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queen's garden and on the hill; the Lord Guild- title of Earl of Devon, to which she added the ford Dudley and his brother were treated more whole of those patrimonial estates which his leciently than they had been; and the Marquis father's attainder had vested in the crown; and of Northampton was set at liberty altogether. when people spoke or whispered of the wisdom This moderation was a matter of marvel in those and fitness of an English queen marrying a great days, nor did the queen fail in making a favour- Euglish nobleman, descended (as she was herself able impression by remitting the subsidy voted by her grandmother) from the royal house of to her brother by the preceding parliament: but York, her countenance relaxed instead of inother circumstances sufficiently indicated that creasing its habitual severity. But the accomMary was determined not only to re-establish plished Earl of Devon soon became suspected of the Roman church, but to prevent the teaching indulging in anti-Catholic notions, and, what was and preaching of the Reformed doctrine. There almost as bad, he betrayed, as is said, a preferwas scarcely by this time a pulpit in the king- ence for the queen's half-sister Elizabeth. If dom that was not silenced; and Gardiner, Bonner, there had been little affection between the royal Tonstal, Day, Heath, Vesey, and others of the ladies before, this circumstance was not likely now restored Catholic bishops, were not likely to to increase it; and a few months after Mary's permit them to be eloquent again. The men of accession, we find Elizabeth retiring to her house Suffolk, whose loyalty had placed her on the of Ashridge in Buckinghamshire, attended by throne, ventured to recal to her mind her solemn Sir Thomas Pope and Sir John Gage, who were promises given to them on that occasion, that appointed by the queen to keep a watchful eye she would not change the Reformed religion as over her. established under her brother. One of these The Emperor Charles, who had been solemnly remonstrants, who was bolder than the rest, was affianced to her himself nearly thirty years before, set in the pillory; the others were brow-beaten was now most anxious to secure the hand of Mary and insulted. Judge Hales, who had defended for his son, the proud, the bigoted, the crafty, the queen's title with a most rare courage, was and cruel Philip, who then happened to be a arbitrarily arrested and thrown into a noisome widower. As Mary consulted her mother's neprison as soon as he showed an opposition to phew in all her difficulties, Charles was enabled these illegal, rash, and dangerous proceedings. I to press this suit for his son with good effect. The upright judge was treated with such severity The imperial ambassadors had constant access, that his body and mind became alike disordered by night as well as by day, to the royal but
- he fell into a frenzy, and attempted suicide by elderly maiden; and one night, within three cutting his throat. He was at length liberated, months after her accession, before any public nebut it was too late; insanity had taken a firm gotiation had taken place, and without so much hold of him, and he terminated his life by drown- as consulting her council, Mary solemnly proing himself.
mised to marry Philip. For some time this enMary, who had been affianced in her infancy gagement was concealed, but when it was whisto the Emperor Charles, to the French king, to pered abroad it excited almost universal disconthe dauphin, and who, in the course of the last tent, for the character of Philip, though not yet two reigns, had been disappointed of several other fully developed in action, was well known; and husbands, now determined to marry, in order, it it was reasonably suspected that the once free appears, to make sure of a Catholic succession. kingdom of England would be wholly enslaved It should seem, however, that she was not wholly and made dependent upon Spain and the emdevoid of the tender passion, for it is said, on peror. With these views the match was odious good authority, that she conceived an affection even to most of the Catholics, whose patriotism for the son of the Marquis of Exeter-murdered rose triumphantly above their bigotry. In the in her father's days—the handsome and accom- face of these feelings it was judged prudent to plished young Edward Courtenay, whom she had proceed slowly and with caution. The match, liberated from the Tower on her first coming to however, was spoken of in parliament, and the London. Upon this kinsman, whose flourishing commons even petitioned against it—a circumyouth and courteous and pleasant disposition de stance which is supposed to have hurried on the lighted the whole court, she lavished many proofs dissolution. of favour: she hastened to restore to him the
Early in January a splendid em
A.D. 1554. Strype: Stow; Holinshed: Godwin; Nares, Life of Lord Burgh- the 14th of the same month, Bishop Gardiner, as
bassy arrived from Spain, and, on ? Prom the age of fourteen to that of twenty-six this victim chancellor, in the presence chamber, made to the of tyranny had been doomed to expiate, in a captivity which lords, nobility, and court gentry, an “oration very threatened to be perpetual, the involuntary offence of inheriting, eloquent," setting forth that the queen's majesty, through an attainted father, the blood of the fourth Edward. d.zin, Memoirs of the Court of Queen Elizabeth.
partly for old amity, and other weighty conside
rations, had, after much suit on the emperor's | men, and forty citizens of good substance, was and Prince of Spain's behalf, determined, with summoned to court, where Gardiner repeated his the consent of the council and nobility, to match oration, desiring them all to behave themselves herself with the said prince “in most godly and like good subjects, with humbleness and rejoicJawful matrimony." After this exordium Gar-ing for so happy an event. On this same day cliner explained the conditions of the treaty, Robert Dudley, one of the sons of the late Duke
of Northumberland, was condemned as a traitor, the Earl of Sussex pronouncing sentence that he was to be drawn, hanged, bowelled, and quar tered.?
But if the treaty of marriage had been tenfold more brilliant in promises, it would have failed in satisfying the English people. Within five days the court was startled by intelligence that Sir Peter Carew was up in arms in Devonshire, resolute to resist the Prince of Spain's coming, and that he had taken the city and castle of Exeter. This news was followed, on the 25th, by intelligence that Sir Thomas Wyatt had taken the field with the same determination in Kent; and the mayor and aldermen, who had so recently been commanded to rejoice and make glad, were now told to shut the gates of the city, and keep good watch and ward, lest the rebels should enter. Sir Thomas Wyatt, son of the poet of that name,
who has been associated in glory with
the Earl of Surrey, was a very loyal knight of STEPHEN GARDINER, Bishop of Winchester. -After Holbein.
Kent, and, apparently, a Papist;' but he had con
ceived a frightful notion of the cruel bigotry and which, to disarm opposition in England, had grasping ambition of the Spanish court. Albeen made wonderfully mild, moderate, and though connected by blood with the Dudleys, he generous on the part of Philip, who, of course, had refused to co-operate with the Duke of would reserve to himself the right of altering it Northumberland in the plot for giving the crown thereafter as he should see occasion and find to Lady Jane Grey, and had even been forward nieans for so doing. It was agreed that though to proclaim Queen Mary in the town of MaidPhilip should have the honour and title of King stone, before knowing that she had been proof England, the government should rest wholly claimed elsewhere. Wyatt appears to have been with the queen, he (Philip) aiding her highness a brave and honest, but rash man; and the main the happy administration of her realms and jority of those who had engaged to co-operate dominions; that no Spaniard or other foreigner with him, from different parts of the kingdom, should enjoy any office in the kingdom; that no were either scoundrels without faith, or cowards. innovations should be made in the national laws, The highest name of all was both: this was the customs, and privileges; that the queen should Duke of Suffolk, Lady Jane Grey's father, who, never be carried abroad without her free consent, to the astonishment of most men, had been libenor any of the children she might have, without rated from the Tower, and pardoned by Queen consent of the nobility (there was no mention Mary. On the 25th of January, the very day made of the commons, nor indeed of the parlia- on which it was known that Sir Thomas Wyatt ment). It was further agreed that Philip, in the had risen in Kent, this duke fled into Warwickunlikely case of Mary's surviving him, should shire, where, with his brothers the Lord John settle upon her a jointure of £60,000 a-year; that Grey and the Lord Leonard Grey, he made prothe male issue of this marriage should inherit clamation against the queen's marriage, and both Burgundy and the Low Countries; and that called the people to arms; “but the people inif Don Carlos, Philip's son by his former marriage, clined not to him." The plan of the conspirashould die and leave no issue, the queen's issue, tors seems to have been, that Wyatt should enwhether male or female, should inherit Spain, deavour to seize the Tower, where Lady Jane Sicily, Milan, and other dominions attached to the and her husband lay, and get possession of the Spanish monarchy! On the next day the lordmayor of London, with his brethren the alder
3 He was a commander at Henry VIII.'s siege of Boulogne, and made himself conspicuous by his daring.
eity of London; that the Duke of Suffolk should the same day on which she made this visit her raise the midland counties, and Carew the west: spirits were cheered by intelligence that the but in execution they proceeded with a misera. Duke of Suffolk had been discomfited in the ble want of concert and arrangement. On thu' midland counties, and that Sir Peter Carew and 29th the uld Duke of Norfolk, with the Earl of his friends had been put to flight in the west.? Arundel, marched from London against Sir Tho- She issued a proclamation of pardon to all the mnas Wyatt, who had advanced to Rochester, and Kentish men with the exception of Sir Thomas taken the castle. When the royalists reached Wyatt, Sir George Harper, and the other genRochester bridge they found it defended with tlemen, offering as a reward to the man that three or four double cannons, and by a numer- should take or kill Wyatt, lands worth £100 ous force of Kentish men. Norfolk sent forward a-year to him and his heirs for ever. On the 3d a herald with a proclamation of pardon to all of February, at about three o'clock in the aftersuch as should quietly return to their homes, but noon, Wyatt and his host (who are differently Wyatt would not permit the herald to read this estimated at 2000 and at 8000 men), marched paper to the people. Norfolk then ordered an from Deptford, along the river side, towards assault; but when five hundred Londoners—the Southwark. Wyatt placed two pieces of artillery trained bands of the city-led by Captain Brett, in battery at the Southwark end of the bridge, reached the head of the bridge, they suddenly and caused a deep trench to be dug between stopped, and their captain, turning round at their the bridge and the place where he was. Conhead, and lowering his sword, said, “Masters, trary to his expectations, the Londoners did not we go about to fight against our native country- throw open their gates, and he had not resolution men of England and our friends, in a quarrel sufficient to attempt an assault by the bridge. anrightful and wicked; for they do but consider He again lost two whole days, and on the morning the great miseries which are like to fall upon us, of the third day the garrison in the Tower if we shall be under the rule of the proud Span- opened a heavy fire of great pieces of ordnance, iards; wherefore, I think no English heart ought culverins, and demi-cannons full against the foot to say against them. I and others will spend of the bridge and against Southwark, and the our blood in their quarrel.” He had scarcely two steeples of St. Olave's and St. Mary Overy. finished, when the band of Londoners turned As soon as the people of Southwark saw this, their ordnance against the rest of the queen's they no longer treated Wyatt as a welcome guest, forces, shouting every one of them, A Wyatt! but, making a great noise and lamentation, they a Wyatt!" At this defection the Duke of Nor entreated him to move elsewhere. Telling the folk and his officers turned and fled, leaving people that he would not have them hurt on his ordnance and all their ammunition behind them. account, he marched away towards Kingston, The Londoners crossed the bridge, and three- hoping to cross the river by the bridge there, fourths of the regular troops, among whom were and to fall upon London and Westminster from some companies of the royal guard, went after the west. It was four o'clock in the afternoon them, and took service with Sir Thomas Wyatt (on the 6th day of February) when he reached and the insurgents. When the intelligence Kingston, and found about thirty feet of the reached London all was fright and confusion, bridge broken down, and an armed force on the especially at the court, where almost the only opposite bank to prevent his passage. He placed person that showed fortitude and composure was his guns in battery, and drove away the troops ; the queen herself. Wyatt ought to have made a with the help of some sailors he got possession of forced march upon London during this conster- a few boats and barges, and repaired the bridge; nation, but he loitered on his way: he did not but it was eleven o'clock at night before these reach Greenwich and Deptford till three days operations were finished, and his men were sorely after the affair at Rochester bridge; and then he fatigued and dispirited. Allowing them no time lny three whole days doing nothing, and allow for rest--for his plan was to turn back upon ing the government to make their preparations. London by the left bank of the Thames, and to The queen, with her lords and ladies, rode from reach the city gates before sunrise—he marched Westminster into the city, where she declared to them on through a dreary winter night. When the mayor, aldermen, and livery, that she meant he was within six miles of London the carriage not otherwise to marry than as her council should of one of his great brass guns broke down, and think both honourable and advantageous to the he very absurdly lost some hours in remounting realm-that she could still continue unmarried, the piece; and so, when he reached Hyde Park as she had done so long—and therefore she it was broad daylight, and the royal forces, comtrusted that they would truly assist her in re- manded by the Earl of Pembroke, were ready to pressing such as rebelled on this account. On
? Several of Carew's party played him false. He escaped to 1 Store : Holiashed; Godwin.
receive him there. Many of Wyatt's followers | the number of fifty persons, which gallowses rehad deserted before he crossed the river at mained standing there a great part of the summer Kingston ; others had lingered behind during following, to the great grief of good citizens, and the night-march ; and, now, many more aban- for example to the commotioners."3 In the course doned him on seeing that formidable prepara- of a few weeks, about fifty officers, knights, and tions were made against him. With great bra- gentlemen were put to death. Twenty-two comvery, however, he resolved to fight his way mon soldiers were sent down to Kent with Brett, through the royal army, still entertaining a con- the captain of the Train-hands, who had deserted fident hope that the citizens would rise in his at Rochester bridge, and they were there executed favour. After a short “thundering with the as traitors, and gibbeted. About sixty were led in great guns," he charged the queen's cavalry, who, procession, with halters about their necks, to the opening their ranks, suffered him to pass with Tilt-yard, where the queen granted them a parizbout 400 of his followers, and then instantly don. About 400 common men, in all, suffered closing in the rear of this weak van-guard, they death between the 7th of February and the 12th cut him off from the main body of the insur- of March, and many were executed afterwards.' gents, who thereupon stood still, wavered, and The day after the breaking out of Wyatt's then took a contrary course. In the meanwhile rebellion was known at court, the queen resolved Wyatt rushed rapidly along Charing Cross and to arrest her half-sister Elizabeth and her former the Strand to Ludgate, which, to his mortifica- favourite, the handsome Courtenay, Earl of De. tion, he found closed against him. In vain he von, who were both suspected (and it is by no shouted “ Queen Mary! God save Queen Mary, means clear that they were falsely suspected) of who has granted our petition, and will have no being partakers in the plot. She sent three of Spanish husband! A part of Pembroke's army her council-Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Edwaru had followed Wyatt in his rapid advance, and, Hastings, and Sir Thomas Cornwallis-with a when he turned to go back by the same road, strong guard, to Ashridge, in Buckinghamshire, he found that he must cut his way through dense where Elizabeth was suffering a real or feigned masses of horse and foot. He charged furiously, sickness. The worthy councillors did not arrive and actually fought his way as far as the Temple. at the manor house till ten o'clock at night; the But there he found that his band was diminished princess bad gone to rest, and refused to see them; to some forty or fifty men, and that further re- but, in spite of the remonstrances of her ladies, sistance was utterly hopeless. Clarencieux rode they rudely burst into her chamber, and carried up to him, persuading him to yield, and not, her in a litter to the capital. The deep interest " beyond all his former madness, surcharge him- she excited among the Londoners alarmed her self with the blood of these brave fellows.” At enemies; and, after undergoing a rigid examinalast Wyatt threw away his broken sword, and tion by the privy council respecting Wyatt's inquietly surrendered to Sir Maurice Berkley, who, surrection and the rising of Carew in the west mounting him behind him, carried him off in -of both of which attempts she protested she stantly to the court.
was entirely innocent—she was dismissed from "The coming of Wyatt to the court being so court in about a fortnight, and allowed to return little looked for, was great cause of rejoicing to to Ashridge. The handsome Courtenay was comsuch as of late before stood in great fear of him.” mitted to the Tower, in spite of his protestations He was immediately committed to the Tower; of innocence. But Elizabeth had scarcely been and a proclamation was made that none, upon liberated when Sir William Sentlow, one of her pain of death, should conceal in their houses any officers, was arrested as an adherent of Wyatt's; of his faction, but should bring them forth im- it was asserted that Wyatt had accused the prinmediately before the lord - mayor and other the cess, and stated that he had conveyed to her in a queen’s justices. “By reason of this proclama- bracelet the whole scheme of his plot; and on the tion, a great multitude of these said poor caitiffs 15th of March she was again taken into custody were brought forth, being so many in number, and brought to Hampton Court. On the Friday that all the prisons in London sufficed not to before Palm Sunday, Bishop Gardiner, chancelreceive them; so that for lack of place they were lor, and nineteen members of the council, went fain to bestow them in divers churches of the down to her from the queen, and charged her said city. And shortly after there were set up directly with being concerned, not only in Wyatt's in London, for a terror to the common sort (be conspiracy, but also in the rebellion of Sir Peter cause the Whitecoats? being sent out of the city, Carew, and declared unto her that it was the as before ye have heard, revolted from the queen's queen's pleasure she should go to the Tower. part to the aid of Wyatt), twenty pair gallows, “Upon Saturday following,” says Holinshed on the which were hanged in several places to (or rather Fox, whose words the old chronicler
* Holinshed: Stow; Grafton: Godarın
The Trained Bands.
here transcribes), “that is, the next day, two This letter, which was much more spirited lords of the council (the one was the Earl of Sus- than might have been expected, particularly if sex, the other shall be nameless) came and certified we reflect that Elizabeth, in all probability, was her grace, that forth with she must go unto the not ignorant of the plan of the rebellion, availed Tower, the barge being prepared for her, and the her nothing. She never received the “only one tide now ready. In heavy mood her grace re- word of answer" for which she humbly craved in quested the lords that she might tarry another a postscript; and upon the morrow, which was tide. But one of the lords replied, that neither Palm Sunday, strict orders were issued throughtide nor time was to be delayed. And when her out London that every one should keep the church grace requested him that she might be suffered and carry his palm ; and while the Londoners, to write to the queen's majesty, he answered that men, women, and children, were thus engaged, he durst not permit that. But the other lord, Elizabeth was secretly carried down to the Tower more courteous and favourable (who was the by water, attended by the Earl of Surrey and the Earl of Sussex), kneeling down, said she should other nameless lord. The barge stopped under have liberty to write, and, as a true man, he Traitors' Gate. Then, coming out with one foot would deliver it to the queen's highness, and bring an answer of the same, whatsoever came thereof." Whereupon she wrote a letter, which has been preserved. She began by referring to some former promises made to her by her sister Mary. She proceeded humbly to beseech her majesty to grant her an audience, that she might answer before herself, and not before the members of the privy council, who might falsely represent her, and that she might be heard by the queen before going to the Tower, if possible; if act, at least before she should be further condemnel. After many protestations of innocence and expressions of her hope in the queen's natural kindness, she told Mary that there was something which she thought and believed her majesty would never know properly unless she heard her with her own ears. She then continued: “I have heard in my time of many cast away, for want of coming to the presence of their prince; and in late days I heard my Lord of Somerset say, that if his brother had been suffered to speak with him, he had never suffered; but the persuasions were made to him so great, that he was brought in to believe that he could not live safely if the admiral lived; and that made him give his consent to his death. Though these persons are
TRAITORS' GATE, TOWER OF LONDON. 2- From a view by Swrer. not to be compared to your majesty, yet I pray God, as (that) evil persuasions persuade not one upon the stair, she said, “Here landeth as true a sister against the other; and all for that they subject, being prisoner, as ever landed at these have heard false report, and not hearkened to stairs; and before thee, O God, I speak it, having the truth known. Therefore, once again, kneel. none other friend but thee alone!" Going a ing with humbleness of my heart, because I am little further, she sat down on a stone to rest not suffered to bow the knees of my body, I herself; and when the lieutenant of the Tower humbly crave to speak with your highness. begged her to rise and come in out of the wet And as for the traitor Wyatt, he might perad- and cold, she said, “Better sitting here than in a venture write me a letter, but, on my faith, I worse place, for God knoweth whither you bring never received any from him. And as for the me.” She evidently apprehended an immediate copy of my letter sent to the French king, I pray God confound me eternally, if ever I sent him transcript among the Harleian manuscripts in the British Mu
Camden's Annals. The original is in the State Paper Office; a word, message, token, or letter by any means; and to this, my truth, I will stand in to my death.”! 2 The Traitors' Gate was entered from the Thames by means
of a boat, and was only used for the admission of important per. Sir Henry Ellis' Collection of Original Letters. Hearne has sonages as state prisoners. The above view is taken from the printed the same letter in his preface to the Latin edition of moat; the opening of the gate towards the river is on the right