« PreviousContinue »
CHAPTER XII.-CIVIL AND MILITARY HISTORY.-A.D. 1555-1558.
Corimencement of the Marian persecutions—The married priests compelled to do penance-Execution of John
Rogers, of Bishop Hooper, of Bishop Ferrar, of Dr. Rowland Taylor, of William Branch-Other executionsCruelties of the Popish bishops, Gardiner and Bonner-Trial of Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer-Execution of Ridley and Latimer-Their behaviour at the stake-Philip leaves England - Mary alarms the holders of church lands-Demur of parliament in voting supplies—Death of Bishop Gardiner-Attempts to make Cranmer recant-His recantation—Treachery of his enemies-His execution-Cardinal Pole made Archbishop of Canterbury-Fresh executions of Protestants-Summary of Popish atrocities- Treatment of Princess Elizabeth-Her politic compliances--Competitors for ber hand-Cruel persecution of her tutor, Sir John ChekeAn inquisitorial commission established against the Protestants-Its despotic powers and iniquitous proceed. ings—Increase of immorality with persecution-Abdication of the Emperor Charles V.--He is succeeded by his son Philip-Designs and coalitions of the pope against Philip-Philip's successes in Italy–He revisits England-Endeavours to persuade England to go to war with France-His endeavours seconded by an accident-He obtains reinforcements of English troops—They distinguish themselves at St. Quentin-The Duke of Guise takes the command of the French army-He unexpectedly invests Calais-Careless defences of the town-Calais stormed, and its English garrison compelled to surrender-Grief of the English nation at the loss of Calais-Mary of Guise, Queen dowager of Scotland-Becomes Regent of Scotland-Endeavours to set the Scots at war with England Marriage of Mary, daughter of James V., to the French dauphin-An Eng. lish army invades France-Death of Qncen Mary-Her character.
OR the Protestants this year (1555) | from them, and treated with wholesome severity.
opened most gloomily. The queen The prisons were already crowded—the inquisisent Thomas Thirlby, the new Bi- tors had only to choose their victims, and preshop of Ely, the Lord Anthony pare their stakes and fagots. There were several Montacute, and Sir Edward Carne, preludes and preparations to accustom the people
or Karne, with a very honourable to the degradation of these spiritual teachers, train of gentlemen and others, as ambassadors to whom, only two years before, all had been bound Rome, to confirm the reconciliation of the nation by law to revere and obey. Some married priests, with the Catholic church, and concert measures who would not leave their wives, were sent in for the promotion of the old religion, to the ex- procession round St. Paul's Church with white clusion of all others. But Mary wanted no sheets over them, and burning tapers and scourges foreign advisers to urge her into the paths of in their hands; and when this humiliating cereintolerance and persecution. The conviction mony was over, they were publicly whipped. was deeply settled in her heart's core, and in her These scenes were repeated in different parts of brain and there were bishops of English birth the kingdom; and the unlucky wives of clergyto insist
upon it—that toleration in religion only men were occasionally treated with equal conled to indifference and the eternal perdition of tumely.” men's souls—that any reconciliation of parties The revived statutes against heretics—that is or sects was not to be thought of-that it was to say, the acts first passed against the Lollards the duty of religious princes to exterminate the in the times of Richard II., Henry IV., and heretical infectiou—that the mass of the people,' Henry V.-were to take effect from the 20th of after all, were attached to the discipline and January (1555). Previous to that great day of doctrine of the only true church; and that those rejoicing, Bonner, with eight bishops and 160 orof them who were not, would soon come back thodox priests, made a grand procession through into the right way if all the heretical portion of London to return thanks to the Almighty for the clergy, particularly the bishops, were taken the sudden renewal of Divine grace in the land. Notwithstanding the progress made by the Reformation
Then a commission sat in the church of St. Mary during the short reign of Edward VI., it is probable that this Overy, Southwark, for the trial of Protestants. staternent was corrent. In London, and the great cities gene- The first man brought before them was John cally, there were many Protestants, but in the rural districts Rogers, a prebendary of St. Paul's, who had their number was comparatively small
. There appears, how. been lying in Newgate among cut-throats and ever, to have been a great difference in this respect among the counties.
Norfolk and Suffolk, for example, were to a great desperadoes for more than a year. When quesextent Protestant, and no part of England suffered so much tioned and brow-beaten by his judge, Rogers from Mary's persecutions, though they, in effect, had set her on the throne upon promises which her bigotry could never permit pointedly asked, “Did not you, yourself, for
? Holinshed; Grafton; Stow; Strype.
her to keep
twenty years, pray against the pope ?” “I was Rome, and yet the advocate of toleration—one of forced by cruelty,"replied Bishop Gardiner. "And the first and best of that holy band who taught will you use the like cruelty to us ?” said Rogers. that God was not served by the torment of his
The court sentenced him to the flames. On the creatures. The now prevalent fanaticism of the night after Rogers' martyrdom in Smithfield the Papists occasionally awoke a like spirit on the Protestant Bishop Hooper, one of the pillars of part of the Protestants. On Easter Day, the the Reformed church, was told that he was to be most solemn festival of the Roman church, one burned, not in Smithfield, however, but at Glou- William Branch, or Flower, who had once been cester, among his own people: and at Gloucester a monk of Ely, but who had embraced the Re
formed religion, stabbed a priest as he was administering the sacrament to the people in the manner of Rome in the church of St. Margaret's, Westminster. No crime could be so frightful ils this in the eyes of the Catholics: there was no hope of escaping from a crowded church, and the enthusiast does not appear to have attempted it. On the 24th of April his sacrilegious right hand was cut off, and then, “for opinions in matters of religion,” he was burned in the sanctuary near to St. Margaret's Churchyard.
During the festivities of Easter the Princess Elizabeth was summoned to court, that she might congratulate the queen, who had taken her chamber at Hampton Court, to be delivered; and it should seem that Elizabeth acquitted herself very dexterously on this delicate occasion. But, to return to the chief business of this deplorable
reign, John Cardmaker, chancellor of the church P'LACE OF BISHOF HOOPER'S MARTYRDOM, GLOUCESTER. ?
of Wells, was burned at London on the last day From a sketch on the spot.
of May; and John Bradford suffered the same he was burned in a slow fire on the 9th of Feb- cruel death at the same place about a month ruary. The same course was adopted with Ro- later. A little before, or a little after these bert Ferrar, Bishop of St. David's, a rigid man executions in the capital, Thomas Hawkes, an and of a rough behaviour, who was sent down Essex gentleman, was burned at Coggeshall; from London to his own diocese, where he was John Lawrence, a priest, at Colchester ; Tom. burned alive on the 30th of March. About the kins, a weaver, at Shoreditch ; Pigott, a butcher, same time fires were lighted in other parts of the at Braintree; Knight, a barber, at Maldon; and kingdom. On the eastern side, on the very day Hunter, an apprentice to a silk-weaver, at Brentthat Bishop Hooper was burned at Gloucester, wood. Dr. Rowland Taylor, who had lived for some Bishop Gardiner, the chancellor, who was far time in the family of Archbishop Cranmer, who less cruel than many, soon grew weary of pre preferred him to the rectory of Hadleigh, in siding in the horrible court at the church of St. Suffolk, was burned in that town. This Taylor Mary Overy: he withdrew as early as the month was one of the boldest of those who suffered for of February, when his duties devolved on an conscience sake, and, like nearly every one of apter spirit, Bonner, Bishop of London, who pasthose Protestant martyrs, he was a man of hum- sessed all the essentials for an inquisitor and fable birth. From this Rowland Taylor descended miliar of the Holy Office in a greater degree than the eloquent, the learned, the great and amiable any Englishman we ever heard of. This prelate Jeremy Taylor, the antagonist of the Church of sat in the consistory of St. Paul's, where the
| Fuller; Godwin; Blunt; Despatches of Noailles, the French stood by consoling him, in such a way that he looked as if they hey ambassador. This execution produced a great effect upon the were conducting him to a merry marriage." people, but one altogether different from what the wretched 2 Hooper was burned in the church-yard of St. Mary de Lode, Mary and her bishops expected. Noailles, who was a Catholic, in Gloucester. The spot on which his martyrdom was consum. bays, “This day the confirmation of the alliance between the mated, long pointed out by tradition, was indubitably ascer pope and this kingdom has been made by a public and solemn tained in 1826, by finding upon it the remains of the charred sacrifice of a preaching doctor named Rogers, who has been stake to which he had been attached. It is now marked by the burned alive for being a Lutheran; but he has met his death per- small monument represented in the engraving. In the back sisting in his opinion. At which the greater part of the people ground is the western gate of the abbey, from which the priesta here took such pleasure that they did not fear to give him witnessed the martyr's sufferings. manv acclamations to comfort his courage, and even his children
3 Slow: Gouwin.
lord-mayor and certain of the aldermen were amenable to the same charge of treason as Cranforced to attend. In this court he could, with mer; but for very evident purposes it was reease and great comfort to himself, condemn men solved to sink this offence in the more awful to the flames at the rate of half a dozen a-day; charge of heresy. The timid character of the but even Bonner was too slow for the govern- primate was well known, and the Catholic party ment; the privy council kept continually urging seem to have considered it possible to force all him forward in this frightful persecution; and three to recant. Mary and her husband addressed to him one On the 14th of April, about five weeks after letter (if not more), as if even he wanted excite- their first arrival at Oxford, they were brought ment to the prosecution of heretics.' Cardinal out of their prisons to St. Mary's Church, where Pole, whose moderation and mercy caused him to questions relating to transubstantiation, and the be suspected at Rome of entertaining himself efficacy of the mass as a sacrifice and propitiasome heretical notions, in vain endeavoured to tion for the sins of quick and dead, were substop the destructive torrent, and to prove to mitted to them. They were allowed to debate Mary and her government that the practice of these points in public, and, if they could convince persecution was not only highly dangerous to their mortal enemies, then their prison gates themselves but the scandal of all religion. would be opened. But the orthodox controver
Ever since the month of March of the preced- sialists did not give themselves the trouble to ing year, Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, had been preserve even the appearance of fair play; they removed from the Tower to Oxford. The two would allow their opponents no books--no time latter, like the primate, had favoured the usur- for preparation-nor would they let them argue pation of the Lady Jane; and Ridley with great together. Cranmer was to face alone their entire spirit, honestly avowed that he had acted with battery on the 16th of April, Ridley on the 17th, his eyes open, that he had never been actuated and Latimer on the 18th. On the day appointed by fear of Northumberland or of any one else, Cranmer appeared before the consistory asbnt merely by a conviction that that step was sembled in the divinity school, and, with more
courage than had been expected from him, he proceeded to support the tenets which he had taught; but there were many voices to one; the doctors called him unlearned, unskilful, ignorant; and the Oxford scholars very generally hissed and hooted, and clapped their hands, whenever he advanced any opinion they disliked. On the following day Ridley appeared in the same place, and met with much the same treatment; but Ridley had more nerve than Cranmer, and more learning than Latimer, and to him is generally attributed the glory of the contest on the Protestant side. But he might as well have held his tongue, for, whenever he pressed them closely with an argumentative syllogism, they all lifted up their voices against him together. “I have but one tongue," cried Ridley; “I cannot answer at once to you all.” When poor Latimer was
brought up to be baited on the following day, NICHOLAS RIDLEY, Bishop of London.-From a rare print.
he was so weak and faint that he could scarcely
stand. In spite of the persecutions which he necessary and indispensable for the preservation had himself directed when the current ran in a of the Protestant religion. If Cranmer had had different direction, his appearance was calculated the same decision and courage, it is possible that to excite sympathy in every breast except those affairs might have taken a different turn, or, of controversialists and dogmatists. “Ha! good at the worst, he would have had a better excuse master," said the aged prelate to one of his judges, to plead than that of his having gone into the “ I pray ye be good to an old man. You may be scheme of excluding Mary against his conscience, once as old as I am; you may come to this age, being overpowered by the importunities of the and this debility." Cranmer and Ridley had dying Edward. Ridley, and Latimer also, were disputed in Latin, but Latimer spoke in his mo
ther tongue, and was the better understood. But Burnet; Strype; Hallam, Const. Hist. Burnet gives, in his Collection of Records
, a letter from the king and queen to Bishop they would not permit him to proceed without Nonner, recommending more activity.
frequent interruptions; and the Oxford scholars hissed and hooted and laughed at him, making ger, a dial, and such other few things as he had altogether such a din that the divinity school about him; and among the by-standers were men looked more like a bear-garden than a scene ap- too happy to get any rag of him. In the helppointed for the discussion of dogmas deemed lessness of old age Latimer had left it to his essential to the salvation of men's souls. Poor keeper to strip him; but when he stood up in his Latimer, a man of humble birth, and simple, if shroud, erect and fearless, by the side of the
fagots, he seemed, in the eyes of some of the beholders, to be no longer the withered and decrepit old man, “but as comely a father as one might lightly behold." Ridley was tied first to the stake. As they were chaining Latimer to the reverse of the stake, the hardy old man exclaimed, “Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, and play the man; we shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out." Then the flames arose, and Latimer was soon seen to expire in the midst of them; but Ridley's sufferings were long and dreadful. The Lord Williams of Thame, the vice-chancellor of the university, the other commissioners
appointed by the court, and a multitude of OxHugu LATIMER, Bishop of Worcester.–From a rare print.
ford scholars and gentlemen, stood by and wit
nessed the whole, and for the most part with not rustic manners, said, with a naïveté which pious and complacent countenances, like men would be amusing in other circumstances, that in that felt the happy assurance that they were his time and day he had spoken before two great doing God service. But there were other speckings more than once, for two or three hours tators who looked on with very different eyes. together, without interruption ; " but now," he The fortitude of the sufferers confirmed Proadded, “if I may speak the truth, by your leaves, testants in their faith ; every execution made I cannot be suffered to declareiny mind before you, some converts, and went to awaken a thorough no, not by the space of a quarter of an hour, with- and most lasting abhorrence of the persecuting out snatches, revilings, checks, rebukes, taunts, church.' such as I have not felt the like in such an audi- About six weeks before these executions at ence all my life long." On the 28th of April he Oxford, King Philip passed over to the Contiwas again, together with Ridley and Cranmer, nent, in no very good humour with our island, for brought up to St. Mary's Church. They were he found that he had in a manner thrown himself asked by the commissioners whether they would away in a marriage with a disagreeable woman. now turn or not; but they bade them read on, in Mary's uncomfortable fondness seemed to increase the name of God, for that they were not minded with his absence: she wrote him tender letters, to to turn; and so were they condemned all three! which he seldom replied, except when he wished For various reasons the execution of their sen- her to obtain money for his use from her parliatence was suspended for nearly eighteen months, ment; and he entertained his courtiers (if not a and at the end of that period (on the 16th of mistress) with unmanly criticisms on his wife's October, 1555), Ridley and Latimer were led to person and manners. On the 21st of October, the stake without Cranmer, who remained in five days after the death of Ridley and Latimer, prison five months longer. In the ditch on the the parliament met in a mood less obsequious north side of the pleasant town of Oxford, and than usual, and the queen, in her anxiety to over against Baliol College, a great stake was serve the Church of Rome, excited a somewhat erected. It was usual to preach a sermon to the stormy opposition. Some months before, in her heretics before burning them; and one Dr. Smith, ardent zeal for the pope, she had the imprudence who, for interest or fear, had renounced Popery to consult certain members of the privy council in King Edward's time, and who was now all the touching the restoration of all the abbey lands in more zealous on that account, mounted the pulpit England, which she told them she considered had on this occasion, and delivered a vehement dis- been taken away from their proper owners in course on the text—“ Though I give my body to time of schism, and that by unlawful means, and be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me such as were contrary both to the interests of nothing.” When the
vas over Ridley God and of the church. She told them that, for stripped himself for the fire, giving away his ap- her own part, she considered an immediate surparel, a new groat, some nutmegs and bits of gin
Strype: For: Godwin: Blunt.
render of what the crown had received essential ease on the 12th of November. The great seal to salvation. From her vehemence it was ex- was given to another ecclesiastic-to Heath, pected that she would press for the surrender of Archbishop of York; but, though keen in the perthe lands by whomsoever held, and on this head secuting of Protestants, the new chancellor had the sensitive parliament were never at their ease not the talent and address of the old one. during the short remainder of her reign. But Meanwhile (A.D. 1556) Mary's unthankful husduring the present session she only required them band kept pressing her for money, and still more to legalize her restor
money. To make up for ing the first-fruits and
the scanty supplies votenths, and the impro
ted by parliament, she priations vested in the
and her new chancellor crown. . Even to this
had recourse to a variety parliament objected ;
of illegal and violent and when the commons
expedients. All the came to vote supplies, it
money was spent as soon was asked, with some
as got; the mass of it violence, what justice
went to her husband or there was in taxing the
to Rome. subject to relieve the
It appears that the sovereign's necessities,
court calculated that when she refus :d to
when Cranmer should avail herself of funds
be no longer supported legally at her disposal?
by the more courageous -and it was also sug
spirit of Ridley and gested that the Catholic
Latimer, he would temclergy, who were grow.
porize, as he had so often ing rich by the royal
done before, and, in the liberality, ought ought to
fear of death, take such make large sacrifices for
steps as would cover the relief of their bene
himself with infamy and factress. At last the
bring discredit on the house passed the sup
whole Protestant party; plies, but with a consi
and that for these exderable deduction from
press reasons he was left the amount originally
alive. It should be proposed; and they also
mentioned, however, passed the bills about
that there were other the first - fruits, and
reasons, and that, as a tenths, and impropria
metropolitan, his case tions, but in such a
was reserved for the spirit as showed that it
pope himself, the triwould be unsafe to urge
bunal which had desthem to further conces
patched the two suffrasons in that direction.
gan bishops not being After a short session,
competent, in canonical the queen dissolved parTHE MARTYRS' MEMORIAL OXFORD.2
law, to take cognizance
From a view by Mackenzie. liament on the 9th of
of it. By a grievous December. During the session Bishop Gar- | mockery the pope cited this close prisoner at diner, the chancellor, had gone to his final ac- Oxford to appear at Rome and answer for his count. He attended at the opening of the houses, heresies. At the end of the eighty days, having and displayed his usual ability and energy; but taken no care, as it was said in the Papal inon the third day his bodily sufferings obliged him strument, to appear at Rome, he was pronounced lo quit his post, and he expired of a painful dis- guilty, and Bonner, Bishop of London, and Thirl1 Journals; Holinshed; Stow.
by, Bishop of Ely, were appointed commissioners ? This noble monument, designed to commemorate the deaths
to degrade him, and to see the sentence executed of the Protestant martyrs, Ridley, Latimer, and Cranmer, was upon
him. Cranmer, who was delivered over to erectel in 1841, near the spot which witnessed their sufferings. the secular power—for by a delicate fiction the 73 feet; and is placed in the centre of St. Giles Street, adjoining persecuting church was never the executor of St. John's College and the University Galleries, Oxford. its own sentences — trembled at the near ar