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claimed the benefit of counsel, which had been traitors, Bradshaw or Coke, from the top of denied to Harrison and the other regicides, and Westminster Hall ?" With these words thunwhich it was not usual to grant in cases of trea- dering in their ears, the jury retired, and in half son. The court, impatient to make him plead, an hour returned into court with a verdict of promised him that if he would put himself on the guilty.' issue he should have counsel. He then pleaded On the morrow, Charles thus wrote from not guilty, and was sent back to the Tower for Hampton Court to Clarendon :-“The relation four days. When he re-appeared he claimed the that hath been made to me of Sir H. Vane's promise which had been given him; on which carriage yesterday in the hall is the occasion of his judges, who had received fresh instructions this letter; which, if I am rightly informed, was to condemn him, told him that they would be his so insolent as to justify all he had done, acknowcounsel. The attorney-general, Sir Geoffrey Pal- ledging no supreme power in England but a mer, a fanatic royalist, produced his evidence. parliament, and many things to that purpose. Vane combated the charges with great learning You have had a true account of all; and, if he and eloquence. He maintained that the word has given new occasion to be hanged, certainly king in the statute of treasons meant only a king he is too dangerous a man to let live, if we can regnant, a king in actual possession of the crown, honestly put him out of the way. Think of this, and not a king merely de jure, who was not in and give me some account of it to-morrow; till possession. He justified the conduct of the when, I have no more to say to you." What Commonwealth by the inevitable necessity of the Clarendon's account was, we may easily divine,? case. “This matter," said he, “was not done in a for, on that day week (June 14), a scaffold was corner. The appeals were solemn, and the deci- prepared on Tower-hill, on the very spot where sion by the sword was given by God! ..... the Earl of Strafford had suffered so many years When new and never-heard-of changes do fall before. At an early hour Vane took leave of his out in the kingdom, it is not like that the known wife and children, and of a few generous friends and written laws of the land should be the exact that were not afraid of incurring the hatred rule, but the grounds and rules of justice, con- of government by showing a deep sympathy. tained and declared in the law of nature, are He entreated them not to mourn for him. His and ought to be a sanctuary in such cases, even religious enthusiasm blended itself, as it had by the very common law of England: for thence ever done, with his republicanism and passionate originally spring the unerring rules that are set love of liberty. “I know," said he, “ that a day by the Divine and eternal law for rule and sub- ' of deliverance for Sion will come. Some may jection in all states and kingdoms.” In the think the manner of it may be as before, with course of his defence he called attention to the confused noise of the warrior, and garments facts that the resolutions and votes for changing rolled in blood; but I rather think it will be with the government of England into a Commonwealth burning and fuel of fire. . .. I die in the certain were all passed before he was returned to par- faith and foresight that this cause shall have its liament; that he was bound to obey the powers resurrection in my death. My blood will be then regnant; that he had done nothing for any the seed sown, by which this glorious cause will private or gainful ends, to profit himself or en- spring up, which God will speedily raise. .... rich his relations, as well appeared by the great As a testimony and seal to the justness of that debts he had contracted, and the destitute condi- quarrel, I leave now my life upon it, as a legacy tion in which he should now leave his family. to all the honest interest in these three nations. But the court was not to be moved by such ap- Ten thousand deaths rather than defile my conpeals as these, and they determined that the science, the chastity and purity of which I value evidence against the prisoner was good, and that beyond all this world!” He was dragged on a the acts imputed to him amounted to high trea- sledge from the Tower to the scaffold, looking so son. Vane then offered a bill of exceptions, and cheerful that it was difficult to convince many claimed the benefit of the promise which the king of the spectators that he was the prisoner about had made to the Convention Parliament-that, to die. The government had been alarmed by if Vane should be attainted by law, he would the impression made by the dying words of Harnot suffer the sentence to be executed. The rison, Scott, and Peters; and so they had resolved solicitor-general openly declared that “the pri- to interrupt, at all critical passages, the more soner must be made a public sacrifice;" and, al- dangerous eloquence of Vane. When he atluding to Vane's urgent and repeated demands

Anus! The attorney-general, who had the last word, was even per

The

mitted to hold a secret consultation with the foreman as the _“What counsel does he think would dare speak jury were leaving the box.-See Foster's Life of Sir Henry Vane,

| in Lives of Eminent Statexmen. for him in such a manifest case of treason, un

? Clarendon, in his Life, avoids saying a single word about less he could call down the heads of his fellow. the trial and execution of Vane.

tempted to describe the conduct of his judges, morality, irreligion, and indecency, that obtained Sir John Robinson, the lieutenant of the Tower, among public men. General Lambert was tried interrupted him, saying, in a furious manner, and condemned at the same time; but by his " It is a lie ; I am here to testify that it is a lie. timid proceedings after the death of the protecSir, you must not rail at the judges." Vane tor, he had given very evident proofs that he was replied, “God will judge between you and me in not a dangerous man; he pleaded guilty, threw this matter. I speak but matter of fact, and himself abjectly upon the royal mercy, and was cannot you bear that? It is evident the judges suffered to wear out the remainder of his days in refused to sign my bill of exceptious.” . . . Here an unhonoured prison in the island of Guernsey. the drummers and trumpeters were ordered to Other blood, however, was shed. Colonels Okey, come close under the scaffold, and the trumpe-Corbet, and Barkstead, who had been concerned ters blew in his face to prevent his being heard. in the execution of the late king, had fled to Sir Harry lifted up his hand, laid it on his breast, Holland, but they were hunted out by Downing, and, after a mild remonstrance, silence being who had once been chaplain in Okey's regiment; restored, he proceeded to detail to his fellow- the States gave them up, and they were brought countrymen and fellow-Christians some circun- to the gibbet and the knife. They died glorying stances of his life and of the late Civil wars. Upon in the good old cause, and Downing was held up this, the trumpeters again sounded, the sheriff to detestation. General Ludlow, Mr. Lisle, and snatched at the paper he held in his hand,' and a few other Commonwealth men, who either hail the lieutenant of the Tower furiously called out taken a part in the trial of Charles I., or had for the books of some that were taking notes of otherwise incurred the hatred of the royalists, Vane's solemn and last discourse. “He treats had found an asylum among the republicans of of rebellion," said the lieutenant, “and you write Switzerland-a sacred asylum, which was not it.” And thereupon six note books were deli- suffered to be invaded either by the threats or vered up. Vane said, meekly, that it was hard promises that were repeatedly held out through that he might not be permitted to speak, but a series of years by the government and family that this was what all upright men might now of Charles II. Not being able to obtain their expect from the worldly spirit. Here fresh blasts expulsion or their surrender by the Swiss, the were blown upon the trumpets, and fresh efforts royalists had recourse to assassination in a primade by the lieutenant of the Tower and two or vate way. Lisle was shot in the back in the three others to snatch the paper out of his hand, month of August, 1664, on the Lord's day, as he " and they put their hands into his pockets for was going into a church at Lausanne. He fell papers, as was pretended, which bred great con- dead on the spot in the churchyard, and close to fusion and dissatisfaction to the spectators, see- the church-porch; and his murderer mounted a ing a prisoner so strangely handled in his dying swift horse that was held for him at hand by words.” At last Vane gave up all hope of being another villain, and the two, shouting “God save allowed to explain himself to the people, and, the king,” galloped off and crossed the Swiss turning away from the front of the scaffold, he frontier into France. Other less successful atknelt in prayer for a few minutes by the side of tempts were made in the same manner upon the the block, then laid his head upon that sharp life of Ludlow, who distinctly charges King pillow, and stretched out his arm as a signal to Charles, his mother the queen-dowager, and his the executioner, who struck a good blow, which sister the Duchess of Orleans, with employing severed his neck at once. His magnanimity on these assassins. the scatfold made a wonderful and lasting im

? This Downing had been Cromwell's ambassador at the pression, which became the deeper when men

Hague, but, being ready to do any kind of work, he was 009saw more and more of the ways of the restored tinued in his post by Charles. He employed a perfidions artifa government and of the universal corruption, im- to get possession of his victims, who had once been his friends

and patrons. Even Pepys is indignant at this "perfidios Burnet; Pepyn.

rogne."

CHAPTER II.-CIVIL AND MILITARY HISTORY. -A.D. 1661-1675.

CHARLES II.

Act of uniformity enforced upon the Presbyterians-Ejection of their ministers on the anniversary of St. Bar

tholomew-Declaration of indulgence in behalf of Papists --Sale of Dunkirk-Opposition of Charles to the triennial act-The conventicle act passed-Its oppressions-It is turned in Scotland against the national church-Scottish persecutions by Lauderdale and Sharp-War with Holland-Naval engagements with the Dutch-Further oppressive acts of the high-church party-Fresh naval encounters with the Dutch-The fire of London-Opposition to the court commenced-Insurrection of the Covenanters in Scotland-Their defeat at the Pentland Hills—The Dutch block up the Medway and the Thames-Peace concluded with HollandPlot against the Earl of Clarendon-He is deprived of the chancellorship-His impeachment in parliamentHe secretly withdraws to France—The council called the Cabal formed - Its proceedings-Secret and treacherous treaties of Charles with Louis XIV.-Charles obliged to relinquish his scheme of toleration-His mistresses-His design to change the national religion and government-His combination for that purpose with Louis XIV.-Infamous treatinent of Sir John Corentry_The bill called the “Coventry Act"-Account of Colonel Blood-His attempt to hang the Duke of Ormond-His behaviour before the king-Charles and Louis XIV. go to war with Holland-Nefarious attempt to capture the Dutch Snyrna fleet-Its failure-Indecisive naval battle with the Dutch at Solebay—The Dutch assailed by the French by land-William, Prince of Orange-His character and abilities—He obtains the chief command in Holland-His able resistance to the French invasion-Meeting of parliament-Unsuccessful attempts of the court to win over the Nonconformists -Bill to suppress Popery called the “Test Act" passed-Parliament prorogued-The Cabal succeeded by the Danby administration--Peace between England and Holland-Court and cabinet intrigues-Debates in parliament upon the bill to prevent the danger which may arise from persons disaffected to the governmentTroubles in Scotland, Attempt to assassinate Archbishop Sharp-Slavish conduct of the Scottish parliament.

os the anniversary of St. Bartho- lord-general (Monk), the Duke of Ormond, the

lomew approached, the Presbyte-chief-justice, the attorney-general, and the secreI r ian ministers, threatened with taries of state. “The bishops," says Clarendon,

deprivation, reminded the king of “were very much troubled that those fellows all they and their party had done should still presume to give his majesty so much

for his restoration, and then im- vexation, and that they should have such access plored his majesty to suspend the execution of to him. They gave such arguments against the the act of uniformity for three months longer, doing what was desired as could not be answered; by his letters to the bishops, by proclamation, and, for themselves, they desired to be excused by an act of council, or in any other way his for not conniving in any degree at the breach majesty should think fit. Charles made them a of the act of parliament, and that his majesty's positive promise that he would do what they giving such a declaration or recommendation for desired; and this promise was solemnly given to the three months' respite) would be the greatest them in the presence of Monk, who was still wound to the church, and to the government considered as leaning towards the Presbyterians thereof, that it could receive.”! As a matter of through his wife. But Clarendon stepped in and course, the crown lawyers sided with the bishops; urged the absolute necessity of enforcing obedi- and so, “upon the whole matter, the king was ence to the act of uniformity without delay or converted; and, with great bitterness against that connivance; and he told the king that it would people in general, and against the particular pernot be in his power to preserve from deprivation sons, whom he had always received too graciously, those ministers that would not submit to it. concluded that he would not do what was desired, This is Clarendon's account, almost in his own and that the connivance should not be given to words. He tells us, indeed, that he was very any of them. The bishops departed full of satistender of the king's honour, and told his majesty faction with the king's resolution.". Accordingly, that, having engaged his word, he ought to per- upon the day prescribed, which the suffering Presform what he had promised. But Clarendon | byterians compared to the great St. Bartholomew knew that Charles never regarded his word, and Massacre of the French, the act of uniformity was he had given him a strong inducement to break enforced in all its rigour. Some complied with it. Some of the bishops were then summoned the terms for the sake of their families; but upto Hampton Court, and the question was debated wards of 2000 ministers refused, and were thrust in the presence of the king, the chancellor, the Life.

Ibid.

out of their livings. The Long Parliament had | old dread or detestation of the Roman church, assigned a fifth of the revenues of the church for Charles, however, influenced by his brother the the support of the Episcopalian clergy whom they Duke of York, by Bristol, by Secretary Bennet, dispossessed; but now the Episcopalians allowed and by other avowed or concealed Papista, put nothing of the sort. “This,” says Burnet, “raised forth a declaration of indulgence. Whatever were a grievous outcry over the nation. .... Some his motives, this was indisputably Charles's best few, and but few, of the Episcopal party, were act; but we shall presently see that the bigotry of troubled at this severity, or apprehensive of the part of his subjects did not allow him to mainvery ill effects it was like to have. Here were tain it. very many men, much valued, some on better Nearly at the same time, the whole English nagrounds, and others on worse, who were now cast tion, without any distinction as to sects or parties, out ignominiously, reduced to great poverty, pro- was disgusted by the sale of Dunkirk—that place voked by much spiteful usage, and cast upon those which had been acquired by Oliver Cromwell, popular practices that both their principles and and which had been held of such importance even their circumstances seemed to justify." But it by the Convention Parliament who called home was not merely the Presbyterian ministers and Charles, that, several months after his arrival, their flocks that suffered; all the Nonconformists they had passed a bill annexing it to the imperial (which now had become the general term, as that crown of this realm, being encouraged thereto by of Puritans had been formerly) were visited by a Clarendon, who, on several public occasions, both sharp persecution, their conventicles being every- before and after the vote, dwelt with pompous where suppressed, and their preachers and many rhetoric on the subject.? When Charles made up of themselves cast into prison as men guilty of his mind to “chaffer away" the conquest of the the double sin of heresy and disloyalty. Hoping “magnanimous usurper," there were three bidnothing from the laws or the parliament of their ders in the market-Spain, from whom the place country, these men projected extensive emigra- had been taken; Holland, that wished to secure tions to Holland, to New England, to other planta- it as a bulwark against the now encroaching and tions beyond the Atlantic-to any spot where they powerful French; and France, that longed for it might be safe from the “prelates' rage." Upon as an extension of frontier, and a beginning to this, the Earl of Bristol, the rash and eccentric the occupation of all Belgium, and Holland to Lord Digby of the Civil wars, and as rash and ec boot. All three bid high; but Charles expected centric now as ever, conceived a plan into which more services from the growing power of France the leading Catholics entered very readily. This than he could hope for from the fast-declining plan was to procure, under cover of indulgence power of Spain, or from the cautious government to the Protestant Nonconformists, whose depar- of Holland (he and Clarendon were actually edture from the country would be most mischievous gaged in a secret negotiation with Louis XIV, to trade and industry, a wide and liberal tolera- for a French force of 10,000 foot and some cation, which should include all that did not con- valry to subdue what remained of the liberties form-and themselves, as Papists, with the rest. of England), and, after driving a long and hard The project pleased the king, and did not dis- bargain, Dunkirk was given up to France for please the minor sects; but the Presbyterians 5,000,000 livres, payable in three years by bills of were averse to sharing in a toleration with the different dates.3 Papists; and the bishops and the high-church 662 The parliament re-assembled on party, who were for a strict conformity on the part

the 18th of February, and presently of all sects whatsoever, had abated none of their fell with exalted zeal upon the king's declaration of

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It is dated the 26th of December, 1662. Clarendon attributes taught the world. In the days of Clarendon they were very the blame of it to Ashley Cooper (Shaftesbury), who had passed, much unknown. It was then thought that establishments de by turns, for Presbyterian and Independent, but who, like his the Continent of Europe were of the greatest importance to master King Charles, had neither bigotry nor any strong attach- England, and were to be preserved as the most valuable appead ment to any religion. The chancellor also informs us that, to ages of the British crown. Hence the despair of Mary at the crown all the hopes of the Papists “the lady"--that is, Castle loss of Calais: hence the anxiety of Cromwell to obtain Dunkir: maine, the king's mistress, in whose apartment half the business as an equivalent for that loss : and hence the universal cry of of government was transacted "declared herself of that faith. reprobation through the country when the latter place was lost and inveighed sharply against the church she had been bred to us for ever."- Historical Inquiries respecting the Ckaradero in."Life. But he says nothing about the conversion of his Eduard Hude. Earl of Clarendon, by the Hon. George Ark own daughter, the Duchess of York, which took place soon after. Ellis (the late Lord Dover).

2 “Whether it would really have been of great advantage to 3 See Mémoires d'Estrades, the French diplomatist who nego England, had it been preserved, may be doubted; as, though, tiated the sale ; &urres de Loris XIV.: Clarendon's State Paper

ation, it might have afforded a shelter for our l and Life. A recent writer, of strong opinions, seems to think privateers instead of those of the enemy, a retreat for our fleets that the sale was very justifiable, and that it was justified by if boaten, or a safe landing-place for our arnies; all these the long acquiescence of the parliament. But if that parliament, advantages would apparently have been fully balanced by the which was as base as the king, said nothing of t very large expense attending its preservation. These, however, several years, its calculated silence was not imitated by the are the views which a more enlightened system of policy has nation. Everywhere the people denounced the sale; and tbe

indulgence; and the bill to give the crown a dis- should think otherwise, I would never suffer a. pensing power without consent of parliament was parliament to come together by the means preabandoned in the lords, where the bishops were scribed by that bill.” Charles was aware that the vehement against it; and it was deprecated in Hampdens and the Pyms were no more. He both houses, which joined in representing to knew the baseness of the present parliament, Charles the alarming growth and increase of Po- which had been already nibbling at the triennial pery and of Jesuits in the kingdom. The com- act more than once, and which now, without a mons, however, voted him a grant of four subsi- murmur, annihilated that bulwark of liberty. dies; and then, their best work being done, he This was so grateful to Charles, that he went in was about to prorogue the parliament, when the person to the House of Lords to pass the repealEarl of Bristol delayed that measure by suddenly ing bill, and to thank them. He told them that impeaching the lord-chancellor. But, with the every good Englishman would thank them for it; help of the judges, who declared against the le- for the triennial act could only have served to gality of the charges, the matter soon fell to the discredit parliaments--to make the crown jealous ground. Bristol absconded; and the prorogation of parliaments, and parliaments jealous of the took place on the 27th of July. During the long crown-and persuade neighbour princes that Engholiday which followed, the court pursued their land was not governed by a monarch. Such is the old course of revelry and riot; and a very insig- account of this momentous transaction as given nificant insurrection took place at Farnley Wood, by Clarendon, who, in his tenderness to royalty, in Yorkshire. It appears that the government, forgets to mention that the king assured them if it did not actually foment it, was perfectly well | he would not be a day more without a parliament aware of the existence of this ephemeral plot, on this account, and that the repealing bill conwhich was promoted by religious persecution, tained a provision that parliaments should not, but which did not include a single person of in future, be intermitted for above three years at any rank or consequence.

the most. But, as an eminent modern writer has 4. On the re-assembling of parlia- observed, the necessity of the securities in the

ment, on the 16th of March, Charles triennial act, and the mischief of that servile made a great deal of the affair of Farnley Wood. loyalty which now abrogated those securities, beHe told the two houses that that plot was exten- came manifest at the close of the present reign, sive and dangerous; that some of those conspira- nearly four years having elapsed between the distors maintained that the authority of the Long solution of Charles's last parliament and his death." Parliament still existed in the surviving mem- In this same session was passed the infamous bill bers; and that others computed that, by a clause ' called the “Conventicle Act.” It forbade the Nonin the triennial act, the present parliament was, conformists to frequent any conventicles or places by lapse of time, at an end several months since, of worship not of the Establishment; and it imand that, therefore, as the court issued no new posed a scale of punishments, ranging from three writs, the people might themselves choose mem- months' imprisonment to seven years' transportabers for a new parliament. He said that he had tion. The execution of the act was not only comoften read over that bill; and though there was mitted to the civil authorities, but to militia offino colour (as, indeed, there was not) for the fancy cers and the king's forces, who broke open every of the determination of the parliament (that is, house where they knew, or fancied there were, a its ending in three years), yet he would not deny, few Nonconformists gathered together to worship that he had always expected them to reconsider God in their own way. The close, unwholesome "the wonderful clauses”' in that bill, which had ' prisons were soon crammed with conscientious vicpassed in a time “very uncareful for the dignity tims--with men and women, with old and young of the crown." He now requested them to look -while others were ruined in their estates by again at that triennial bill. He said that he loved bribing and purchasing the insecure connivance parliaments-that he was much beholden to par- of the most corrupt and rapacious of the myrmiliaments—that he did not think the crown could dons of the court. And when (as now and then ever be happy without frequent parliaments; “but happened) a few enthusiasts were driven to madassure yourselves," said he, in conclusion, "if I'ness and insurrection, they were strung up on the

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merchants of London offered, through the lord-mayor, any sum not summon a fresh parliament within three years after a disof money to the king so that Dunkirk might not be alienated. solution, the peers were to meet and issue writs of their own And we are disposed to believe that, but for the hopes he enter accord ; if they did not within a certain time perform this duty. tained that Louis would afford him the means of making himself the sheriffs of every county were to take it on themselves; and 28 absolute as his most Christian majesty, Charles would have in default of all constituted authorities, the electors might as turned aside from the un popular measure, and contented him semble, without any regular summons, to choose representatives. ll with some large annual allowance from the merchants.

2 Bills had been brought in for the repeal of the triennial act These wonderful clauses, that were wormwood to the king on the 3d of April, 1662, and the 10th of March, 1663. and all the absolutists, were to the effect that, if the king did 3 Clarendon, Life.

* Hallam, Const. Hist.

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