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agreed to make to them before Montreuil came gagement was made by Montreuil with the Scotfrom Oxford (of which Montreuil told me the tish commissioners; but, if such an engagement sum), but would not give anything under their had ever been made, Clarendon himself shows hands. I desired, to avoid mistakes, that the par- that Charles placed no confidence in that engageticulars might be set down in writing, lest I ment; for he tells us that the king lurked about should afterwards be charged with making a false the country “purposely to be informed of the relation, and so he (Montreuil) set the proposi-condition of the Marquis of Montrose, and to find tions down in writing :-1. That they should re- some secure passage that he might get to him." ceive the king on his personal honour. 2. That The fact appears to be, that Charles diverged they should press the king to do nothing contrary from the northern route and went into the eastto his conscience. 3. That Mr. Ashburnham andern counties on purpose to find some vessel an I should be protected. 4. That, if the parlia- that coast wherein to escape to Scotland, and that ment refused, upon a message from the king, to he was deterred from the voyage by the risk and restore the king to his rights and prerogatives, danger of trusting himself to that element on they should declare for the king, and take all the which the parliament of England rode triumking's friends under their protection; and if the phantly as masters. A frail vessel, one or two parliament did condescend to restore the king, great shot, or a storm, might have terminated the then the Scots should be a means that not above career of this unbappy prince without the closfour of them (the king's friends) should suffering scenes at Whitehall. A man who had lived banishment, and none at all death. This done, in the midst of perils, and had through many a the French agent brought me word that the Scots year faced them all, and revelled in them, was seriously protested the performance of all these, appalled by somewhat similar dangers, and preand sent a little note to the king to accept of ferred surrendering himself to his oldest or greatthem, and such security as was given to him in est enemies; and, just as Napoleon went on boant the king's behalf.”
the Bellerophon, did Charles go to the Scottish This, be it remembered, is simply the statement camp-because he could go nowhere else--be of Hudson, a most enthusiastic royalist, who had cause every other possible way of proceeding thrown aside Bible and cassock for sword and seemed infinitely more dangerous. breastplate, and who delivered this confession to Hudson, continuing his report, says, “I canne the parliament of England at a moment when to the king on Tuesday, and related all, and be that body was prepared to receive any evil im- resolved next morning to go to them; and so pressions against the Scots, and when the royalists upon Tuesday morning we all came to Southwell were still hoping to profit by the jealousies and to Montreuil's lodgings, where some of the Seots dissensions existing between the English com-commissioners came to the king, and desired bim mons and the Scottish commissioners. But, even to march to Kelham for security, whither we taking Hudson's words for all these particulars, went after dinner. This happened on the 5th of what does this story amount to? Simply to this May. “Many lords," says Ashburuham, " came - that Montreuil told him such and such things, instantly to wait on his majesty with professions and that the Scots told him nothing. The assu- of joy to find that he had so far honoured their rance was not given under the hands of the Scot- army as to think it worthy his presence after tish commissioners-even according to Hudson, so long an opposition.” On this point, as on they absolutely refused to give anything of the others, there are discrepancies between the ac kind—but it was given, as he says, by Montreuil, count given by Ashburnham and the narrative who committed the particulars, or “set the pro- of Clarendon. The latter goes on to say, “The positions down, in writing." But even this paper great care in the (Scottish) army was, that there of Montreuils, so important, if true, has nowhere might be only respect and good manners showel been preserved, while great care has been taken towards the king, without anything of affection of documents relating to this negotiation of far or dependence; and therefore the general Deret less consequence. A doubt, therefore, may be asked the word of him, or any orders, nor wil fairly entertained whether Montreuil ever really lingly suffered the officers of the army to resort wrote any such paper; and in no part of his to, or to have any discourse with his majesty. correspondence with his own court does he ever And once, it appears, when the king ventured to pretend to have received any such formal agree- give the word to the guard, old Leslie, or Leren, ment. But again, was Charles so inexperienced interrupted him, saying, "I am the older soldier, and single-minded a person as to pin his faith to Sir; your majesty had better leave that office or rely upon such a document as this which Hud- to me." son says he received from the French envoy? In the meantiine the king's motions were kept Clarendon, nearly always a prejudiced authority, so secret that none could guess whither be wa has been quoted as proving that a formal en- gone; but it was generally reported that he was
gone for London, and Fairfas, who had now , parliaments of both kingdoms, or their commisdrawn up his army before Oxford, sent notice to sioners authorized for that effect. Trusting to that effect to the two houses, who, on Monday, ! our integrity, we do persuade ourselves that none May the 4th, only the day before Charles reached | will so far misconstrue us as that we intended to the Scottish camp, caused an order to be pub- make use of this seeming advantage for promotished by beat of drum and sound of trumpeting any other ends than are expressed in the throughout London and Westminster, to this ef- Covenant, and have been hitherto pursued by us fect:-" That it be, and is hereby declared by the with no less conscience than care. And yet, for lords and cominons in parliament assembled, that further satisfaction, we do ingenuously declare what person soever shall harbour and conceal, that there hath been no treaty nor capitulation or know of the harbouring or concealing of the betwixt his majesty and us, nor any in our king's person, and shall not reveal it immediately names, and that we leave the ways and means of to the speakers of both houses, shall be pro- peace unto the power and wisdom of the parReeded against as a traitor to the commonwealth, liaments of both kingdoms." They appealed to forfeit his whole estate, and die without mercy." Heaven as a witness of their good faith and of Two days after this—that is, on the 6th of May- their honest and single desire to advance the the two houses received intelligence of the king's public good and common happiness of both kingbeing in the Scots army by means of letters from doms. They said they had written to the comColonel Poyntz, and from their commissioners mittee of estates of Scotland upon the great busibefore Newark. The commons hereupon voted: ness of the king's going among them: and that _* 1. That the commissioners and general of the they at last hoped, after a seed-time of many Scots army be desired that his majesty's person afflictions, to reap the sweet fruits of truth and be disposed of as both houses shall desire and peace. direct. 2. That his majesty be thence disposed of On the same day on which this letter was writand sent to Warwick Castle. 3. That Mr. Ash- ten, Charles ordered the Lord Bellasis, the new burnham and the rest of those that came with governor of Newark, to surrender that important the king into the Scots quarters should be sent place; and, also on the same day, Newark, with for as delinquents by the serjeant-at-arms at the castle, forts, and sconces thereunto belonging, tending the said house, or his deputy; and that was surrendered to the committee of both kingthe commissioners for the parliament of England doms, for the use of the parliament of England. residing before Newark should acquaint the Scots Charles had offered to surrender the place to the general with these votes, and also make a narra- Scots, which would have made a fresh garboil, tive of the manner of the king's coming into the but Leven told him that, to remove all jealousies, Boots army, and present it to the house." While it must be yielded to the parliament of England. the houses were thus voting, old Leslie and the Clarendon says that Charles's readiness on this Boottish commissioners were employed in writing occasion proceeded from his fear that Fairfax
very devont letter of explanation to the Eng- might be ordered to relinquish all other enterih parliament. “The king," they said, “came prises, "and to bring himself near the Scottish into our arniy yesterday in so private a way that, army, they being too near together already.” It after we had made search for him, upon the sur- is said, indeed, that the English commons at one mises of some persons who pretended to know moment entertained the notion of throwing forhis face, yet we could not find him out in sundry ward Oliver Cromwell with the entire mass of houses. They declared that they never expected their cavalry, in order to fall upon the Scots by he would have come to them, or into any place surprise, and to take the king away from them nder their power. Next they said—“We con- by force; but in effect they only detached Poyntz, eived it not fit to inquire into the causes that who, with a party of horse and dragoons, folpersuaded him to come hither, but to endeavour lowed the Scots, and watched them on their that his being here might be improved to the march northward from the Trent. best advantage, for promoting the work of uniformity, for settling of religion and righteousness,
Rushworth. This letter is dated "Southwell, May the 6th, and attaining of peace according to the League s. D.. Hume, Sir T. H. Carre, R. of Freeland, W. Glendowyn,
| 1646," and signed “Leven, Dunfermling, Lothian, Belcarris, and Covenant and treaty, by the advice of the John Johnston"
CHAPTER XVI.-CIVIL AND MILITARY HISTORY.-A.D. 1646-1649.
Charles tampers with the Scots—His attempts to conciliate the parliament-Proposals made to him by the par
liament-His refusal—The Scottish army in England paid and dismissed–They deliver up Charles to the parliament- Ascendency of Presbyterianism in England -Mutinous condition of the army-Its cause identified with Independency-Petition of the soldiers to parliament—Their appointment of adjutators—Cromwell's intrigues with the army—The army secures possession of the king's person-It advances upon London to overthrow the Presbyterian government-Proposals of the officers to parliament-Double-dealing of Charles with the contendiug parties—Republicanism coming into favour-Alarming designs of the soldiers on the king-He makes his escape from Hampton Court-His apprehension and imprisonment in the Isle of WightMutiny among the soldiers suppressed by Cromwell-Four propositions made by parliament to the kingCharles rejects them--He resolves on a secret treaty with the Scots-His unsuccessful attempt to escape from the Isle of Wight-Alarm in London at the king's treating with the Scots-A popular tumult-Risings of the royalists, and their suppression—The Scots rise in support of royalty and Presbyterianism— Their arny enters England and is defeated— The Earl of Holland attempts a rising for the king-He is defeated-In difference of Prince Charles to the captivity of his father—The parliament attempts a new treaty with Charles --Cromwell breaks the negotiation by seizing the king's person—The army enters London—"Pride's Purge." by which the parliament is cleared of Presbyterianism - The residue called “the Rump"-Charles reinovel to confinement in Windsor Castle-Resolution of the parliament to bring Charles to trial—The Independents erect a high court for the purpose-Demeanour of Charles before the court-The charges—The king's answers
-He disclaims the authority of the court-Particulars of the trial during seven days—His sentence-His last interview in prison with his family–His behaviour on the scaffold-His execution.
EWCASTLE was now the seat of “being informed that their armies were marehthe war, for “wars are not only ing so fast up to Oxford as made that no fit place carried on by swords and guns, but for treating, he did resolve to withdraw himself tongues and pens are co-instrumen- hither, only to secure his own person, and with tal; which, as they had been too no intention to continue this war any longer, or
much employed formerly, were not make any division between his two kingdoms. idle now." The king sounded some of the officers And,” continued this practised dissembler, who of the Scottish army, and offered David Leslie, the now spoke as if he had made up his mind to give general of the horse, the title of Earl of Orkney, up the question of Episcopacy, "since the settling if he would consent to espouse his cause and unite of religion ought to be the chiefest care, his mawith Montrose; but this project, considering the jesty most earnestly and heartily recommends to temper of that Covenanting soldiery, must always his two Houses of Parliament, all the ways and have been a hopeless one, and it came to nothing. means possible for speedily finishing this pious The committee of estates at Edinburgh, the cham- and necessary work; and particularly that they pions of the Covenant, despatched Lanark, Lou- take the advice of the divines of both kingdoms don, and Argyle, to Newcastle, to look after both assembled at Westminster." As for the militia the king and the army; and these noblemen, after of England, his majesty was well pleased to have telling Charles in the plainest manner that he it settled as was offered in the treaty at Uxbridge. must take the Covenant, or expect no important concerning the wars in Ireland, and every other service from them—that he must not imagine that point whatsoever, he promised to comply with they would temporize with this great measure, his parliament. About three weeks later, on the or be put off with promises-required of him, in 10th of June, he sent another message to the two the first instance, to do all that in him lay to put houses, expressing his earnest desire for the endan end to the civil war in Scotland by ceasing ing of this unnatural war, and requesting that all connection or correspondence with Montrose. he might be permitted to come to London with And at their instance he sent a positive order to safety, freedom, and honour. And on the same the hero of Kilsyth to disband his forces and re- day he signed a warrant to the governors of Os. tire to France.
ford, Lichfield, Worcester, and Wallingford, and About the same time, the king sent a very to all other commanders of towns, or castles, or soft message to the two houses, stating, that, forts, to surrender upon honourable terms. Most
of these few places, however, had surrendered 1 The Perfect Politician, or a full View of the Life and Actions (Military and Civil) of Oliver Cromwell.
| alreally. Even Oxford had proposed to treat #3
early as the 17th of May, which was one day | dropped all projects of hostility, and to agree before the king's first message to parliament. with every desire that was expressed. But at The commons, however, considered the terms de- the same time he managed to continue his secret manded as much too high, and so ordered Fair-correspondence with the Papists in Ireland, and fax to prosecute the siege; and the place did not others, devising the most desperate if not the surrender until the 24th of June, when very | most ridiculous plans for resuming hostilities by liberal terms were granted by the parliamenta- means of the Papists and of French armies to be rians. Prince Rupert and Prince Maurice re- brought over to England. We cannot possibly ceived their passports and took shipping at Dover. mention half the wild schemes that were enCharles's second son, James, the young Duke of tertained at Newcastle and at Paris, between York, was brought up from Oxford to St. James's the going of Charles to the Scots' quarters and Palace. Ragland Castle was stoutly defended by his delivery over to the English; but one of the the Marquis of Worcester. But at last, on the most striking of them was, that Montrose, whom 19th of August, Ragland was surrendered. In the king had ordered to lay down bis arms, should the same month of August the town of Conway be recalled to head a fresh insurrection in the was taken by storm; the strong castle of Conway Highlands, and take the command of fresh hordes surrendered in a few days after, as did also Flint from Ireland. Castle, and all other places in Wales.
On the 23d of July the final propositions of Meanwhile the Scots at Newcastle were labour-parliament were presented to Charles at Newing hard to make the king take their Covenant. castle by the Earl of Pembroke, the Earl of DenCharles thought that he might take it with a bigh, and the Lord Montague of the peers, and mental reservation, but having some scruples, or six members of the House of Commons; the comwishing for the countenance of a leading church- missioners of the parliament of Scotland being man, he sent "a case of conscience" to Dr. Jux- present and consenting to them. “The lords on, Bishop of London. After declaring that no and commons, commissioners of the parliament persuasions and threatenings should make him of England,” says May, “stayed long with the change Episcopal into Presbyterian government, king at Newcastle, humbly entreating him that the king said to the bishop_“But I hold myself he would vouchsafe to sign and establish those obliged by all honest means, to eschew the mis- propositions, being not much higher than those chief of this too visible storm, and I think some which had been offered to his majesty at Uxkind of compliance with the iniquity of the times bridge when the chance of war was yet doubtful. inay be fit, as my case is, which at another time The same thing did the commissioners of the were unlawful. .... I conceive the question to parliament in Scotland humbly entreat. ..... be whether I may with a safe conscience give But daily he seemed to take exception at some way to this proposed temporary compliance, with particulars, whereby time was delayed for some a resolution to recover and maintain that doc- months, and the affairs of both kingdoms much trine and discipline wherein I have been bred. retarded, which happened at an unseasonable The duty of my oath is herein chiefly to be con | time, when not only dissensions between the two sidered; I flattering myself that this way I bet nations about garrisons, money, and other things, ter comply with it, than being constant to a flat were justly feared, but also in the parliament of denial, considering how unable I am by force to England and city of London, the divisions were obtain that which this way there wants not pro- then increasing between the two factions of the hability to recover, if accepted (otherwise there Presbyterians and the Independents, from whence is no harm done); for, my regal authority once the common enemy began to swell with hopes settled, I make no question of recovering Episco- not improbable. And this, perchance, was the pal government, and God is my witness my chief-cause of the king's delay."? est end in regaining my power is to do the church Many men that did not love the king personservice."
ally, but that loved monarchy, implored him to acIt has been judged, from the fact of Charles's cept the propositions as the only means of saving not pursuing the line of conduct so ingeniously the throne. Others used prayers, mingled with hinted at, and also from the honest straightfor- threats. The Earls of Argyle and Loudon beward character of Juxon, that the bishop's an- sought him on their knees, but all in vain. Then swer, which has not been preserved, was frank Loudon, now Chancellor of Scotland, told him and honest, like that which he had given when that his assent to the propositions was indispenconsulted about the execution of the Earl of sable for the preservation of his crown and kingStrafford. The king, however, listened or pre-doms-that the danger and loss of a refusal would tended to listen to the arguments of the Presby- be remediless, and bring on a sudden ruin and terian divines and teachers, and appeared to bave destruction of the monarchy. The noble Scot Sir Henry Ellis' Collection.
? Brev. Hist. Part.
continued with increasing energy:—“The dif- sioners in London presented a spirited paper to ferences betwixt your majesty and parliament the English House of Lords, demanding imme(known to no man better than yourself) are at diate payment, or an instalment with security this time so high that (after so many bloody for the remainder. The lords communicated this battles) no composure can be made, nor a more paper to the commons, who, taking the same into certain ruin avoided, without a present pacifica- consideration, ordered that the sum of £100,000 tion. The parliament are in possession of your should be provided forthwith for the Scottish navy, of all the towns, castles, and forts of Eng- army, and appointed a committee to audit and land; they enjoy, besides, sequestrations and your settle the whole money account. The Scots de revenue." But Charles would not sign, and he manded £600,000; but after some debate, their was as deaf to the gentler representations of commissioners agreed to take £400,000, of which others as to the rough eloquence of Loudon," one-half was to be paid before the army left
On the same day that the parliament commis- England or gave up the places they garrisoned. sioners arrived at Newcastle, there came a new This bargain was fully concluded four months ambassador from France to implore the king to before the Scots delivered up Charles, and duraccept the propositions, and to present to him letters from the queen, who prayed to the same effect. Edinburgh and other Scottish cities sent tender petitions to his majesty imploring him to take the Covenant, and save himself and his royal progeny; but all was of no avail. After receiving several communications from their commissioners, parliament gave their thanks to those noblemen and gentlemen, and appointed a
TIGTE committee to give the same thanks to the Scottish commissioners who had acted with them at Newcastle. In the course of this debate in the house a Presbyterian
ANDERSON PLACE, NEWCASTLE member exclaimed, “What
The house where Charles I. was delivered to the Parliamentary Commissioners will become of us now that the king has refused our propositions?" "What ing the interval they had never ceased to nege would have become of us if he had accepted tiate in his favour. them ?" rejoined one of the Independents.
On the 11th of December, the Scottish parlisOn the 19th of May, without any settlement ment voted that the kingdom of Scotland could of the heavy pecuniary claims the Scots had upon not lawfully engage on the king's side even if he them, the House of Commons had voted that were deposed in England, seeing that he would be England had no longer any need of the Scottish take the Covenant, or give any satisfactory answer army. The Scots on their side reminded the to the propositions tendered to him for peace English of how much they and the cause of liberty Furthermore, that parliament declared that the had owed to their well-timed assistance; and king should not be permitted to come into Sot they called aloud for a settlement of accounts, land, or that, if he came, his royal fanctions the parliament having agreed to subsidize them should be suspended. Seeing that all the hopes be previously to this their second coming into Eng- had built on the Scotch foundation were annis land. King or no king in their hands, the Scots lated, Charles would have flown from the Pres would have claimed their money; but it is poss ? This house, the view of which is taken from an ki gent sible that, without that security, the payment the King's Collection, British Museum, has now been used would have been neither so prompt nor so libe
From being the residence of Charles during his shade as de
castle, it formerly was called the King's Lodging to the ral. The pride of the Scots was incessantly irri
wards, on coming into the possession of Major Anciers, sans tated, but their prudence was stronger than their the name of Anderson Place. Previous to its dentis pride. On the 12th of August their commis
1836, there existed here the remains of a large condutas
passed through the town wall, and by which, agoonlig to be May, Brev. Hist, Parl.; Rushworth.
tradition, the king made an attempt to escape.