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being arranged, Charles, on the 19th of January, opened to the people, who assembled in immense was brought up from Windsor to St. James's, and crowds. Everywhere, within the hall and arvund on the following day he was put upon his trial. it, were soldiers under arms-every avenue of

The place appointed for the trial was the site approach was guarded. The king was brought of the old Courts of Chancery and King's Bench, in a sedan-chair to the bar, where a chair, covered at the upper end of Westminster Hall. That with velvet, was prepared for him. He looked vast and antique hall was divided by strong bar- sternly upon the court and upon the people in riers placed across it. The Gothic portal was the galleries on each side of him, and sat down

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without moving his hat. His judges returned his cane. Nevertheless Bradshaw ordered Coke to go severe glances, and also kept on their hats. Upon on, who then said, “My lord, I am come to charge a calling of the names, sixty of the commissioners Charles Stuart, King of England, in the name of answered. Bradshaw, as president, in a short all the commons of England, with treason au speech acquainted the prisoner with the cause of high misdemeanours: I desire the said charge his being brought thither. Then Coke, as solicitor may be read.” Coke then delivered the change for the commonwealth, stood up to speak; but in writing to the clerk, who began to read it Charles held up his cane, touched him two or three Charles again cried “Hold !” but, at the order of times on the shoulder with it, and cried “Hold! the president, the clerk went on, and the prise hold!” In so doing the gold head dropped from his sat down, “looking sometimes on the bigh court

This drawing is adapted from the frontispiece to A True Copy and the table at his side, covered also with a like carpe of the Journal of the High Court of Justice for the Tryal of King wished with an inkstand. Bradshaw, Lisle, and Say, as a Charles I. By John Nalson, LL.D. Fol. London, 1684. From sat in their robes—the other commissioners in their sual een this work the following particulars are derived :The space as In the engraving the king is represented seatai, and stanza set apart for the trial was from the south end of Westminster I at his right hand are the counsel conducting the trial Bruce Hall, to the stone steps leading to the Court of Chancery, and Lisle, and Say are in the centre, elevated three steps som the floor of this space was raised three feet above the floor of their fellow-commissioners, Bradshaw having a tale the hall. Benches for the commissioners or judges were erected of him. The clerks of the court are at a table in the at the south end of the ball, from the floor to within five or six the commissioners. Cromwell's place at the trial is so feet of the window. There were free passages, kept by soldiers, i a figure standing on the left of the escutcheon of arms down and across the hall, and officers walked along these to pre- the great window. The banners on the walls are the taxa serve order. Where the king sat was covered with a Turkey carpet, from Charles's troops at the battles of Nareby, &c

sometimes up to the galleries; and having risen . mitting to this court. I see no House of Lords again, and turned about to behold the guards here that may constitute a parliament; and the and spectators, sat down again, looking very king, too, must be in and part of a parliament." ternly, and with a countenance not at all moved, “If it does not satisfy you," exclaimed Bradtill these words — namely, 'Charles Stuart to be shaw,“ ere are satisfied with our authority, which

tyrant, a traitor,' &c., were read; at which he we have from God and the people. The court exlaughed, as he sat, in the face of the court." pects you to answer; their purpose is to adjourn When the long charge was finished, taxing the to Monday next. He then commanded the guard king with the whole of the civil war, with the to take him away, upon which Charles replied, leath of thousands of the free people of the na- “Well, Sir." And as he went away facing the tion, with divisions within the land, invasions court, he added, pointing to the sword, "I do not from foreign parts, the waste of the public trea- fear that." Some of the people cried “God save nry, the decay of trade, the spoliation and deso- the king!' others shouted “Justice! justice !" ? ation of great parts of the country, the continued He was remanded to Sir Robert Cotton's house, ommissions to the prince and other rebels, to he Marquis of Ormond, the Irish Papists, &c., Iradshaw, the lord-president, told him that the purt expected his answer. Charles replied with reat dignity and clearness. He demanded by hat lawful authority he was brought thither. I was not long ago," said he “in the Isle of Fight; how I came there is a longer story than fit at this time for me to speak of; but there I itered into a treaty with both Houses of Parliaent with as much public faith as is possible to

had of any person in the world. I treated ere with a number of honourable lords and ntlemen, and treated honestly and uprightly. cannot say but they did very nobly with me. e were upon a conclusion of the treaty. Now, vould know by what authority, I mean lawful for there are many unlawful authorities in

world, thieves and robbers by the highway but I would know by what authority I was yught from thence, and carried from place to ice. Remember I am your lawful king. Let

know by what lawful authority I am seated re; resolve me that, and you shall hear more of

Bradshaw told him that he might have erved he was there by the authority of the ple of England, whose elected king he was. SIB ROBEKT COTTON's Horse. 2-From a view by J. T. Smith ngland," cried Charles, “was never an elec

kingdom, but an hereditary kingdom for and thence to St. James's; and the high court r these thousand years. I stand more for the adjourned, and kept a fast together at Whitehall. irty of my people than any here that come to On Monday, the 22d of January, in the afterray pretended judges.” “Sir," said Bradshaw, noon, Charles was led back to Westminster Hall w well you have managed your trust is known. As soon as he was at the bar, Coke rose and said, you acknowledge not the authority of the “I did, at the last court, exhibit a charge of high rt they must proceed." “ Here is a gentle treason and other crimes against the prisoner in 0," said Charles, pointing to Colonel Cobbet,' the name of the people of England. Instead of ik him if he did not bring me from the Isle answering, he did dispute the authority of this Wight by force. I do not come here as sub- high court. I move, on behalf of the kingdom of


this day. Whitelock says, “There were strict guards, soldiers, and a great press of people at the trial of the ... Some who sat on the scaffold aboat the court at the particularly the Lads Fairfax, did not forbear to exclaim dagainst the proceedings of the high court, and the inveter. ssage of the king by his subjects, insomuch that the court interrupted, and the soldiers and officers of the court had

seldiers and officers of the court had to do to quiet the ladies and others.

? Cotton House, Westminster, near the west end of Westmin ster Hall. The town-house of Sir Robert Cotton died 1631 the founder of the famous Cotton Library; of his son, and of the grandson. Sir Christopher Wren describes the house in hisme 28 in a “very ruinous condition." Charles I. lav at C House during his trial in Westminster Hall dins his trial in Westminster Hall.


After the trial te slept at Whitehall, and the night before the execution James's -Cunningham's Hard-Book of London.

England, that the prisoner may be directed to vited him to make the best defence he could make a positive answer by way of confession or against the charge. “For the charge," cried negation; and that if he refuse so to do, the charge Charles, “I value it not a rush; it is the liberty be taken pro confesso, and the court proceed to of the people of England that I stand for. I am justice." Then Bradshaw told the prisoner that your king, bound to uphold justice, to maintain the court were fully satisfied with their own the old laws; therefore, until I know that all this authority, and did now expect that he should is not against the fundamental laws of the kingplead guilty or not guilty. Charles repeated that dom, I can put in no particular answer. If you he still questioned the legality of this court; that will give me time, I will show you my reasons a king could not be tried by any jurisdiction upon why I cannot do it, and"-here the president inearth; but that it was not for himself alone that terrupted him; but Charles, as soon as his voice he resisted, but for the liberty of the people of ceased, continued his reasoning; and after several England, which was dearer to him than to his interruptions of this kind, Bradshaw said, "Clerk, judges. He was going on in this strain, talking do your duty;" and the clerk read:—"Charles of the lives, liberties, and estates of his people, Stuart, King of England, you are accused, in bewhen Bradshaw interrupted him by telling him half of the commons of England, of divers crimes that he, as a prisoner, and charged as a high de- and treasons, which charge hath been read unto linquent, could not be suffered any longer to you; the court now requires you to give your enter into argument and dispute concerning that positive and final answer, by way of confession court's authority. Charles replied that, though or denial of the charge." Charles once more urged he knew not the fornis of law, he knew law and that he could not acknowledge a new court, or reason: that he knew as much law as any gentle- alter the fundamental laws. Bradshaw replied, man in England, and was therefore pleading for “Sir, this is the third time that you have publicly the liberties of the people more than his judges disowned this court, and put an affront upon it. were doing. He again went on to deny the lega- How far you have preserved the liberties of the lity of the court, and Bradshaw again interrupted people your actions have shown. Truly, sir, him; and this was repeated many times. At last | men's intentions ought to be known by their the president ordered the serjeant-at-arms to re-actions; you have written your meaning in bloody move the prisoner from the bar. “Well, sir," characters throughout this kingdom. But, sir, exclaimed Charles, “remember that the king is you understand the pleasure of the court. Clerk, not suffered to give in his reasons for the liberty record the default. And, gentlemen, you that and freedom of all his subjects.” “Sir," replied took charge of the prisoner, take him back again.' Bradshaw, “how great a friend you have been to “Sir," rejoined Charles, “I will say yet one word the laws and liberties of the people, let all Eng. to you. If it were my own particular, I would land and the world judge." Charles, exclaiming not say any more to interrupt you.” “Sir," re “Well, sir," was guarded forth to Sir Robert plied Bradshaw, “ you have heard the pleasure Cotton's house. The court then adjourned to the of the court, and you are, notwithstanding you Painted Chamber, on Tuesday, at twelve o'clock. I will not understand it, to find that you are before

At the appointed time, sixty-three commis- a court of justice." And then the king went sioners met in close conference in the Painted forth with his guards to Sir Robert Cotton's Chamber, and there resolved that Bradshaw house, where he lay. should acquaint the king that if he continued As early as the 17th of January, the Rump contumacious he must expect no further time. had been advertised, by private letters from This done, the court adjourned to Westminster Scotland, that the parliament there, nemine conHall, and the king was brought in with the ac- tradicente, did dissent from the proceedings of the customed guard. Coke again craved judgment, parliament of England:--1. In the toleration er. censuring the prisoner for disputing the autho- tended to sectaries. 2. In the trial of the king, rity of the court, and the supreme authority and 3. In alteration of the form of government. And jurisdiction of the House of Commons. Brad- upon this day, Tuesday the 23d, the Scottish shaw followed in the same strain, saying, in con- commissioners, the Earl of Lothian and Sir John clusion, “Sir, you are to give your positive and Cheseley, who were in London for the purpose final answer in plain English, whether you be of treating with Charles and the parliament, sent guilty or not guilty of these treasons." Charles, to the speaker of the Rump their solemn protest after a short pause, said, “When I was here against all proceedings for bringing the king to yesterday, I did desire to speak for the liberties trial.' of the people of England : I was interrupted. 1 On the 24th and 25th of January, the fourth desire to know whether I may speak freely or and fifth days of the trial, the court sat in the not ?" Bradshaw replied, that when he had once Painted Chamber hearing witnesses, having depleaded he should be heard at large; and he in- |

1 Whitelock; Rushworth.

termined that, though the king refused to plead, kingdom and the liberty of the subject, certainly they would proceed to the examination of wit- I should have made a particular defence; for by nesses ex abundanti-in other words, only for the that, at leastwise, I might have delayed an ugly further satisfaction of themselves. On the sixth sentence, which I perceive will pass upon me. day, the commissioners were engaged in prepar-1.... I conceive that a hasty sentence, once ing the sentence, having then determined that the passed, may sooner be repented of than recalled; king's condemnation should extend to death. A and truly the desire I have for the peace of the question was agitated as to his deprivation and kingdom and the liberty of the subject, more deposition previously to his execution, but it was than my own particular ends, makes me now at postponed; and the sentence, with a blank for the least desire, before sentence be given, that I may manner of death, was drawn up by Ireton, Har- be heard in the Painted Chanıber before the lords rison, Harry Martin, Say, Lisle, and Love, and and commons.' I am sure what I have to say is ordered to be engrossed.

| well worth the hearing.” Bradshaw told him On the morrow, the 27th of January, and the that all this was but a further declining of the seventh day of this unlawful but memorable jurisdiction of the court, and sternly refused his trial, the high court of justice sat for the last prayer for a hearing in the Painted Chamber, time in Westminster Hall; and the Lord-presi- which is generally, though perhaps very incordent Bradshaw, who had hitherto worn plain rectly, supposed to have related to a proposal for black, was robed in scarlet, and most of the com- abdicating in favour of his eldest son. But one missioners were “in their best habit.” After the of the commissioners on the bench, John Downes, calling of the court, the king came in, as was his a citizen of London, after saying repeatedly to wont, with his hat on; and as he passed up the those who sat near him, “Have we hearts of hall a loud cry was heard of “Justice!-justice! stone ? Are we men ?” rose and said in a trembExecution!-execution!” “This,” says White- ling voice, “ My lord, I am not satisfied to give lock, "was made by some soldiers, and others of my consent to this sentence. I have reasons to the rabble.” One of the soldiers upon guard, offer against it. I desire the court may adjourn moved by a better feeling, said, “God bless you, to hear me,” And the court adjourned in some sir!" Charles thanked him; but his officer struck disorder. After half an hour's absence they all the poor man with his cane. “Methinks,” said returned to their places, and that, too, with a Charles, “the punishment exceeds the offence." | unanimous resolution to send the king to the Bradshaw's scarlet robe, and the solemn aspect of block. Bradshaw cried out, “Serjeant-at-arms, the whole court, convinced the king that this send for your prisoner;" and Charles, who had would be his last appearance on that stage. The passed the tinie in solemn conference with Bishop natural love of life seems to have shaken his Juxon, returned to his seat at the bar. “Sir," firmness and constancy, and as soon as he was at said Bradshaw, addressing him, "you were the bar he earnestly desired to be heard. Brad- | pleased to make a motion for the propounding shaw told him that he should be heard in his of somewhat to the lords and commons for the turn, but that he must hear the court first. peace of this kingdom. Sir, you did in effect Charles returned still more eagerly to his prayer receive an answer before the court adjourned. for a first hearing, urging repeatedly that hasty Sir, the return I have to you from the court is judgment was not so soon recalled. Bradshaw this: that they have been too much delayed by you repeated that he should be heard before judg. already.” After some more discourse to the same ment was given; and then remarked how he had effect, Bradshaw was silent; and then the king, refused to make answer to the charge brought saying that he did not deny the power they had, against him in the name of the people of Eng. that he knew they had quite power enough, again land. Here a female voice cried aloud, “No, not implored to be heard by the lords and commons in half the people.” The voice was supposed to the Painted Chamber. Bradshaw again refused proceed from Lady Fairfax, the Presbyterian in the name of the whole court, and proceeded wife of the lord-general, who still kept aloof, to deliver a long and bitter speech in justification doing nothing; but it was soon silenced; and the of their sentence. He told the fallen king that president continued his speech, which ended in the law was his superior, and that he ought to assuring the king that, if he had anything to say have ruled according to the law; that, as the law in defence of himself concerning the matter was his superior, so there was something that charged, the court would hear him. Charles was superior to the law, and that was the people then said, “I must tell you, that this many a day of England, the parent or author of the law. all things have been taken away from me, but that I call more dear to me than my life, which

1 The Painted Chamber was an apartment in the old royal

palace at Westminster, used as a place of meeting for the lords is my conscience and honour; and if I had a re-l and commons when they held a conference. See an engraving spect to my life more than to the peace of the and more particular notice of it, vol. ii. p. 588.

“Sir," he continued, "that which we are now to speak; expect what justice other people will upon, by the command of the highest court, is to have," gave up his hopeless efforts, and turned try and judge you for your great offences. The away with his guard; and as he went through charge hath called you tyrant, traitor, murderer. the hall there was another cry for justice and (Here the king uttered a startling ‘Hah!') Sir, execution. it had been well if any of these terms might On the evening of the day on which he receivel justly have been spared.” Bradshaw concluded his sentence, Charles entreated the commissioners, his long speech by protesting that in these pro- through the medium, it appears, of Hugh Peters, ceedings all of them had God before their eyes, the republican preacher, to allow him the comand by recommending the repentance of King pany of Bishop Juxon; and this was readily David as an example proper for the king to imi- granted, as was also the society of the only chiltate. Charles then said hurriedly, “I would dren he had in England—the Princess Elizabeth, desire only one word before you give sentence then in her thirteenth, and the Duke of Glouces

-only one word.” Bradshaw told him that ter, in his ninth year. On Monday, the 29th of his time was now past. Again the king pressed January, the house sat early. They passed an that they would hear him a word-at most a very act for altering the style and form of all writs, few words. Bradshaw again told him that he had grants, patents, &c., which benceforth, instead of not owned their jurisdiction as a court; that he bearing the style and title and head of the king, looked upon them as a sort of people met together; were to bear “Custodes libertatis Angliæ auctor. that they all knew what language they received itate parliamenti," &c. The date was to be the from his party. The king said that he knew year of our Lord, and no other. The high court nothing of that, and once more begged to be of justice sat, and appointed the time and place heard; and Bradshaw once more told him that of execution. The king's children came from Siou they had given him too much liberty already, and House to take their last farewell of their father. that he ought to repent of his wickedness, and He took the princess up in his arms and kisze! submit to his sentence; and then, raising his so- her, and gave her two seals with diamonds, ani norous voice, he said, “What sentence the law prayed for the blessing of God upon her, and affirms to a traitor, a tyrant, a murderer, and a the rest of his children, and there was a great public enemy to the country, that sentence you weeping Charles bad ever been an indulgent are now to hear. Make silence! Clerk, read the and tender parent. The last night of all Tas sentence!" Then the clerk read the sentence, spent by the king in the palace of St. James's which was—“For all which treasons and crimes this court doth adjudge that he, the said Charles Stuart, as tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy to the good people of this nation, shall be put to death by severing his head from bis body." Charles raised his eyes to heaven, and said, “Will you hear me a word, sir?" "Sir," replied Bradshaw, “ you are not to be heard after sentence.” Charles, greatly agitated, said inquiringly, “No, sir?" “No, sir, by your favour," rejoined the inflexible pre

FRONT OF THE BANQUETING HOUSE, WHITEHALL - After Hollar, sident. "Guards, withdraw your prisoner." Still struggling to be heard, where he slept soundly for more than four hours Charles said, confusedly, “I may speak after the Awaking about two hours before the dismal darsentence by your favour, sir? I may speak after break of the 30th of January, he dressed himself sentence, ever. By your favour"-- "Hold!" with unusual care, and put on an extra shirt ke cried Bradshaw. “The sentence, sir," stammered cause the season was so sharp. He said, “Death Charles; “I say, sir, I do" . Again Brad- is not terrible to me; and, bless my God, I am shaw stopped him with his determined “Hold!" | prepared." He then called in Bishop Juxo. And then the king, muttering, “I am not suffered


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