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thereabouts, where our men found great store of ground very skilfully on the sea-coast, near to pillage and good booties." After this inglorious Gravelines. He fortified his left wing, and exploit they marched some way up the country, brought his right flank to the bank of the river burning more villages and houses; and then the Aar, close to its mouth. When the Spaniards

began cannonading, the ten English ships which happened to be on that part of the coast, attracted by the sound of battle, sailed up the river, opened a tremendous fire upon the right flank of the French, and contributed materially to one of the most decisive victories gained during these wars. The Marshal de Termes, Villebon, and many other distinguished Frenchmen were taken prisoners. Not a few of the men ran into the sea and perished there. Only a few half-naked fugitives escaped both death and captivity

But a greater piece of good fortune for England was approaching than would have been the recapture of Calais and fifty such victories as that of Gravelines. About the beginning of September the queen fell

sick of a prevalent disorder, vaguely SHIP OF THE TIME.- From a print attributed to Augustus Ryther. called a cold and hot burning fever,

which appears to have been nothing English retreated to the sea-side, where their more than a bad sort of ague. Our chroniclers tell ships lay ready to receive them; but their allies, us that the disease—whatever it was-was fatal the Flemings, being more covetous of spoil, or less only to persons in advanced life: but Mary had cautious, passed farther into the interior, and long been prematurely old, and when she was at. being encountered by the power of the country, tacked her heart was bruised and broken. She lost 400 or 500 men before they could regain their removed from her favourite residence of Hampships. Notwithstanding Clinton's having with ton Court to Westminster, where she lay “lanhim a considerable land force under the command guishing of a long sickness until the 17th of of the Earls of Huntingdon and Rutland, he was November, when between the hours of five and alarmed at the reports of the forces collecting or six in the morning, she ended her life in this collected in Brittany, under the Duke of Es-world at her house at St. James'," having reigned tampes, and thought it best not to attempt any five years, four months, and eleven days, and assault against the town of Brest, or to make lived a wretched life of forty-three years and nine longer stay thereabouts. A small squadron of months.' ten English ships performed more honourable Within twenty-two hours of the queen's death service. The Marshal de Termes, governor of her friend and kinsman Reginald Pole, cardinalCalais, had made an irruption into Flanders with legate, and Archbishop of Canterbury, expired at an army of 9000 foot and 1500 horse. He easily Lambeth ;' his death being a much sorer injury forced a passage across the river Aar, or Aire, to —a more fatal blow to the Catholic church in Dunkirk, burned that town to the ground, and England, than that of Mary, whose fierce bigotry scoured and desolated the whole country almost advanced, perhaps, more than anything the cause as far as Newport; but there he was suddenly of the Reformation. checked by Count Egmont. Apparently through It has been the fashion with Protestant writers the superior marching of the Spanish infantry, not to allow this unhappy woman a single virtue; Egmont got to Gravelines before de Termes, and and yet, in truth, Mary had many good and threw a part of his army between the French generous qualities. She was generally sincere and the town of Calais, their only sure place of

Godwin. retreat. A general battle was thus inevitable, Some Catholic writers-among whom is Osorius-have not and to fight it the French general chose his hesitated to say, or to hint a suspicion, that both Mary and the and high-minded, and shrunk from that trickery sister, she had received what may be called a and treachery in state matters which her more learned education; she had some acquaintance fortunate sister Elizabeth adopted without hesi- with Greek, and not only read but also wrote tation as a general rule of conduct. Notwith- Latin, and her letters in that language were standing her sad experience of the world, and praised by Erasmus. Among her accomplishthe depressing influences of ill-health, she was ments are enumerated embroidering, dancing, capable of warm and lasting friendships: as a and music. She played three instruments—the mistress she was not only liberal, but kind and virginals, regals, and lute.3 attentive, even towards the meanest servant of In most matters her taste was more delicate her household; she was charitable to the poor, and better than that of Elizabeth, and though and most considerate for the afflicted; she was she had less personal dignity, and cared not “ to the first to suggest the foundation of an estab- go slowly and to march with leisure and with a lishment, like Chelsea Hospital, for the reception certain grandytie," as her half-sister always did of invalid soldiers, and in her will she appro- when in public, she never gave way to violent priated certain funds to this national object.' gesticulation and the swearing of gross oaths, Like all the rest of her testamentary bequests, which her successor was almost as much addicted this was utterly neglected by her successor, not- to as her father Henry. But as a queen all these withstanding the dying queen's earnest entreaties qualities and accomplishments (abilities of a high that she would suffer the intention of her will to order she had none) were of the slightest value, be carried into effect.

3 Holinshed; Grafton.

cardinal were poisoned by the Protestant party! 1 Holinshed.

2 Ibid.

1 6 Hallam, Const. Hist. Eng.

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and their insignificance is shown in the records of Nor was Mary deficient in acquirements and her miserable reign, and the boundless triumph accomplishments. As well as her junior half- over all of her master-passion.

1 See her will as published by Sir Frederick Madden, Privy | indebted, has collected the best proofs of Mary's possessing some Purse E.cpenses of the Princess Mary, &c.

amiable qualities, which none but bigots on the other side will ? "No one of our historians has been so severe on Mary's reign, attempt to deny ; but in removing some prejudices he seems to except on a religious account, as Carte, on the authority of the contract others, and almost to fall in love with his subject. He letters of Noailles. Dr. Lingard, though with these before him, carries most of his arguments too far, relying occasionally on the has softened and suppreseed till this queen appears honest and most doubtful kind of evidence, giving an interpretation at other even amiable. A man of sense should be ashamed of such par times to words and things which they will scarcely bear, and tiality to his religion. Admitting that the French ambassador now and then drawing conclusions directly contrary to what the had a temptation to exaggerate the faults of a government premises would justify Hume, knowing that Mary suffered a wholly devoted to Spain, it is manifest that Mary's reign was wretched state of health, and having other good evidence to go inglorious, her capacity narrow, and her temper sanguinary; upon, described her as being of a sour and sullen disposition. that, although conscientions in some respects, she was as capable This, says Sir Frederick Madden, is an inaccuracy notorious to of dissimulation as her sister, and of breach of faith as her hus those at all acquainted with the history of the period; and to hand; that she obstinately and wilfully sacrificed her subjects' support his opinion he mentions that Mary was once seen to affections and interests to a misplaced and discreditable attach- laugh heartily at a tumbler at Greenwich-that she kept in her ment; and that the words with which Carte has concluded the service a female jester every king at the time kept a fool royal) character of this unlamented sovereign, though little pleasing -that she once had a kennel of hounds that she was fond of to men of Dr. Lingard's profession, are perfectly just- Having music, played at cards, allowed valentines to be drawn in her reiuced the nation to the brink of ruin, she left it, by her sea- household, and once lost a breakfast wagered on a game at bowls. sonable decease, to be restored by her admirable successor to its But the accuser of Hume admits (and gives, from the plainancient prosperity and glory.'"-Hallam, Const. Hist. England. spoken Venetian, the broadlest account of her malady) that Mary,

* The Venetian ambassador praises her great skill in playing from the age of puberty, had suffered the most distressing of all on the lute, "so that, when she attended to it, for now she pays female disorders. Ill-usage and ill-health were not likely to little attention to those things, she astonished good professors produce the best of tempers. But though Sir Frederick Madden both by her rapidity of hand and her style of playing." The may have known cheerful and light-hearted valetudinarians, we Italian was likely to be a good judge of music, but it should ap much question whether he ever knew a cheerful bigot. The fear that he had not been in the habit of hearing the queen play disorders of body and of mind must have made Mary what with his own ears.

Hume described her to be on her accession. In the minutia of Dr. Lingard's defence of Queen Mary will not stand for a the Privy Purse Expenses, and incidental occurrences of court moment the examination of an impartial eye. He would make holidays, Sir Frederick Madden forgets Smithfield, and the fires Vary appear not only as the best of women, but as a good sove that blazed in all parts of the kingdom during this cheerful teign. Sir Frederick Madden, to whose researches we have been reign,

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CHAPTER XIII.-CIVIL AND MILITARY HISTORY.-A.D. 1558–1560.

ELIZABETH.—ACCESSION, A.D. 1558-DEATH, A.D. 1630.

Elizabeth proclaimed queen-Popular joy at her accession-Her ambiguous conduct about the settlement of religion

-Pageants at her entrance into London-Her coronation-She is urged to declare her intentions about religion -Enactments of parliament for its settlement-Dissatisfaction of the Papists—Elizabeth rejects the advice of parliament to marry— Protestantism re-established in England—Penalties inflicted on Papists—Deprivation and imprisonment of the Popish bishops—Elizabeth's legitimacy denied by the Guises-Reformation in ScotlandEffects of John Knox's preaching-Demolition of abbeys and monasteries — Mary Stuart becomes Queen of France-Contention between Mary of Guise, Regent of Scotland, and the Protestants-Elizabeth aids the Scottish Protestants-Negotiations between them and her ministers—The contest maintainod in Scotland by French and English money--Leith fortified by French troops against the Scottish Protestants—The Scots aided by troops from England—Siege of Leith-Death of Mary of Guise-Capitulation of Leith-Suitors to Elizabeth for marriage.

LOT the time of Mary's demise the par- | eating, drinking, and making merry;" and at

liament was sitting. Her death was night bonfires were lighted in all directions, and

concealed from the public for some the skies were reddened by flames which had 3 hours; but, before noon, Heath, not consumed human victims.? Elizabeth was

Archbishop of York, who had been at Hatfield when she received the news of her 19

lord - chancellor since Gardiner's easy accession. She fell upon her knees, esdecease, went down to the House of Lords, and claiming, in Latin, “It is the Lord's doing, and sent immediately to the speaker of the commons, it is marvellous in our eyes."? On the following desiring him, with the knights and burgesses, to day several noblemen of the late queen's council repair without delay to the upper house, in repaired to her : she gave them a kind reception, order to give their as

but presently showed sent in a case of great

her decided preference importance. Heath

for Sir William Cecil then announced in due

—the astute, the most form that God had cal

politic Cecil — whom led to his mercy the

she instantly appointlate sovereign lady

ed principal secretary Queen Mary-a heavy

of state. On the 231 and grievous woe, but

of Novemberthe queen relieved by the blessing

removed from HatGod had left them in a

field, with a joyous es. true, loyal, and right

cort of more than 1000 inheritress to the crown

persons. At Highgate -the Lady Elizabeth,

she was met by the second daughter to the

bishops, who, kneeling, late sovereign lord of

acknowledged their alnoble memory, King

legiance: she received Henry VIII., and sis-,

them very graciously, ter unto the said late

giving to every one of queen. Not a chal

them ber hand to kiss lenge was raised to her

with the exception of title: the Lady Eliza

Bishop Bonner. At beth was acknowledged QUEEN ELIZABETH.- After Zucchero.

the foot of Highgate in both houses, which

Hill she was very dutiresounded with the shouts of “God save Queen , fully and honourably met by the lord-mayor and Elizabeth, and long and happy may she reign !" whole estate of London, and so conducted to the and in the course of the day she was proclaimed Stow; Holinshed; Burnet. amidst lively demonstrations of popular joy. The ? A Domino factum est istud, et est mirabile oculis nostris. These bells of all the churches were set ringing; tables

words were afterwards stamped on her gold coin, a motto she

chose for her silver coin being Posui Deum adjutoren CWW! were sprrad in the streets, “where was plentiful have chosen God for my helper).

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Charter-house, then occupied as a town residence would have left the Roman church undisturbed. by her friend Lord North. On the afternoon of She was too cool and calculating for a zealot; Monday, the 28th, she entered into the city at and even the fate of her mother, and the circumCripplegate, "and rode in state along by the Wall stances of her own birth, failed to excite her. In to the Tower:" here she remained till Monday, the fact, Elizabeth seems to have adopted, at the be5th of December, when she removed by water to ginning of her reign, the maxiin recommended Soinerset House. The ambiguity of her conduct by the most crafty of then living politicianswith regard to religion had been well studied : that the Protestants should be kept iu hope, the and it appears quite certain that her compliances Papists not cast into despair. Her real intenin the former reign had deceived many into a tions were kept a profound secret from the manotion that she was really the good Catholic she jority of her council; and her measures of change professed herself to be; otherwise it is difficult and reform were concerted only with Cecil and to understand the unanimity of the lords, for one or two others, who appear to have been most the majority of the upper house were Catholics, thoroughly aware of the fact that the Protestant and both the bishops and the lay peers would party had become infinitely stronger than the have been disposed to resist her claim if they Catholic. On the 13th of December the body of had expected that she would venture to disturb Mary was very royally interred in Westminster the established order of things. The mistake Abbey, with all the solemn funeral rites used by was confirmed by her retaining in her privy the Roman church, and a mass of requiem; and council no fewer than thirteen known and sincere on the 24th day of the same month a grand funeCatholics who had been members of that of her ral service for the late Emperor Charles V. was sister, and the seven new counsellors she ap-celebrated in the same place and in the same pointed, though probably known to herself to be manner, with a great attendance of Catholic zealous Protestants, did not bear that character priests, English and foreign, and of noble lords with the rest of the world; for one and all of and ladies of the realm. And yet, if we are to

believe a letter written at the time, Elizabeth, on the very day after these obsequies, refused to hear mass in her own house.

On the 12th of January the queen took her barge, and went down the river, being attended by the lord-mayor and citizens, and greeted with peals of ordnance, with music, and many triumphant shows on the water. She landed at the Tower; but, this time, it was not as a criminal, at the Traitors' Gate, but as a triumphant queen preparing for her coronation. Upon the morrow there was a creation of peers: it was not numerous, but Henry Carey, brother to Lady Knowles, and son to Mary Boleyn, her majesty's aunt, was included in it under the title of Lord Hunsdon. On the morrow, being the 14th of January, 1559, the queen rode with great majesty out of the Tower. The lord-mayor and citizens had been lavish of their loyalty and their money; the artists had exhausted their ingenuity and inven

tion; and all the streets through which the proSIR WILLIAM CECI,, afterwards Lord Burghley.

cession passed on its way to Westminster were From a rare print by Vertue.

furnished with stately pageants, sumptuous shows, them, like her favourite minister Cecil, had and cunning devices. The figures of the queen's shrunk under the fiery bigotry of Mary, and grandfather and grandmother, father and mother, had conformed to the Roman Church. Even were brought upon the stage, and Henry VIII. decency demanded some little time, but policy and Anne Boleyn, with a glorious forgetfulness required more; and we feel convinced that if it of the past, were seen walking lovingly together. had not been established beyond the reach of a Prophecies and Latin verses were prodigally exdoubt that the Catholics had lost ground im- pended on the queen; nor was there a parsiniony mensely, and were no longer the majority of the of English verse or rhyme. In another pageant nation, Elizabeth, who was never in her heart a Time led forth his daughter Truth, and Truth, thorough Protestant—who scarcely went farther greeting her majesty, presented to her an English with the Reformers than her father had done

Sir Ralph Sadler.

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Bible. In the last pageant of all there stood “a restorer over the house of Israel."" Gog and Maseeinly and meek personage, richly apparelled in gog, deserting their posts in Guildhall, stood to parliament robes, with a sceptre in her hand, over honour the queen, one on each side of Temple Bar, whose head was written 'Deborah, the judge and supporting a wondrous tablet of Latin verse,

STATE BARGE OF THE PERIOD, AND WATER PROCESSION.S_From a print by Vischer.

which expounded to her majesty the hidden sense | from re-lighting the fires at Smithfield. Yet, at of all the pageants in the city. Her behaviour the same time, to the scandal of all Protestants, during this day was popular in the extreme; and she forbade the destruction of images, kept her from the beginning to the end of her reign she crucifix and holy water in her private chapel, possessed the art of delighting the people, when and strictly prohibited preaching on controvershe thought necessary, with little condescensions, sial points generally, and all preaching whatsosmiles, and cheerful words. On the following ever at Paul's Cross, where, be it said, neither day, being Sunday, the 15th of January, Eliza- sect had been in the habit of preaching peace beth was crowned in Westminster Abbey by Dr. and good-will toward men. There was an addiOglethorpe, Bishop of Carlisle, and afterwards tional cause for the queen's slowness and circumshe dined in Westminster Hall. The ceremony spection. Upon the death of her sister the Engof the coronation was regulated strictly in the lish exiles for religious opinions flocked back to ancient manner of the most Catholic times, but their country with a zeal sharpened by persecuthere was one remarkable circumstance attend- tion. Of these men many would have carried ing it. Either from a suspicion of the course she the Reformation wholly into the path of Calvin intended to pursue, or from a somewhat tardy and Zwingle, being disposed, after their theolorecollection that, by the laws of the Roman | gical studies in Switzerland, to dissent widely church, Elizabeth was not legitimate, or in con- from the Anglican church as established in the sequence of orders received from Rome since the reign of Edward VI.; and, what was not of less cleath of Mary and their congratulatory visit to importance, some of them thought that the reElizabeth at Highgate, every one of the bishops, publican system, which they had seen to suit the with the exception of Oglethorpe, refused to per- little cantons among the Alps, would be a preform the coronation service. From whatever ferable form of government for England, and cause it might proceed, this refractoriness of the they were well furnished with texts of Scripture bishops was a great political mistake on the part to prove the uselessness and wickedness of rorof the Catholics. 3

alty. In a moment of indecision the queen had On the very day after her coronation the Pro-directed Sir Edward Carne, her sister's ambassatestants pressed her for a declaration of her in- dor at Rome, to notify her accession to the pope: tentions as to religion. They must have felt and the Protestants must have been delighted alarmed at the Popish celebrations in the Abbey; and re-assured when Paul IV, hastily replied but it was some time before the cautious queen that he looked upon her as illegitimate, and that would in any way commit herself. Before this she ought therefore to lay down the government, application, however, Elizabeth had taken the and expect what he might decide. After this, important step of authorizing the reading of the she could not be expected to become an adherent Liturgy in English, and had shown at least a of Popery. fixed determination to prevent the Catholics Ten days after the coronation (on the 25th of

1 This rare work of Vischer, Hollar's predecessor, is the earliest delincation of a royal procession by water. The thistle and royal arms of England on the banner and drapery of the principal barge, are probably the insignia of James I.; but the fashion of those vessels remained unchanged from the time of Elizabeth nearly to the present century. Four barges contain guards with partizans; and a fifth, which precedes the state barge, and is

connected by a tow line, holds a band of four musicians, trum. peters and drummers.

? Holinched: Stoe. 3 Even the Bishop of Carlisle reluctantly consented to put the crown on her head. At her coronation, Elizabeth, of course, partook of the mass; but it appears from one account that she had forbidden the elevation of the host, and that this was pro bably the cause of the bishops refusing to crown her.

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