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execution; but the lords carried her to an inner though unwillingly, of the ambition of others, apartment, and left her there in great dismay, and that she hoped her fate might serve as a after seeing the door well locked, bolted, and memorable example in after times. She then barred.'
implored God's mercy, caused herself to be disBut before Elizabeth entered the Tower gates robed by her gentlewomen, veiled her own eyes other interesting victims had issued from them with her handkerchief, and laid her head on the to the grave. The Lady Jane Grey, who had block, exhorting the lingering executioner to the been condemned to death three months before, performance of his office. At last the axe fell, was indulging in the hope of a free pardon when and her lovely head rolled away from the body, the ill-managed insurrection broke out. It ap- drawing tears from the eyes of the spectators, pears very evident that Mary had no intention yea, even of those who, from the very beginning, of executing the sentence upon her, but now she were best affected to Queen Mary's cause.? was easily made to believe that the life of the The father of Lady Jane, the Duke of Suffolk, Lady Jane was incompatible with her own safe who had been beaten and taken, like a blunderty; and, in less than a week after Sir Thomas ing schoolboy, and who was not worthy of the Wyatt's discomfiture, she signed the death-war- child whom his ambition and imbecility sacrirant both for Jane and her husband. On the ficed, was tried on the 17th of February. He morning of the 12th of February the Lord Guild- went to Westminster Hall with a cheerful and a ford Dudley was delivered to the sheriffs and very stout countenance, but at his return he was conducted to the scaffold on Tower-hill, where, very pensive and heavy, desiring all men to pray after saying his prayers and shedding a few for him. There was need, for he was condemned tears, he laid his head on the block and died to die the death of a traitor, and there was no quietly. The fate of this young man excited hope of another pardon for this man, whose great commiseration among the people, and as it “facility to by-practices ” had occasioned all or was calculated that that of his wife would make most of these troubles. On the 23d of February, a still greater impression, it was resolved to exe- eleven days after the execution of his daughter cute her more privately within the walls of the and son-in-law, he was publicly beheaded on Tower. Mary showed what she and all Catholics Tower - hill. Other executions and numerous considered a laudable anxiety for the soul of this committals took place while Elizabeth lay in that youthful sacrifice, and Fecknam, a very Catholic state prison. Sir Thomas Wyatt met his fate dean of St. Paul's, tormented her in her last with great fortitude on the ilth of April, sohours with arguments and disputations; but it lemnly declaring in his last moments that neither appears that she was steadfast in the faith which the Princess Elizabeth nor Courtenay was privy she had embraced, and the doctrines of which to his plans. About a fortnight after this exeshe had studied under learned teachers with un- cution, Lord Thomas Grey, brother to the late usual care. On the dreadful morning she had Duke of Suffolk, was beheaded on Tower-hill; the strength of mind to decline a meeting with and a little later, the learned William Thomas, her husband, saying that it would rather foment late clerk of the council, who had attempted suitheir grief than be a comfort in death, and that cide in the Tower, was conveyed to Tyburn, and they should shortly meet in a better place and there hanged, headed, and quartered. more happy estate. She even saw him conducted Several times Elizabeth fancied that her last towards Tower-hill, and, with the same settled hour was come. Early in the month of May the spirit that was fixed upon immortality, she beheld constable of the Tower was discharged of his his headless trunk when it was returned to be office, and Sir Henry Bedingfield, a bigoted and buried in the chapel of the Tower. By this time cruel man, was appointed in his stead. This new her own scaffold, made upon the green within constable went suddenly to the fortress with 100 the verge of the Tower, was all ready; and almost soldiers: the princess, marvellously discomforted, as soon as her husband's body passed towards asked of the persons about her whether the Lady the chapel the lieutenant led her forth, she being Jane's scaffold were taken down or not, fearing “in countenance nothing cast down, neither her that her own turn was come. The circumstance eyes anything moistened with tears, although her of Bedingfield's appointment seemed very susgentlewomen, Elizabeth Tilney and Mistress He- picious: seventy years before Sir James Tyrrel len, wonderfully wept.” She had a book in her had been suddenly substituted for Sir Robert hand, wherein she prayed until she came to the Brackenbury, and in the night of mystery and scaffold. From that platform she addressed a horror that followed Tyrrell's arrival in the few modest words to the few by-standers, stat- Tower, the two princes of the house of York ing that she had justly deserved her punishment had disappeared, and, as it was generally befor suffering herself to be made the instrument, lieved, had been savagely murdered in their bed. I Holinshed, from For
? Bishop Godwin; De Thou.
But Elizabeth's fears were groundless; her sister cumstance which did not seem exactly calculated had no intention of taking her life; and a few to give him confidence. The Lord-admiral of days after, on the 19th of May, the royal captive England fired at the Spanish navy when Philip was conveyed by water from the Tower to Rich was on board, because they had not lowered their mond: from Richmond she was removed to topsails as a mark of deference to the English Windsor, and from Windsor to Woodstock, where navy in the narrow seas. Four days after his
arrival the prince travelled to Winchester, and there he was met on the following morning (it being a wet day), by his mature bride Mary, who took no pains to conceal her impatience, being enabled in her conscience to plead her anxiety for a legitimate and holy Roman succession as the only means of securing the faith in England. They had a long familiar talk, and, on the feast of St. James, the titular saint of Spain—their nuptials were celebrated at Winchester with great pomp.
Mary had summoned parliament some three months before her husband's arrival: both houses showed that they were still jealous of the Spaniard, and they adopted
further precautions to prevent she was finally fixed under the vigilant eyes of his ruling as a king in England. Philip brought the severe and suspicious Bedingfield. Six days large sums of money with him; but even money after her liberation, Courtenay, Earl of Devon, could not win him the good-will of the corrupt was delivered out of the Tower and sent down courtiers. In a word, no one loved him but to Fotheringay Castle, where he was watched Mary; and the fondness of a sick and exceswith equal vigilance. Meanwhile preparations sively jealous wife was anything but agreeable. were making for the queen’s marriage, and the He soon showed her the real motives of his marpeople of London occasionally gave unequivocal riage, which were, to become absolute master of proofs of their hatred of it, and of the changes England, to wear the crown as if in his own introduced in the national religion. On one Sun-right, and to dispose of all the resources of the day in June, as Dr. Pendleton was preaching Pa- country in his schemes of aggrandizement on the pistry at Paul's Cross, he was shot at and nearly Continent. Though a bigot, he was certainly killed. A little before, the court and clergy were less anxious about the question of religion. Mary greatly enraged at finding a cat, with her head would have gratified him at the sacrifice of the shorn and dressed like a Roman priest, hanged interests and liberties of her people: she sumon a gallows in Cheapside; and a little after, a moned a new parliament, and neglected no means still more violent excitement was produced by a likely to render it compliant. The Spanish gold poor wench who played the part of a spirit, and was distributed with a liberal hand; and, imitatanticipated some of the impositions of the Cock ing the precedent of former reigns, she wrote Lane ghost, "expressing certain seditious words circular letters, commanding and imploring that against the queen, the Prince of Spain, the mass, the counties and boroughs would return such confession, &c.""
members as were wholly devoted to her interests On the 19th of July, Philip, Prince of Spain, and pleasures. This parliament met at Westarrived in Southampton Water. As the Count minster on the 12th of November: the lords of Egmont, one of his ambassadors, had been being as subservient as ever-the commons conviolently assaulted some short time before by sisting wholly of Catholics or of men indifferent the people, who took him for his master, Philip to the great question of religion. Both houses came well attended with a body-guard and troops, were ready to second the queen's bigotry, always and he lingered a few days at the place of his with the old exception that she should by no disembarkation, as if in order to ascertain the means force them to surrender the temporal bumour of the nation. There was a little cir- fruits of their late schism. In the preceding par
liament, Mary had thought it prudent to retain VOL. II.
the title of Supreme Head of the Church; but to support her husband and the emperor in their now she resolved to obtain a repeal of the act wars with France. Philip found it necessary to passed in the time of her father, which irrevoca- court popularity, and recommended the release bly annexed that title to the crown. The jealous of some of the most distinguished of the prisoners possessors of abbey lands and monastic property in the Tower. The handsome Earl of Devon saw a long way beyond this mere renunciation received permission to travel on the Continent, of a title; and they would not repeal the Act of but he died soon after (in 1556) at Padua.? Supremacy, until the queen caused to be sub- In her exceeding anxiety for issue, Mary mismitted to them the pope's explicit confirmation took the commencement of a dropsy for the sure of the abbey lands to their new proprietors, which sign of pregnancy; and when Cardinal Pole was confirmation had been conceded from a convic- introduced to her on his happy return to England, tion that he must either receive the English peni- she fondly fancied that the child was quickened, tents on their own terms or lose them altogether. even as John the Baptist leaped in his mother's The pope's confirmation was delivered through womb at the salutation of the Virgin! On the Cardinal Pole, the new legate for England, whose 27th of November the lord-mayor of London, with attainder had been reversed by the present par- the aldermen all in scarlet, assembled according liament. With their minds thus set at ease as to to commandment in St. Paul's Church at nine their goods and chattels,' both houses were won- o'clock in the morning, and in a great fog or mist. derfully compliant in matters of faith. They Dr. Chadsey, one of the prebends, preached in the listened with contrite countenances to an invita choir in the presence of Bonner, Bishop of London, tion from the lord-cardinal to return to the bosom and nine other bishops; and, before he began, he of holy mother church; they voted an address to read a letter from the queen's council, the tenor Philip and Mary, acknowledging their repentance whereof was, that the Bishop of London should of the schism in which they had been living, de- send out certain forms of prayer,' wherein, after claring their readiness to repeal all laws enacted thanksgiving to God for his great mercies to this in prejudice of the only true church, and implor- kingdom in giving hopes of an heir to the crown, ing their majesties and the lord-cardinal to inter- and infusing life into the embryo, they should cede with the pope for their absolution and for- pray for the preservation of the queen and the giveness. Gardiner presented this petition to infant, and for her happy delivery, and cause Te Pole, and Pole, in the name of the pope, forth- Deum to be sung everywhere. But the business with gave full absolution to the parliament and did not end at St. Paul's Church: it was taken up whole kingdom of England; and this being done, in both houses of parliament, and it gave great they all went to the royal chapel in procession, occupation to the whole court.
“ For then, singing Te Deum. Without the least hesitation says Godwin,“ by parliament many things were parliament revived the old brutal laws against enacted concerning the education of the babe; heretics, enacted statutes against seditious words, and much clatter was elsewhere kept about preand made it treason to imagine or attenipt the parations for the child's swaddling-clothes, cradle, death of Philip during his marriage with the and other things requisite at the delivery; until, queen. But when Mary's minister proposed that in June in the ensuing year, it was manifested Pbilip should wear, if not the royal, at least the that all was little better than a dream.” The matrimonial crown, they showed a resolute op- parliament, in fact, passed a law, which, in case position, and the queen was obliged to drop the of the queen's demise, appointed Philip protector project of his coronation, as well as that of getting during the minority of the infant; but this was him declared presumptive heir to the crown. all that could be obtained in favour of the susNor was she more successful when she attempted pected Spaniard; and shortly after Mary disto obtain subsidies from the commons, in order solved the parliament in ill-humour.'
: Michele, the Venetian ambassador, says that the English in one of the most ancient and illustrious in Europe, see Gibbon's general would have turned Jows or Turks, if their sovereign Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, chap. Ixi. pleased; but the restoration of the abbey lands by the crown 3 Several of the prayers used on this occasion have been prekept alive a constant dread among all those who possessed served. They were composed by different priests, who nearly church property. The restitution of the church lands, which all thought it necessary to pray that the child might be a male had been in the hands of the crown, cost Mary £60,000 a-year of child, "well-favoured and witty," with strength and valour to her revenue.
keep down the heretics. ? Ambassades de Noailles; Stow; Holinshed; Godwin: Michele, 4 It appears from Mary's will, which was dated the 30th of Relazione; Strype; Burnet; Nares' Memoirs of Lord Burghley.-- April, 1558, or about seven months before her death, that, down The title of Courtenay, Earl of Devon, remained dormant, from to that time, she was confident of being enceinte, for she made a the death of this young nobleman, for nearly three centuries, till provision for settling the crown on her issue. -Sir Frederick the claim to the inheritance of the honour was established in 1831 Madden, Privy Purse Expenses of the Princess Mary; Introul. He by the present earl. For the history of the house of Courtenay, moir and Copy of Will in Appendix.