her diplomatic ass and hardships to which her sinking frame would make a separate peace, upon conditions ail: be exposed in a besieged town, the broken-hearted geous to herself, and that thus the Scottish and dying Mary of Guise implored the Lord gents would be abandoned to the vengea Erskine to receive her into the castle of Edin- the French and the queen-mother. And T burgh ; and his lordship, who still maintained his very satisfactory evidence to prove tha: curious neutrality and independence, granted her fears were not altogether groundless." an asylum upon condition that she should take can be little doubt that the selfish anı. only a few attendants into the castle with her. lating Duke of Chatellerault and severa, Quitting his royal mistress, his steady and affec- lords of his party, who were at best bu. tionate friend, for ever, D'Oisel threw himself into warm Protestants, would have entered w Leith. That place had been well fortified before, zabeth and the queen-regent into any and now he employed a short time allowed him able accord” that would have promoted t by the enemy in adding to its defences; and, sonal interests, and that they would I notwithstanding the fact that the English at- John Knox and the Congregation to tacked Leith rather like bull-dogs than soldiers, themselves: but, most auspiciously for tl. D'Oisel and the French engineers must ha Elizabeth's agents, an Mary of Guise, evinced very considerable skill. The whole force tained a high spirit even in death, Rymer.

3 Durghley

2 Sadler to Cecil.

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