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founded. He was born in 1550, and although ecclesiastical controversy. Another excellent wriaggrandized with the title of baron, which in ter, as well as accomplished scholar, was Robert England was one of nobility, in Scotland it indi- Baillie, principal of the university of Glasgow, who cated nothing more than a laird, whose ancestors | understood thirteen languages, and wrote in Latin had held the power of fossa et furca within their with classical purity. His chief works were Opus own small domain. Little is known of the ear- | Historicum et Chronologicum, published in folio at lier part of his life, except that he studied in the Amsterdam, and his Journal and Letters, which university of St. Andrews, and afterwards tra- contain a full and graphic account of Scottish velled on the Continent. On returning to Scot affairs during the Civil war and the Commonland, his life was so studious and recluse, and his wealth, but which remained unpublished till 1775. evening walks so lonely, that the country people Among the other distinguished Scottish churcheyed him at a distance, and with fear, as a magi- men of the period, may be mentioned Alexander cian, or at least as something "not canny;" and to Henderson, who, after John Knox and Andrew this he afforded some grounds by the nature of Melvil, is reckoned the third Scottish Reformer, his studies, several of which bordered on the mi-as under his able leading the prelacy imposed upon raculous. The chief of these were the discovery his country by James I. and Charles I. was overof concealed treasures by the divining rod, and the thrown;-and George Gillespie, one of the four invention of a warlike machine for the defence Scottish ministers deputed to attend the Westof Christendom, that would destroy 30,000 Turks minster Assembly of Divines, and whose scholarby a single volley. The same love of the wonder- ship as well as dialectic talent was so complete ful incited him to the study of the future, but in as, in one of the assembly's discussions, to have this he wisely confined himself to the Revelations completely nonplussed the learned Selden himself, of St. John, upon which he published a Commen- although he came fully armed with preparation, tary in 1593. It was not, however, till 1614 that while Gillespie entered booted and spurred from he burst upon the world in his true scientific his journey, and with the purpose of being only character, by the publication of his Book of Lo-a spectator. Equal to any of these was Hugh garithms; and in a short time this useful disco- | Binning, whose early proficiency in scholarship very, by which the most laborious and abstruse was so remarkable, that at the age of nineteen calculations were simplified into short easy pro- he stood candidate for the chair of philosophy on cesses, was hailed as one of the most valuable the resignation of Mr. James Dalrymple, afterbenefits that had ever been rendered to science. wards Lord Stair, and gained it against every Still prosecuting these important investigations, competitor. From the university, where he was he published, in 1617, directions for the processes distinguished as one of the first emancipators of of multiplication and division by small graduated philosophy from the pedantry with which it was rods, which, from their inventor, were afterwards overlaid, he entered the church, and became one called “Napier's Bones.” In the same year he of its most eloquent divines, and died while as yet died at Merchiston Castle.

only in the twenty-sixth year of his age. His While the literary and scientific annals of Scot-works were a treatise on Christian Love, a lesson land could thus supply not more than two names of which the day was greatly in need, and many of distinguished mark, its ecclesiastical history miscellaneous tracts and sermons, which have was scarcely more productive. During the reign been collected into a large quarto volume. So of James the church was almost trodden under superior is the style of Binning to that of his confoot, and in the Civil wars even the best of its temporaries, that while most of the productions divines were employed as political negotiators or of the latter have fallen out of sight, his sermons military chaplains. In spite of these disadvan- | are still read with high relish even by the most tages, however, so unfavourable to literary re-critical and fastidious. search, and the cultivation of taste and eloquence, Such were the few eminent men whom Scotthis period produced David Calderwood, whose land at this period produced. A twilight had voluminous History of the Kirk of Scotland is a already commenced, and a dark and stormy night valuable record of Scottish events during the six- was to follow, before the land was fitted for that teenth and seventeenth centuries, while his Altare high intellectual position which she was destined Damascenum places him in the highest rank of finally to occupy.




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Charles II. lands in England - His reception-Choice of his principal counsellors-His exercise of a royal attribute

-First proceedings of the Restoration-Selection of regicides for punishment-Revenue assigned to the king -Unsatisfactory settlement of the question of toleration-Usher's scheme of union between Episcopalians and Presbyterians, Its unsatisfactory discussion before the king-Trial of the regicides— Trials of General Harrison, Colonel Carew, and Harry Martin-Trials of William Hewlet, Garland, and Hugh Peters-Execution of General Harrison-Execution of other regicides-- Arrival of the queen-mother in England - Marriage of the Duke of York to the daughter of Lord Clarendon-Conformity to the Church of England enjoined - Violation of the graves of regicides, and execution of dead bodies—Venner's insurrection in London, and its suppression - New troops raised-Claims of Scotland on the gratitude of Charles II.- His hatred to the Kirk of Scotland - The Marquis of Argyle entrapped, tried, and executed-Other Scottish executions-Evil government of Scotland by Lauderdale and Middleton-Sharp made Archbishop of St. Andrews-His persecution of the Covenanters—The new or “Pension Parliament”- Its intolerant church measures-Persecution of eminent Commonwealth men- A rigorous conformity bill passed – Marriage of Charles II. to Catherine of BraganzaHe continues his open profligacies-- Afflictions of the new queen-She threatens to return to Portugal --- Trial of Sir Harry Vane-His defence-His sentence-His conduct on the scaffold, and execution-Assassination of Mr. Lisle at Lausanne.

N the 25th of May, Charles prudence, and power. Nor were the commons and his two brothers, the much behind the lords: their speaker, Sir HarDukes of York and Glouces- bottle Grimston, told Charles that he was deserter, landed near Dover, where vedly called the king of hearts;" that he would Monk met them. The king receive from his people a crown of hearts; that

embraced and kissed his re- he could not fail to be the happiest and most me s torer, calling him “Father.” glorious king of the happiest people.

On the 29th, which was Charles's birth- The king's principal adviser was, and for some 3 day, and that on which he completed his tine had been, the Earl of Clarendon-the re

thirtieth year, he made his solemn entry into forming Edward Hyde of former days; but in London, attended by the members of both the formation of a government or a ministry, houses, by bishops, ministers, knights of the Clarendon was obliged to consult the interest of Bath, lord - mayor and aldermen, kettle-drunis Monk. In Charles's first privy council there and trumpets. All was joy and jubilee. And were admitted almost as many Presbyterians as when Charles met the House of Lords, the Earl Church of England men and Cavaliers; but Claof Manchester hailed him as “great king,” | rendon evidently hoped to be able to displace "dread sovereign,” “native king,” “ son of the these Presbyterians by degrees. Among the wise," &c., and prophesied to him that he would members of this new cabinet were the king's two prove an example to all kings, of piety, justice, brothers, the Marquis of Ormond, the Earl of Lindsay, Lord Say and Sele, General Monk, the Clarendon told them that his majesty would in Earl of Manchester, Mr. Denzil Hollis, and Sir all points make good his declaration from Breda; Antony Ashley Cooper. Monk was continued that he granted a free pardon to all except those captain-general of all the forces of the three whom the parliament might except; and that kingdoms, and he was soon gratified by a long no man should be disquieted for differences of list of titles of nobility, ending in that of Duke of opinion in matters of religion. Albemarle. The Duke of York was made lord Fifteen days before Charles's joyous entrance high-admiral, lord-warden of the Cinque-ports, into London, the lords had caused the Book of &c. The Earl of Southampton became lord high- Common Prayer to be read in their house; and treasurer; the high-church Marquis of Ormond, at the same time they and the commons had lord-steward of the household; and the Presby- begun to arrest as traitors all such as spoke terian Earl of Manchester, lord - chamberlain. amiss of his gracious majesty or of kingly gorLord Clarendon, retaining the chancellorship, ernment. They had also seized Clement, one of was intrusted with the chief management of the late king's judges; and had ordered the seizure affairs.

of the goods of all that sat as judges upon that The Presbyterians were startled at the repro- | memorable trial; thus plainly intimating, even duction of the Thirty-nine Articles; but they before Charles's arrival, that vengeance was to were gratified by a royal proclamation against be taken upon the regicides. And now the Presvice, debauchery, and profaneness, and by see. byterian majority of the commons, led on by the ing one of the most debauched and profane of noisy, hot-headed, and vindictive Denzil Hollis, princes admit into the number of his chaplains voted that neither they themselves nor the Baxter and Calamy, two eloquent and famous people of England could be freed from the horrid Presbyterian preachers. To keep the lord-mayor, guilt of the late unnatural rebellion, or from the the aldermen, sheriffs, and principal officers of punishment which that guilt merited, unless they the city militia in good

formally availed themhumour and loyalty,

selves of his majesty's the honour of knight

grace and pardon, as hood was showered

set forth in the declaraupon them, and the

tion of Breda; and king went into the city

they went in a body to to feast with them.

the Banqueting House, That none of the old

and threw themselves attributes of royalty

at the feet of Charles, might remain in the

who recommended them shade, his majesty be

to despatch what was gan to touch for the

called a bill of indemking'sevil, sitting under

nity and oblivion. Clahis canopy of state with

rendon had all along his surgeons and chap

counted upon punishlains, and stroking the

ing with death all such faces of all the sick that

as had been immediwere brought to him,

ately concerned in the one of the chaplains

death of the late king. saying at each touching

Monk, however, when -“He put his hands

arranging the Restoraupon them and he

tion, had advised that healed them.” This

not more than four disgusting and even

should be excepted; and blasphemous ceremony CHARLES II. - After Sir P. Lely.

now he stepped in to -- this pretension to

check the vindictire an hereditary right of working miracles-greatly fury of the commons, and prevailed upon them incensed the Puritans.

to limit the number of their victims to sevenThe lords and commons who, under Mouk, Scott, Holland, Lisle, Barkstead, Harrison, Sas, had recalled the king, were not properly a par- and Jones-who, it was voted, should lose the liament, but only a convention. Therefore one benefit of the indemnity both as to life and estate. of the first proceedings after his arrival was to But the number of seven was presently raised to pass an act constituting this convention a parlia- ten by the addition of Coke, the active solicitor ; ment. They then voted £70,000 a-month to the Broughton, clerk to the High Court of Justice; king for present necessities. The Chancellor I and Dendy, who had acted as serjeant-at-arms


during the trial. These ten, it was understood, the Earl of Denbigh being known to be a generwere all to suffer a horrible death. But without ous man and a lover of his country."? After losing time, the commons proceeded to select a this return to the spirit of the execrable lec still larger number that were to suffer the minor tulionis of the most barbarous times, the lords penalties of imprisonment for life, loss of pro- voted that all who had signed the death-warrant perty, and beggary to their posterity. They voted against Charles I., or sat when sentence was prothat a petition should be drawn and presented nounced upon him, and six others not in that to the king, begging him to issue a proclama category-namely, Hacker, Vane, Lambert, Hation commanding all those who had been con- zlerig, Axtell, and Peters---should be excepted, cerned in managing his father's trial, or other | as capital traitors, from the indemnity. They wise forward in promoting his death, to surren were going on to make the bill more severe, but der themselves within fourteen days. Charles the king was more eager for money than for issued this proclamation accordingly, and nine revenge, and, after several messages had been teen individuals came in to stand their trial, sent from Whitehall by the Chancellor Clarenhoping that, as ten had been fixed upon already don and others, praying the lords to despatch for execution, their lives, at least, would be the bill, he himself, regardless of the constituspared; while nineteen or twenty, measuring more tional rule, which precluded the sovereign from accurately the vindictiveness of the Cavaliers taking any cognizance of a pending bill, sent and Presbyterians, hid themselves or fled beyond down a positive order to hasten their proceedsea. Then the commons selected twenty more ings, in order that the commons might pass that to be excepted out of the general act of obli- for the grant of money. Hereupon the lords, vion, to suffer such penalties and forfeitures, without noticing the irregularity, returned the not extending to life, as should be thought fit to bill of indemnity to the commous with the altebe inflicted on them by an act to pass for that rations we have mentioned; and the commons purpose. These twenty were-Sir Harry Vane, adopted it in that form. They, however, were St. John, Hazlerig, Ireton, Desborough, Lambert, anxious to save the lives of Sir Harry Vane and Fleetwood, Axtell, Sydenham, Lenthall, Burton, General Lambert; and the lords joined with Keble, Pack, Blackwell, Pyne, Dean, Creed, Nye, them in an address to the king, praying that if, Goodwin, and Cobbett. Nor did the commons after trial, these two should be attainted, execustop here, going on to except from all benefit of tion should be remitted. The lords also agreed the indemnity such of the late king's judges as that Lenthall, who had intrigued with the royalhad not surrendered upon the proclamation. And ists before the Restoration, and had offered the in this state the bill of indemnity and oblivion king a bribe of £3000, should be spared both in went up to the lords, who found it much too mode- life and estate. That rash republican, Sir Arrate and merciful. Their lordships began with a thur Hazlerig, who unwittingly had played into vote of the most fierce and barbarous kind. “The the hands of Monk, had a narrow escape; but lords were inclined to revenge their own order on the astucious general who had duped him stepped the persons of some in the High Court of Justice, in considerately, and saved his life. Whitelock, by whom some of their number had been con that easy-tempered vassal of circumstances, was demned, and to except one of the judges for aimed at by the fanatic Presbyterians, who deevery lord they had put to death; the nomina- tested him because he had been active under tion of the person to be excepted being referred Oliver Cromwell in promoting toleration; but it to that lord who was most nearly related to the was found, on a vote, that he had more friends person that had suffered. According to this rule, than enemies; and he, too, escaped. Colonel Croxton was nominated by the next re- As the principle that vengeance should be lation to the Earl of Derby, Major Waring by taken only upon the late king's judges was dethe kinsman of another, and Colonel Titchburn parted from, it was but natural to expect that by a third : the Earl of Denbigh, whose sister they should fall upon him who had been the had been married to the Duke of Hamilton, bosom friend of Cromwell, and who had debeing desired by the lords to nominate one to be fended, in the eyes of all Europe, the proceedings excepted in satisfaction for the death of his bro- of the High Court of Justice. And the immorther-in-law, named a person who had been some tal John Milton was committed to the custody time dead, of which some of the house being in- of the serjeant-at-arms, and threatened with deformed, they called upon him to name another; struction, for having written his Defence of the but he said that since it had so fallen out, he de- English People, and his Eikonoclastes. His glosired to be excused from naming any more. This rious friend Andrew Marvel, and two other adaction, although seeming to proceed from chance, mirers of genius (and no more), raised their voices was generally esteemed to have been voluntary, in the poet's favour. They were told that he had Kennet, Register.

| 2 Ludlor. For the infamous vote, see also the Lords' Journal.

been Latin secretary to Cromwell, and so de- liament" was incapable of any such act, and the served to be hanged; but in the end, after he had nation at large was incapable of a generous tolerabeen plundered by the serjeant-at-arms, who tion, which had only been upheld for a tiine by called his robberies fees, Milton escaped with no the sword of the Independents and the wonderother punishment than a general disqualification ful management of Oliver Cromwell. Charles for the public service, the public burning of his himself, notwithstanding the recent declaration Defensio pro Populo Anglicano and Eikonoclastes, of Clarendon, that he was the best Protestant in and the spectacle of the moral decline and politi- the kingdom, was, if he were anything in relical degradation of his country, under the misrule gion, a Catholic, even now; but he was certainly of the restored Stuart. Prynne, who had many no bigot, and, if he had been left to his own inof the properties of the bloodhound, would have dolence and indifference, he would probably have hunted down the weak, inoffensive, and amiable tolerated all sects alike: but the high churchmen Richard Cromwell, but no one would join him in wanted back all their old pre-eminence-their that chase; and the son of a great man, after property and their old power of persecuting, untravelling for some time on the Continent, was diminished; and if the Presbyterians, or the allowed to live quietly in the pleasant retirement trimming portion of them, who had considerel of Cheshunt. In the end, twenty-nine victims themselves the national church under the Comwere given over to the vengeance, rather than to monwealth, were disposed to tolerate and coalesce the justice of the courts of law, with a mocking with a modified prelacy, they were resolved Dot proviso in favour of such as had surrendered, to tolerate any of the sects which had been known that sentence should not be executed without under the general denomination of Independents special act of parliament.

On the 9th of July there was a stormy debate A number of other bills were hurried through in a grand committee of the commons upon the houses, and presented to the king at the same the Thirty-nine Articles; and then Sir Heneage time with this indemnity bill. The duty of ton- Finch, as a leader of the high-church and court nage and poundage, one of the great starting party, declared that the government of the church points in the late revolution, was voted to Charles by bishops had never been legally altered; and for life; the king's birth-day and glorious restora- that as for liberty for tender consciences, no man tion-the 29th of May—was made a perpetual knew what it was. After seven hours of very anniversary, to be observed with thanksgiving to unchristian-like contention, and a blowing-out God for his miraculous deliverance of this poor and re-lighting of candles, it was carried by a nation; and another bill enacted that a speedy slight majority that the settlement of religion provision of money should be made, to disband should be left to the king, who “should be petithe old army and navy. In giving his assenttioned to convene a select number of divines to to these bills, which were presented with every treat concerning the matter."! It was voted that possible prostration, Charles told the speaker whatever had belonged to the king and queen, or that he willingly pardoned all such as the parlia- all the crown lands, should be restored forthment had pardoned, and that he was much in with; but the question of the church lands was want of money, not having wherewith to keep left in abeyance for the present. The ministers house at Whitehall. Presently after, a committee bill, which aimed at the immediate restoration was appointed to consider of settling a suitable of all the clergy who had been expelled, and the revenue on his sacred majesty. This committee expulsion of all who had been inducted by the reported that it appeared that the revenue of Commonwealth men or by Cromwell, was car Charles I., from the year 1637 to 1641, had ' ried, but with a large proviso—that the intrusire amounted, on an average, to about £900,000, of churchmen should not be bound to give back which £200,000 flowed from sources that were those livings which were legally vacant when either not warranted by law, or now no longer they obtained them. But there was another available. Calculating the difference in the value proviso which, however harmless to the mass of of money, and contenting themselves with the the Presbyterians, was fatal to all such Indepen vague promises of a faithless prince, the commons dent ministers as Cromwell had put into the proposed raising the royal income to £1,200,000 church, for it excluded every incumbent that had per annum; but the means of providing this not been ordained by an ecclesiastic, or had reh money were reserved for consideration in another nounced his ordination, or had petitioned from session.

bringing the late king to trial, or had justified But there remained something more difficult that trial and execution in preaching or in writto settle than indemnity or revenue; and this ing, or had committed himself in the vere! was the great question of religion. Charles, in question of infant baptism. These bills satisheal the declaration from Breda, had most distinctly no party and no sect. The royalists complaine: promised toleration. But this “Convention Par

1 Part. Hist.

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