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the immediate and total suppression of Papistry; | plained, she assured them that the measure was but this they only considered as a temporary sacri- necessary for the preservation of her daughter's fice of principle to expediency-as a connivance throne, and that she could not, and would not, which was not to last; and headed by the Earls desist until the lords should dismiss their armed of Argyle, Morton, and Glencairn, the Lord Lorn, men. The Lords of the Congregation had of Erskine of Dun, and others, they formed a gene- course less intention than ever of laying down ral Protestant league, entered privately into the sword-their party was daily increasing, and agreements, and, styling themselves the Lords that of the queen-dowager was as rapidly declinof the Congregation, published a solemn protesting. At this crisis it seems to have fallen prinagainst the abominations and corruptions of cipally to the preachers to expound the lawfulPopery. Among those who went over to the ness of resistance to constituted authorities; and Lords of the Congregation, was the Earl of Arran, in so doing some of them occasionally broached formerly regent, who had now for some years re- doctrines, which, however sound in themselves, joiced in his French title of Duke of Chatelle- and adopted in later times, were exceedingly rault, and whose religion was of a very elastic odious to all the royal ears of Europe, whether nature. But their principal leader-a man of ex- Catholic or Protestant. But the Scotch Protestraordinary abilities, whatever we may think of tants soon found that the Catholics were still his honour or virtue—was James Stuart, prior, powerful—that many, even of their own comior commendator, of the monastery of St. Andrews, munion, disapproved of their extreme measures, a natural son of the late king, the unfortunate and looked upon their conduct as rebellion—that James V., and half-brother of the beautiful the foreign troops were formidable from the exMary Stuart. This man professed a wonderful cellent state of their discipline and appointments zeal for the new religion, whereby, not less than |—that the chief fortresses of the kingdom were by his talents, he attached to himself what was in their hands—that money was pouring in from now most decidedly the popular and the stronger France, and that the Lords of the Congregation party.
were, as usual, excessively needy. In this emerAt this critical moment the absent Mary Stuart gency, they resolved to apply for assistance to had become Queen of France, a transitory gran the Queen of England. Elizabeth was solemnly deur, which only lasted as it were for a moment, bound by the recent treaty of Cateau-Cambresis and which tended still further to increase the to do nothing in Scotland to the prejudice of jealousies of the Scots and to embarrass her Mary's rights and authority; but then Mary, friends in her native country. Her father-in- since the signing of that treaty, had behaved dis law, Henry II. of France, had not been very respectfully to one of Elizabeth's servants; and happy since the signing of the (to him) disadvan- it was known or shrewdly suspected that the tageous treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, but the im- Catholic fanatics, who mainly ruled the councils mediate cause of his death was an accidental of the French court, were determined, on the first wound in the eye from a broken lance while tilt- favourable opportunity, to assert the Scottish ing. He expired on the 10th of July, 1559, in queen's rights and strike a blow in England for the forty-first year of his age, and was succeeded Mary, God, and church. We will not pretend by his eldest son, the husband of Mary, under to say that, if all these provocations had been the title of Francis II. In this manner the Scots wanting, Elizabeth would not have adopted prebecame more and more confirmed in their idea cisely the same line of conduct, which was nothing that their country was to be held and treated as but a drawing out of the old line of Henry VIII, a French province or dependence; and hence which fell to her as a political heir-loom. When every Frenchman, every ship, every bale of goods the matter was debated in the English council, that arrived from France was looked upon with there was, however, some difference of opinion, a jealous eye. Nor did Francis and Mary, on and a strong repugnance on the part of the queen, their accession to the French throne, neglect to to what was deemed the anarchical polity of John take measures for the re-establishment of the Knox. The Scottish lords, or rather the great royal power in the northern kingdom. In the English statesmen who espoused their cause, putend of July, 1000 French soldiers landed at Leith; ting aside the delicate question of rebellion and and that the spiritual interests might not be aiding of rebels, represented that the French neglected, Francis and Mary sent with these men- were keeping and increasing an army in Scoiat-arms a certain number of orthodox divines land, and aiming at nothing less than the entire from the Sorbonne. With these reinforcements, possession or mastery of the country; that Scotand giving out that more were coming, the queen- land would only prove a step to England; that regent took possession of Leith and quartered when the Protestants there were overpowered. the odious Papistical and foreign soldiers on the the French and Catholics would undoubtedly try townspeople. When the citizens of Leith com- I to place Mary Stuart on the throne of England, and renew the tyranny of Mary Tudor; that the Scotland. Sir Ralph soon reported progress to afety of the queen, the state, the church, the the cool and circumspect Cecil, telling him that liberty of England, depended essentially on the if the Lords of the Congregation were properly turn which affairs might take in Scotland. The encouraged and comforted, there was no doubt correctness of these views was undeniable, and as to the result. On his arrival at Berwick he it was therefore resolved to support the Protes- had found in that town a secret messenger sent tant nobility in their struggle with the queen- from Knox to Sir James Croft (who appear to regent; but with such secrecy as neither to bring have been old friends), and by means of this upon the Lords of the Congregation the odium of messenger they signified to Knox that they wished being the friends and pensioners of England, nor that Mr. Henry Balnaves, or some other discreet to engage Elizabeth in an open war with her and trusty Scotsman, might repair “in secret sister and rival.? Elizabeth had not far to look manner" to such place as they had appointed, to for an agent competent to manage this business: the intent that they might confer touching affairs. our old friend Sir Ralph Sadler, who knew Scot- Sir James Croft had understood from Knox that land better than any Englishman, who had been his party would require aid of the queen's majesty in old times the bosom friend of the Scottish for the entertainment and wages of 1500 arquelords in the pay of Henry VIII., many of whom busiers and 300 horsemen, which, if they might figured in the new movements, had quitted his have, then France (as Knox said) should “soon rural retirement at Hackney on the accession of understand their minds.” To this demand for her present majesty, who had forth with appointed aid, Sadler had so answered as not to leave them him to a seat in her privy council. He was full without hope: but he is anxious “to understand of energy, and he entered on his new duties with the queen's majesty's pleasure in that part, wisha happy anticipation of success. In the course ing, if it may be looked for that any good effect of the month of August, Cecil issued a commis, shall follow, that her majesty should not, for the sion to Sir Ralph to settle certain disputes con- spending of a great deal more than the charge of cerning Border matters, and to superintend the their demand amounteth unto, pretermit such an repairs which it was proposed to make in the opportunity." But it was money, ready money, fortifications of Berwick and other English for- that the Scottish Reformers needed. “And to tresses on or near to the Borders. Percy, Earl of say our poor minds unto you," continues Sir Northumberland, and Sir James Croft, the go- Ralph, “we see not but her highness must be at rernor of Berwick, were joined in the commission, some charge with them; for of bare words only, but more for form than for anything else; for though they may be comfortable, yet can they reNorthumberland, as a Papist himself, was sus- ; ceive no comfort." This letter was written on the pected—and the whole business was, in fact, in- 20th of August (1559), immediately after Sadler's trusted to Sadler. The repairs which were ac- arrival at the scene of intrigue, and on the same tually begun on a large scale at Berwick seemed day John Knox was requested to send his secret a very sufficient reason to account for Sadler's agent to Holy Isle. By a letter dated on the protracted stay; and Elizabeth had “thought 24th of the same month, Elizabeth told Sadler necessary to provoke the queen-regent, her good that he should immediately deal out “in the sister, to appoint some of her ministers of like secretest manner" the money committed to him qualities to meet with the said earl (Northum- at his departure from London, "to such persons berland) and the said Sir Ralph and Sir James." and to such intents as might most effectually Sadler was thus brought into contact with Scot- further and advance that service which had been tish commissioners, whom he was instructed to specially recommended unto him." And on the bribe. By his private powers and instructions, saine day Cecil addressed to Arran, or Chatelin Cecil's hand-writing, he was authorized to lerault, a much more remarkable letter, which confer, treat, or practise with any manner of it should appear Sir Ralph was to forward to its person of Scotland, either in Scotland or Eng- destination. From some expressions used by land, for his purposes and the furthering of the Cecil, it should almost seem that Elizabeth enterqueen's service; to distribute money to the dis- tained the notion of uniting the two kingdoms affected Scots, as he should think proper, to the under her own dominion, without any reference amount of £3000, but he was always to proceed to the rights of Mary; but the Scottish nation with such discretion and secrecy, that no part of was certainly not prepared for any such measure, his doings should awaken suspicion or impair nor did the fastest pace of the Lords of the Conthe peace lately concluded between Elizabeth and gregation come up with it. On the 28th of AuMemorial written by my lord-treasurer (Cecil) with his own
gust the Queen-regent of Scotland, in the name of Land, 5th Angust, 1559 : Sadler's State Papers; Raumer. Francis and Mary, King and Queen of the French ? Walter Scott's Biographical Memoir of Sir Ralph Sadler, pre
and Scots, appointed Scottish commissioners to *xed to the State Papers and Idlers of Sir Ralph Sadler, Knight Baseni, siited by Arthur Clifford.
treat with Sadler and Northumberland for the settlement of the Border disputes, the release of the desired effect; the Lords of the Congregation prisoners on both sides, and the establishing a were encouraged to strike another blow. sound and lasting tranquillity on the frontiers of In an armistice concluded at the Links of Leith the two kingdoms, the seat of ancient and fierce on the 24th of the preceding month of July, it enmities. These commissioners were the infam- was covenanted-1. That the town of Edinburgh ous James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, who, a few should use what religion they pleased. 2. That years later, involved Queen Mary in disgrace and no one should be prosecuted for religion. 3. That destruction; Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington, no garrison should be placed in Edinburgh. A father of the celebrated secretary of Mary; and dispute arose concerning the possession of the Sir Walter Car, or Ker, of Cessford, ancestor high church of St. Giles' in Edinburgh, which of the Dukes of Roxburgh. Sir Ralph Sadler the queen-regent desired to retain for the exerthought fit to postpone the meeting to the 11th cise of the Catholic worship, and which the of September, and the Scottish commissioners do Reformers were equally eager to occupy. But, in not appear to have been sensible of the fact that, fact, John Knox was determined to drive the in the meanwhile, those of England were actively Romish clergy from every church, from every corresponding with the insurgents. Great caution altar, whether public or private, and thus, immewas used in that matter. In conformity with diately after the agreement of the Links of Leith, Cecil's advice, a comfortable letter was drawn up he extended his demands, insisting that mass between Sir Ralph Sadler and Sir James Croft should not be said even within the precincts of to the Lords of the Congregation, expressing their the palace of Holyrood. Sadler granted the hearty sorrow at understanding that their godly Lords of the Congregation for the present £2000, enterprise, tending principally to the advance-telling their envoy, that if they made a good use ment of God's glory, and next to the safeguard of it, and kept the secret, and the queen's honour and defence of their natural country from the untouched, they should soon have more. Bal. conquest of the French nation, should be unfor- naves returned well satisfied to the Lords of the tunately stayed and interrupted.' But this letter Congregation, who took the money as secretly as was not sent to its destination; and it seems to possible. In the same long letter, in which he have been stopped in consequence of the journey reports all that had passed with Balnaves, Sir into Scotland of the son and heir of the Duke of Ralph informs Cecil that there were other ScotChatellerault, who had been in England in close tish Protestants, as Kirkaldy of Grange, Ormesconference with Cecil, by means of whom the ton, and Whitlaw, "which have spent much for necessary encouragement might be transmitted this matter, whereof they be earnest prosecutors; to the insurgents by word of mouth, thus dimin- and, having lost fifteen or sixteen months' pay, ishing the chance of committing Queen Elizabeth which they should now have had out of France," as a fomenter of the rebellion.
| looked for some relief, and had been put in some The ex-regent's son, who at this time bore his hope thereof; "but," continues Sadler, “because father's former title of Earl of Arran, stole into we have been so liberal of the queen's purse, Scotland with an English pass, under the assumed albeit it pleased her majesty to commit the same name of Monsieur de Beaufort, and he was accom. to the discretion of me the said Sir Ralph, yet panied by Master Thomas Randall, or Randolph, we would be glad to know how her highness an able and intelligent agent of Queen Elizabeth, liketh or misliketh what we have done before we an adept in secret intrigues, who assumed, for the do any more.” Elizabeth was obliged to send nonce, the name of Barnyby. This Randall, or down more money to Berwick, some of which Randolph, alias Barnyby, remained a consider- / was paid to Kirkaldy, Ormeston, and Whitlaw, able time in Scotland, being in fact the resident and some, it should appear, to the Earl of Arran, envoy of Elizabeth to the Lords of the Congre- the son of the Duke of Chatellerault the ex-regation. He occasionally corresponded directly gent. In a day or two Arran was safely deliv. with the queen's council, but more generally with ered in Teviotdale to one of his friends, who Sir R. Sadler. On the 8th of September, three undertook to convey him surely and secretly to days before the appointed meeting with the com- his father in the castle of Hamilton; and it apmissioners of the Queen-regent of Scotland, Sadler pears to have been after this return of his son wrote to inform Cecil that Mr. Balnaves had at that the ex-regent fully declared for the Lords last arrived at midnight from the Lords of the of the Congregation. Meanwhile, on the apCongregation, and had made him “the whole dis- pointed day, Sadler, with Croft and the Earl of course of all their proceedings from the begin- Northumberland, met the commissioners of the ning." English money and promises hai worked queen-regent upon the frontiers. A dispute about Sadler's State Papers.
the wording of their respective commissions con? In the passport M. de Beaufort, alias Arran, was designated sumed some time, and then, with proper diploas “a gentleman of our good brother the French king;' Barnyby,
matic slowness, Sadler proceeded to businessalias Randolph, as a gentleman appointed to accompany him.
business which, like all Border disputes, could be of the chief port and entrance into that part of lengthened ad infinitum. During these discus- Scotland;" and the Lords of the Congregation sions Knox sent his preachers over the country; attempted to get possession of Edinburgh Castle, the queen-regent "fell into a great melancholy in which, however, they were defeated by Lord and displeasure;' the Congregation began to as- Erskine the governor, who professed to observe semble, and the Frenchmen began to devise means neutrality between the contending parties, and for their own defence. Had she but known half refused to admit either Protestants or Catholics. the intrigues that were at work, the queen-regent' In spite of all the precaution of the English had good reason to be melancholy. Her secre- queen and the marvellous address of her agent, tary, William Maitland, wrote to Sadler's asso- Mary's mother was not altogether blind to what ciate, Sir James Croft, desiring him to have no was passing, and she complained, through her less good opinion of him than heretofore, and commissioners, that, without her license and offering his service to the queen's majesty (Eliza- knowledge, many of the Scottish insurgents were beth) in anything that he could : "and further," allowed to pass through England into Scotland, says Croft in a joint letter, "he sent me word that and also out of Scotland into England, to work he attended upon the regent in her court no longer mischief to her government. It is indeed certail. than till he might have good occasion to revolt that the Cardinal of Lorraine, and others who unto the Protestants." At the same time, how directed the councils of that very youthful couple, ever, more troops arrived from France, and more would have made Francis and Mary quarter the French money was placed at the disposal of the English arms under any circumstances; but notqueen-regent and her party. John Knox was withstanding this, Elizabeth, with reference to greatly alarmed as to the French money, and he her own conduct, could not justly allege that the immediately besought Elizabeth to counteract its first provocation to their mortal quarrel prodangerous effects to the Protestant interests by ceeded from Mary. It is almost idle to consider sending more English money into Scotland. On this as a moral question, or as an affair directed his recent return from Geneva through England personally by the two rival princesses; but as he had had an interview with Cecil, and evidently many writers have viewed it in this light, it may had arranged beforehand the plan of his opera- be proper to make prominent one or two little tions. He corresponded afterwards with the facts. Mary was only in her seventeenth year, English secretary and others in England; and on her husband was nearly a year younger, and both the 21st of September, under the feigned name were entirely guided by others. Elizabeth was of John Sinclear, he wrote to Sadler's colleague, in her twenty-sixth year, the mistress of her own Croft, a remarkable letter from St. Andrews. council and actions, an experienced and most After mentioning the return of the younger competent person. If, therefore, a false and unArran, and how the Lords of the Congregation fair direction was given to the policy of Mary, it had departed for Stirling to join him and his was her misfortune, or an offence for which father, the Duke of Chatelleranlt, at Hamilton morally she was not accountable, but in ElizaCastle, he passed at once to the question of beth such a thing would be her own crime. money, and told Mr. Secretary that unless more The ex - Regent Chatellerault took occasion money was sent, especially for some chiefs whom openly to declare himself on the French fortifyhe had named in writing, it would be impossible ing Leith, and he told the queen-regent that she for them to serve in this action.
must either dislodge them, or be sure that the Those who take the least favourable view of nobility of Scotland would not suffer nor endure the character of John Knox can hardly suspect it. The regent replied that it was surely as that he wanted money for himself, but he knew lawful for her daughter to fortify where she the world and the mercenary character of most pleased in her own realm as it was for him, the of the Scottish chiefs; and, besides, the sinews of duke, to build fortifications for himself at Hamilwar appear really to have been wanting, and the ton Castle, and that she would not remove the Catholic party, as we have seen, were drawing French from Leith unless she were compelled by funds from France. For a time it was a struggle force. As soon as these matters were known at of the purse between England and France. Eli- Berwick, where agents and spies were constantly zabeth, at all times parsimonious, was at the pre- going and coming, Sadler wrote a short but sensent poor and embarrassed, and yet, under the tentious letter to his old acquaintance the duke, wise guidance of Cecil and Sadler, she continued assuring his grace that if it might lie in so poor to send gold down to Berwick. Meanwhile the a man as he was to do his grace any service, he French fortified Leith, as if “intending to keep should find him most willing and ready thereto, themselves within that place, and so to be masters to the uttermost of his power at all times. The
duke and the Lords of the Congregation supKnox had arrived in Scotland only on the 2d of May of this present year, 1559.
? Sadler, Papers. ! pressed the abbeys of Paisley, Kilwinning, and
Dunfermline, burning all the images, idols, and making in that country against Scotland, with Popish stuff in the same, and by means of Alex- earnest advice to the lords to seek aid of Engander Whitlaw, “a godly man and most affec-land; "which letter,” adds the adroit agent, "I tionate to England," they assured Sadler that they guess to savour too much of Knox's style to would take the field after harvest against the come from France, though it will serve to good French-only they wanted some more money, with-purpose." ont which they should not be able to keep their The queen-regent by this time had conveyed men together. At the same time Knox sued all her property out of Holyroodhouse and Edinagain for relief for certain Scottish leaders whomburgh, into Leith. At last, the Lords of the he would not name, but whom Sadler set down Congregation, with the Duke of Chatellerault, as the Earl of Glencairn, the Lairds of Dun, Or- and his son the Earl of Arran, at their head, meston, and Grange, and Alexander Whitlaw. La marched upon the capital: the regent, with the Brosse and the Bishop of Amiens had arrived with French and the Scottish lords of the Catholic party a few troops at Leith, and more were expected. who yet adhered to her, withdrew at their apIn this posture of affairs Sadler recommended the proach within the fortified lines of Leith, there immediate spending of £4000 or £5000, which to await aid from France. The lords called a he thought might save the queen's highness a parliament, and summoned to Edinburgh all the great deal another way. While they were get-gentlemen living upon the Borders, upon pain of ting ready this money in England the regent treason in case of non-attendance. On the 22d wrote to the duke, reproving him for joining of October Balnaves reported that all hope of with the Lords of the Congregation, and accusing concord had that day been taken away, by reason him and the said lords of their practices with that blood had been drawn largely on both sides.' Queen Elizabeth. At the same time the regent At the same time he pressed for more money, and spoke of a new agreement, offering to leave off asked for some English gunpowder. Two days fortifying Leith, to secure liberty for all men to after, the Lords of the Congregation themselves use their conscience, and to send the French out addressed Sadler, telling him that they had deof Scotland by a certain day; but the duke an- | prived the queen-regent of her authority, by swered that he could do nothing without the common consent of all the lords and barons preLords of the Congregation. The sum of £3000 sent at Edinburgh-that they had openly proin French coin was down at Berwick by the 10th claimed her deprivation, had inhibited her offiof October; and from Berwick it soon found its cers from executing anything in her name, and way into the pockets of the Lords of the Congre- had further denounced "her French and assisgation ; but still those chiefs were slow in taking tants" as enemies to the commonwealth. Touchthe field; and Sadler, through Thomas Randolph, ing the lords' request for more money and for alias Barnyby, told them that they ought to be gunpowder, Sadler replied that he trusted they more diligent in this great and weighty business. would consider secrecy above all things—that he A few days afterwards Sir Ralph was still more did not see how he could send them powder pressing, telling the Lords of the Congregation without an open show and manifestation of Eli. that they ought "to take their time while they zabeth as an enemy to the French, who were have it, and thereby prevent the malice of their then in peace and amity with her: and yet he enemies." Randolph, who was moving about adds, if they can devise which way the same may with the Scottish lords, assured Sadler that some- be secretly conveyed unto them, in such sort as thing would be done presently, for the queen- it could not be known to come from England, he regent had set forth her proclamation, and the could be well content that they had as much Lords of the Congregation had also set forth their gunpowder as might be spared from Berwick proclamation “as vehement on the other side, conveniently. And likewise for money, he was with full determination to fall to no composition." in good hope of having some to send them soon, By this time continual vexation and alarm had but he prayed that they would use such precaubroken the health of Mary of Guise. “Some,” tions and mysteries as the importance of the writes Randolph, “think that the regent will matter and the honour of Queen Elizabeth redepart secretly; some that she will to Inch-quired, and be more close and secret in their keith, for that three ships are a-preparing. doings and conferences. Knox, who could reaSome say that she is very sick: some say the devil cannot kill her.” In the same secret de | This blood was drawn in skirmishes outside of the works of
Leith. Knox, in his history, says that there was skirmishing, spatch, which, like most of the rest, was written
but without great slaughter. in a cipher, Randolph says that the prior of St. ? In praising himself, Balnaves seems to cast a reflection on Andrews has just sent to the Earl of Arran a his colleagues. He tells Randolph to assure their honours, the
English commissioners, in his name, that the little money he powerful letter said to be received out of France,
had brought with him had gone farther than £5000 would have containing many news of the great preparations gone intrusted to anybody else.