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stand by him; and the same was done by General | royalty, by the hot war they waged against the Monk and his officers in Scotland.' But Richard protector. The disguised royalists, of course, Cromwell was no soldier, and destitute of high joined the republicans. An act of recognition commanding powers of any kind. He had lived was, however, passed, and a revenue was settled a quiet retired life, as far as possible away from for the new protector. Then a fierce attack was the turmoil of government and the bustle of the made upon the other house," and upon the late camp, and he was almost a stranger to that sol- administration of Oliver, whose best ministers diery which his father had known personally were singled out for impeachment. But the almost to a man, and over which, by a rare com- army soon stayed these proceedings, by joining bination of qualities-by a mixture of unflinch- with the ultra-republican section. Under General ing firmness in essentials and good nature in Lanıbert, a council of officers was called and minor points, by devotion and by an easy fami- established, and they voted that the command of liarity which condescended to drollery- he had the army should be put into better hands, and exercised an almost magical influence. The pay- that every officer should declare his approval of ment of the troops, too, was somewhat in arrears, the conduct of the army and the proceedings and Richard found the coffers of the state almost against the late Charles Stuart, or resign his empty. From these and other circumstances, commission. The commons declared such meetwhich may be easily conceived, the military pre-ings and councils illegal. On this the Lambersently betrayed symptoms of discontent. His tians drew up a representation to Richard, setting brother - in - law, Fleetwood, a good soldier, a forth their want of pay, the insolence of their favourite with the army, but a weak man in other enemies, and their designs, together with some in respects, as well as ambitious and imprudent, power, to ruin the army and the good old cause, became jealous of the new protector, who had and to bring in the enemies thereof, to prevent nominated him to be, under himself, commander- which they desired his highness to provide effecin-chief of the land forces, Fleetwood secretly tual remedy. “This," says Whitelock, “was the encouraged a strange petition, which was drawn beginning of Richard's fall, and set on foot by up and presented, requiring the protector, in his own relations." The parliament took no effect, to give up his control over the army.” course to provide money, but exasperated the Richard replied that he had given the command army, and all the members of “the other house." of the forces to Fleetwood, who seemed generally And hereupon the army compelled Richard to acceptable to them; but that to gratify them fur- dissolve the parliament on the 22d of April. ther, or wholly to give up the power of the sword, On the 6th of May, Lambert, Fleetwood, was contrary to the constitution, which lodged | Desborough, and the general council of officers, that power in the hands of the protector and keeping the promises they had made to the ultraparliament jointly. By the advice of Thurloe, republicans, published a declaration, inviting the St. John, Fiennes, and others, Richard resolved members of the Long Parliament or Rump, who to assemble the representatives of the people, and had continued sitting till Oliver's forcible ejectthe members of “the other house."
ment of the 20th of April, 1653, to return to the A.D. 1659. 5 The new parliament met on the exercise and discharge of their trust; and on the
27th of January. The other house very next day old Speaker Lenthall, and all the was the same despised nullity as before. Scarcely survivors of the Rump, being escorted and half of the members of the commons would obey guarded by Lambert's troops, went down to the the summons of Richard to meet him in that house, and there took their seats as a lawful and “other house," at the opening of the session. indisputable parliament; and, being seated, they Without loss of time, the commons attacked his forthwith voted that there should be no protecright to be lord-protector, and nearly every part tor, no king, no “other house.” Richard Cromof the present constitution, clamouring against well retired quietly to Hampton Court, and the inexpediency and peril of allowing “the other signed his demission, or resignation, in form. house” to exist. Some of Richard's family and Fleetwood, whose wife was Richard's sister, made nearest connections joined in this outcry, some a proffer of allegiance to the restored Rump in out of personal ambition or pique, some out of the name of the army at London, and General sheer republicanism. The republicans were in- Monk hastened to write from Scotland to express vigorated by the return of Sir Harry Vane, the entire concurrence of himself and army in Ludlow, and Bradshaw, who facilitated the ma- the new revolution which had been effected. On nouvres of General Monk, and the return of the 22d of June (and not sooner), letters were I IV hitelock; Thvrloe.
received from Henry Cromwell, a much more ? The petitioners required that no officer should be deprived stirring or bolder man than his brother, notifyof his commission except by a court-martial; and that the powering his submission, and the submission of his of granting commissions should be intrusted to some person whose services had placed him above suspicion
| army in Ireland, to the present parliament. Pressed by want of money, the Rump proposed to be their commander-in-chief. On the other selling the three royal palaces of Whitehall, side, Hazlerig and his friends consulted how they Somerset House, and Hampton Court; but they might restore themselves to power, "and they were sold themselves, or were interrupted and had some hopes of Monk to be their champion." dismissed, before they could carry into effect this The council of officers displeased Monk by ap project in finance. They had scarcely warmed pointing Lambert to the command in Scotland their seats ere they were alarmed by numerous ! It was at this critical moment that Monk, who plots and riots raised by the royalists. These had been courted and feared by both parties, troubles grew worse and worse, and in the be- began to play his own game. He had been a ginning of August insurrections broke out at the royalist before he became a parliamentarian; he same moment in several parts of the country, had been a hot Long Parliament man or Rumpthe most important being one in Cheshire and ite, and then a still hotter Cromwellite; and be Lancashire, headed by Sir George Booth, who was ready to become king's inan or devil's man, was daily expecting to be joined by Charles II. or anything else that best promised to promote and his brother the Duke of York. But Lambert bis own interests. gave a total rout to Sir George Booth's force. On the 29th October, the officers of the army te Charles, who had got everything ready, deferred ceived a letter from him expressive of his dissatishis voyage. Booth and the young Earl of Derby, faction at their late proceedings, and the commitwith many others, were arrested and thrown into tee of safety received intelligence through other the Tower; and by the end of August this for- channels that Monk had secured Berwick for himmidable insurrection was completely subdued. self and was looking towards London. Lambert But the Rump which sat in the house, and the
-- - army which had placed them there, presently quarrelled with each other. The Rump claimed an entire control over the forces by land or by sea; the army, charging the Rump with base ingratitude, claimed to be independent and supreme. An act was passed to dismiss Lambert, Desborough, Fleetwood, and seven or eight other principal officers. Hazlerig, who was the chief mover in these bold parliamentary transactions, was encouraged by letters from Monk, assuring him that he and the army in Scotland would stand by the parliament, and by the like promises from Ludlow, who had succeeded Henry Cromwell in the command of the forces in Ireland. But Monk and Ludlow were far away, and the English army was close at hand. On the 13th of October, Lambert collected his troops in Westminster Hall, Palace-yard, and the avenues leading to the house; and when the speaker came up in his coach they stopped him, and made him turn back; and they treated most part of the members
GENERAL MONK.-From an engraving by Loggan in the same way, so that the house could not sit. The council of state sat, and there the hostile was instantly appointed to command the forces parties, the army men and the Rump men, came in the north of England; and Colonels Whallinto fierce collision. The civilians accused the and Goffe, and Caryl and Barker, ministers of army of being destroyers of liberty; the officers the gospel, were sent to Monk, “to persuade him retorted, saying that the Rump would not have to a right understanding of things and prevent left them any liberty to destroy; and Colonel effusion of blood.” Monk in the meanwhile sent Sydenham protested that the army had been to assure the leaders of the Rump that his sale obliged to apply this last remedy by a special object was to relieve parliament from military commission from Divine Providence. Desborough, oppression: and he called God to witness that he Cromwell's brother-in-law, said with more blunt was above all things a friend to liberty and the ness, “Because the parliament intended to dis- Commonwealth. Writing to Hazlerig, whom be miss us, we had a right to dismiss the parlia- duped, he said, “As to a commonwealth, believe ment.” On the next day, the officers of the army me, sir, for I speak it in the presence of Goddebated about a settlement, or new constitution; it is the desire of my soul." But if Monk duped and declared Fleetwood, Richard's brother-in-law, Whitelock; Ludlore: Parl, Hist.
the humiliated and desperate members of the presently, and bring the matter to an issue before Rump, he certainly never deceived the English his soldiers were more confirmed, and Fleetwood's officers. On the 8th of November, Desborough, party more discouraged; but this advice was not Fleetwood, and the principal men of that body, taken, but a new treaty assented to, by commiswent to the common council in London, and sioners on each part, to be at Newcastle.” told them plainly “that the bottom of Monk's This was on the last day of November; on the design was to bring in the king upon a new civil | 4th of December some of the forces about London war." Monk, after again calling God to witness began to clamour for pay, and to favour the prothat the asserting of the Commonwealth was the ceedings of Monk for restoring the parliament. only intent of his heart, crossed the Tweed in On the next day serious disturbances took place great force, being openly backed by the chief in the city; and intelligence was received that Presbyterians in Scotland. He was faced on the the governor and garrison of Portsmouth had Tyne by Lambert; but the soldiers of Cromwell, declared for the parliament. Still the general now badly provided, had lost their old enthu-council of officers sat devising schemes of governsiasm and discipline, and Lambert besides had ment, republican and impracticable.' Having orders from the committee of government to concocted another constitution, they proclaimed, avoid a hostile collision; and he therefore lay at on the 15th of December, that there should be a Newcastle doing nothing. It was agreed that new parliament. On the 17th Admiral Lawson, three commissioners on the part of Monk should who had brought his ships into the Thames, rebe allowed to come up to London to treat with quired that the Long Parlianient or Rump should three commissioners on the part of Fleetwood, sit again. On the 22d most of the soldiery about the nominal commander-in-chief of all the forces. London made the same demand. At this critical By this delay Monk was enabled to mature his moment Whitelock, being convinced that Monk plans, and to receive further assistance in men would bring in the king without terms for the and money from Scotland. Monk's three com- parliament party or for the country, and that he missioners pretended to be very confident that would easily delude Hazlerig and the rest of he would approve what was agreed upon by the parliament men, suggested to Fleetwood, Fleetwood's commissioners, namely, that a par- since the coming in of Charles II. seemed unaliament should be restored and the nation settled voidable, that it would be more prudent for again in the ways of peace. The committee of Fleetwood and his friends to be the instrument safety proceeded in preparing a form of govern- for bringing him in than to leave it to Monk. ment, but there was no reconciling their con- The adroit lawyer proposed that Fleetwood flicting theories and views and interests. Fresh should instantly send some person of trust to the letters came from Monk to Fleetwood full of king at Breda, and invite him to return upon compliments and expressions of his earnest desire conditions. By so doing Fleetwood might yet for a speedy settlement; but stating that what make terms with the king for the preservation had been agreed upon by his commissioners was of himself, of his family and friends, and, in a not quite enough that some things remained good measure, of the cause in which they had all untreated of and unagreed upon--that he wished been engaged: but if it were left to Monk, Fleetfor a fresh treaty to put a final end to the busi- wood and his friends, and all that had been done ness. Some of the committee declared that this for civil and religious liberty, would be exposed was only a delay in Monk to gain time to be the to the danger of destruction. Fleetwood was better prepared for his design to bring in the convinced, and desired Whitelock to go and preking. “And, therefore," continues Whitelock, pare himself forth with for the journey. But who had himself a principal share in these de- before Whitelock got across the threshold, Vane, liberations, “they advised to fall upon Monk Desborough, and Berry came into the room, and,
1 "In the year 1659, it is manifest that no idea could be more ject to Lambert's notorious want of principle, or to Vane's conchimerical than that of a republican settlement in England. I tempt of ordinances (a godly mode of expressing the same thing). The name, never familiar or venerable in English ears, was or to Hazlerig's fury, or to Harrison's fanaticism, or to the grown infinitely odious: it was associated with the tyranny of fancies of those lesser schemers, who, in this utter confusion and ten years, the selfish rapacity of the Rump, the hypocritical abject state of their party, were amusing themselves with plans despotism of Cromwell, the arbitrary sequestrations of com of perfect commonwealths, and debating whether there should mittee men, the iniquitous decimations of military prefects, the be a senate as well as a representation, whether a given numsale of British citizens for slavery in the West Indies, the blood | ber should go out by rotation, and all those details of political of some shed on the scaffold without legal trial, the tedious im mechanism so inportant in the eyes of theorists? Every project prisonment of many with denial of the habeas corpus, the ex- of this description must have wanted what alone could give it clusion of the ancient gentry, the persecution of the Anglican either the pretext of legitimate existence, or the chance of perchurch, the bacchanalian rant of sectaries, the morose preciseness manency-popular consent; the republican party, if we exclude of Puritans, the extinction of the frank and cordial joyousness those who would have had a protector, and those fanatics who of the national character. Were the people again to endure the expected the appearance of Jesus Christ, was incalculably small; mockery of the good old cause, as the Commonwealth's men | not perhaps amounting in the whole nation to more than a few affected to style the interests of their little faction, and he sub | hundred persons." - Hallam, Const. Hist. Eng., i. 682.
after a private conversation with them, Fleet- of the Rump began to think of providing for wood called Whitelock back, "and in much pas- their personal safety. The Presbyterian majosion said to him, 'I cannot do it! I cannot do it! rity voted in rapid succession, that Monk should I cannot do it without my Lord Lambert's con- be commander-in-chief of all the forces in Engsent!"” “Then,” said Whitelock, “you will ruin land, Scotland, and Ireland; that all the proyourself and your friends.” Fleetwood replied, ceedings of parliament since their seclusion should that he could not belp it, that his word was be null and void; that Presbyterianism should pledged; and so they parted.
be the one and sole religion; and that the League On the next day, some of the members of the and Covenant, without any amendment or tolold council of state, and the old speaker Lenthall, eration, should be posted up in all churches. Ou seeing that the soldiers were all revolting from the 16th of March they passed an act for disFleetwood, gave orders for a rendezvous in Lin- solving this parliament, with a proviso not to incoln's-Inn Fields. They also received intelligence fringe the rights of the House of Peers. Writs that Hazlerig was coming speedily up to London were issued for a new parliament; and then Monk with the revolted garrison of Portsmouth. finished his bargain with Charles II., giving ad
On the morrow the troops formed in Lincoln's. vice but imposing no conditions. Lambert, who Inn, opposite to the house of the speaker, gave had proved most satisfactorily that he was not a him three cheers, saluted him with a volley, and Cromwell, nor fitted to be his successor, was shut took the word of command from him. Lenthall up in the Tower, after an insane attempt at inwas now, in effect, commander-in-chief in Lon-surrection. The new parliament met on the 25th don. He secured the Tower; he convinced the of April. Ten peers took their seats in their common council, the citizens, and soldiery, that own house, confirmed the appointments of Monk, the very best thing to do at this crisis was to and voted a day of fasting to seek God for his restore the Rump. And, two days after this, or blessing upon the approaching settlement of the on the 26th of December, the Rump were re- nation, Circular letters were then sent for the stored by the very soldiers who had so recently other peers, who came up to Westminster by deprevented their sitting.
grees, till the house was nearly full. In the h e co On the 2d of January the house lower house the utmost readiness was shown in
voted that a bill should be pre- agreeing with the restored peers. Sir Harbottle pared for renouncing anew the title of Charles Grimston was elected speaker, and was conducted Stuart, &c. On the 6th they received a letter to the chair by Monk and the runaway Denzil from Monk promising all obedience and faithful- | Hollis. On the 26th of April the two houses ness to this parliament; and, in their infatuation, gave orders for a day of thanksgiving to God they voted Monk a letter of thanks, and desired "for raising up General Monk and other instruhim to come up to London as soon as he could. I ments of rescuing this nation from thraldom and By the 26th of January Monk was at Northamp- misery.” They also voted thanks to Monk for his ton, protesting that he was but a servant of the eminent and unparalleled services. On the 1st parliament. On the 28th he was at St. Alban's, of May, Sir John Granville, who had been em. where he again expressed all duty and obedience. ployed for some time in the negotiations between But, after keeping a day of fasting and prayer, Charles II. and the general, arrived again from he wrote from St. Alban's to require that all the Breda. Monk, who continued to wear the mask soldiers of the English army that were in or when it was no longer necessary, would not open about London should be removed. The Rump the despatches in his own house, but ordered Sir ordered the troops out of town accordingly; and John to present them to him in the midst of the on the same day Monk marched into London, in council of state. This was done; and, to carry all state, with his horse and foot: and then the on the farce, Granville was put under arrest.-king's party talked very high, saying they were But, lo! it was proved that the letters were really sure the king would soon follow.
from the king himself, and that they contained Although Monk carefully concealed his inten- very upright and very satisfactory intentions; tion of recalling Charles, he soon opened the and Granville was released from custody, and the eyes of Hazlerig and that party to the monstrous letters were sent down to parliament, and there blunder they had committed. He insisted that read in the name of the king. One of these the secluded members of the Long Parliament royal epistles was addressed to the lords, another -the expelled Presbyterians-should sit again. to the commons, one to Monk, and another to the None durst oppose him; the spirit of the people lord-mayor. The letter to the commons milgenerally ran that way, and the Cavaliers agreed tained the famous "Declaration of Breda," whicles to it as the way to bring in the king. On the j in general terms, offered indemnity for the pex 21st of February the secluded members took and liberty of conscience for the future. This their seats; and from that moment the members document was the only pledge that this parlianient
thought necessary to be required from a prince the king were brought back ; but Monk silenced who had already proved, in many cases, that his them by asserting that, as his majesty would royal word was little worth. Despising many warn- come back without either money or troops, there ings of danger to themselves and Covenant and was nothing to fear from him. church, the Presbyterians prepared an answer to The commons continued running a race with the king's letter, expressing their surpassing joy; the lords in this new loyalty; and, after other voted his majesty, who was penniless, the pre- votes, they sent twelve of their members to wait sent supply of £50,000; and sent a committee into upon the king. Nor were the lord-mayor and the city to borrow that money. Prynne, who had common council of London a whit less loyal. suffered so much from Star Chambers and High On the 8th of May Charles was solemnly proCourts of Commission, royal tyranny and prela- claimed at Westminster Hall gate, the lords and tical intolerance, and that upright judge Sir Mat- commons standing bareheaded while the prothew Hale, ventured to recommend that some clamation was made by the heralds. And so more definite settlement should be 'made before ended the Commonwealth.
CHAPTER XVIII.—HISTORY OF RELIGION.
State of the religious contest in Britain at the present period—Its connection with the Scottish Reformation
Presbyterian form of the Scottish Reformation-Early origin of the Presbyterian element in Scotland-Early inclination of James VI. to Episcopacy-Remonstrances of the clergy against his aggressions on the church-Andrew Melvil cited before the privy council-His refusal of the judgment of a civil court in ecclesiastical affairs-Acts of 1584 subversive of the liberty of the church-The “Raid of Ruthven"- Temporary reconciliation of James with the church-His declarations and concessions in its favour-His dislike to Presbyterianism renewed with his prospects of accession to the throne of England–His favour for Papists-Deputation of ministers sent to remonstrate with him on the subject-Bold address of Andrew Melvil to him on the occasion -Measures of the clergy to protect the rights of the church-Attempts of James to restrain the liberty of the pulpit-Trial of David Black-Riot in Edinburgh on the 17th of December–James embraces this opportunity to impose Episcopacy on the church--His measures to that effect_Contrast between the Scottish and the English Reformation-Predominance in the latter of the royal authority-Monarchical character of the English church-Origin of English Puritanism simultaneous with the Reformation-Objections of early English Reformers to the rites and ceremonies retained from the Romish church-Puritanism during the reign of Elizabeth-Its growth and political influence-Proposals of the Puritans for the abrogation of certain church forms and ceremonies—The change of the church to Puritanism narrowly defeated-Elizabeth's resolution to compel uniformity-Scene at Lambeth illustrative of this compulsion-Puritanism strengthened by opposition-Its objections extended from the forms to the constitution of the church-Commencement of Puritan secession from the church-Its proposed Book of Discipline-Rise of Presbyterians, Brownists, Familists, and Anabaptists-Grindal and Whitgift, Archbishops of Canterbury-Their different administration-Account of Whitgift-His strict and severe measures to produce conformity-Accession of James to the throne of England-Hopes of Churchmen and Puritans at his arrival --The "millenary petition" of the Puritans—Its proposals – The Hampton Court controversy-Conduct of James on the occasion-His singular speeches Proposal adopted for a new translation of the Bible-Accomplishment of the work-New Book of Canons to compel the Puritans to conform to the church-Account of the “Pilgrim Fathers”—Their emigration to New England--Their foundation of the United States of America–James's Book of Sports-His enactments for silencing the Puritan pulpits—Change of his own creed from Calvinism to Arminianism-Dark prospects of the Puritans at the accession of Charles I.—Popish tendencies of his prelates-Attempt of Charles to overthrow the Presbyterianism of Scotland–The Scottish reaction-English Puritanism roused by the example— Meeting of the Westminster Assembly of Divines-Episcopacy overthrown and Presbyterianism established in England -Difference between the Scottish and English Presbyterianism-Causes of that difference-State of parties in the Westminster Assembly-Presbyterians, Independents, and Erastians-Chief proceedings of the assembly
-Its Directory, Confession of Faith, and Catechisms—Debates on the Divine right of Presbytery, and toleration-Toleration established-Rise of Independency over Presbyterianism-Causes of this rise-Cromwell's “ Board of Triers"-Its beneficial services to religion-English sectaries.
SOHE religious history of the present | beth, and supported by authoritative statutes
period is chiefly the narrative of and rich endowments--and a strong popular rea deadly struggle between the Pu- ligious element, whose motto was liberty of conritanism of England on the one science, and whose aim was the emancipation of hand, and the Episcopal polity on the church, alike from kingly dictation and par
the other; between the national liamentary rule. It was, for the time, the prechurch as formulated by Henry VIII. and Eliza- | siding spirit of that great political struggle in