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withdrawn their bullion out of the mint, &c. , the citizens rescued the youth, and about a hudStill the lords refused to join. That same even- dred of them coming up so hemmed in the lond ing, being Christmas Eve, the commons ordered | bishop, that he could not stir; and then all of that Sir Thomas Barrington and Mr. Martin them with a loud voice cried out “No bishops ** should that night repair to the Earl of Newport, The mob let old Williams go, apparently without constable of the Tower, and desire him, in the injuring him; but one David Hide, a reformado name of their house, to lodge and reside within in the late army against the Scots, and now apthe citadel, and take the custody and entire care pointed to go upon some command into Ireland, of that place. The two members went, but the began to bustle and to say that he would cut the Earl of Newport was not to be found. The throats of those round-headed dogs that bawled second day after this, being Sunday, the 26th of against bishops. Nor did this David Hide stor December, the lord mayor waited upon his ma- at threats, for he drew his sword, and called jesty to tell him that the apprentices of London upon three or four others with him to secon! were contemplating a rising, to carry the Tower him; but his comrades refused, and he was sur by storm, unless he should be pleased to remove disarmed by the citizens and carried before the his new lieutenant. That same evening Charles House of Commons, who first committed him, took the keys from Colonel Lunsford. On the and afterwards cashiered him. On the same morrow Sir Thomas Barrington reported to the stormy Monday, Colonel Lunsford, the recently commons that the Earl of Newport had been dismissed lieutenant of the Tower, went through with him on Sunday evening, to tell him that Westminster Hall, with no fewer than thirts of the king had discharged him from the constable- forty friends at his back. A fray ensued, the ship of the Tower. This earl, though very ac- colonel drew his sword, and some hurt was done ceptable to the citizens, was odious to the king, among the citizens and apprentices. Presently who, at this moment—this critical moment—had there came swarming down to Westminster some a violent altercation with him, which was re- hundreds more of apprentices and others, with ported to the House of Lords on the same Mon- swords, staves, and other weapons. The loris day morning.

sent out the gentleman usher, to bid them depers All this day the houses of parliament were in the king's name. The people said that they surrounded by tumultuous multitudes—for it were willing to be gone, but durst not, bezalet was not yet publicly known that the king had Colonel Lunsford and other swordsınen in Westremoved Colonel Lunsford. The citizens who minster Hall were lying in wait for them with had petitioned against that officer collected at their swords drawn, and because some of them Westminster for an answer to that petition, and that were going home through Westminster Hail the London apprentices were there also for an had been slashed and wounded by those soldiers answer to their petition. It was a Monday With great difficulty the lord mayor and sheriffa morning, and they made of it a most noisy St. appeased this tumult, which caused the loss of Monday, crying out, “Beware of plots! No some blood, and which was the prelude to the bishops! no bishops!” Old Bishop Williams fiercer battles that soon followed between the seems to have lost his coolness and circumspec-Roundheads and Cavaliers. tion with increase of age. On his way to theHouse of Lords with the Earl of Dover, observ-l Rushworth attributes the origin of the term Roundhead t

this David Hide :-" Which passionate expression," says ing a youth crying out lustily against the bishops,

as far as I could ever learn, was the first minting of the he stepped from the earl, rushed into the crowd,

term or compellation of Roundheads, which afterwards grey and laid hands upon the stripling. Thereupon general."

CHAPTER XIII.-CIVIL AND MILITARY HISTORY.-A.D. 1641–1612.

CHARLES I.

The bishops protest against their exclusion from parliament—They declare the proceedings of the lords null during

their absence-They are committed to the Tower-The commons petition the king for a guard--He offers themi one of his own choosing-He accuses six leaders of the commons of high treason-He commands their arrest He prepares, on the refusal of the house, to secure them by force-His arrival in the house for the purpose -He finds the accused withdrawn-Indignation at his intrusion-He again attempts to secure the members in the city-Petition and remonstrance of the commons on the occasion-Voluntary offers tendered for the protection of the accused members-Charles retires with his family and court from London-He abandons his prosecution of the members-Parliament alarmed by reports of military musters—Their preparations for defence Symptoms of approaching civil war-Proceedings of both parties in the Irish rebellion--The lukewarmness of the lords denounced by the commons--Intercepted letters produced before the conimons-Their contents produce alarm and remonstrance-The queen departs from England - The commons demand the power of the sword to be lodged in their own hands-They pass the Militia bill to that effect-Charles refuses to sanction it-The commons put the kingdom in a state of defence-They proclaim the Militia ordinance in their own name-A Declaration agreed by the lords and commons-Indignant remarks of Charles on receiving it--His abrupt refusal to intrust the militia to parliament-Justification he delivers for his proceedings-His message to the two houses—Their resolutions in consequence-They transmit their justification to the king -Both parties attempt to secure possession of Hull-It is secured for the commous-Intrigues of Charles to recover it-He is refused adinittance into the town—The coinmons approve of the refusal-Reply of the king, and his remonstrance-Counter-remonstrance of parliament-Charles forbids the muster of troops without his order:--The lieutenants of the counties disregard his prohibition-Gathering of the parliamentary army-The English fleet inclined to the popular cause-Charles attempts to win the Scots to his party-They reject his advances—The adherents of the king, and their proceedings-Dilemma occasioned by the application of Charles for the great seal–Clarendon's account of its delivery-Preparations of Charles to besiege HullVine peers enlist themselves on the side of the king—They are impeached by the commons-Proposals from the coinmons of an accommodation rejected by the king.

TO HE thirteen bishops impeached for / very few days before. The other eleven bishops Se their she

their share in the obnoxious can- that signed were Durham, Lichfield, Norwich, St.

ons and Laud's last convocation, Asaph, Bath and Wells, Hereford, Oxford, Ely, A had been admitted to bail, and, Gloucester, Peterborough, and Llandaff. If the

after a short time, to their seats in lords had acquiesced in the views of the petition

the House of Lords. Now, twelve ers, the Long Parliament might have been ended of them drew up a protest and petition to the now, in so far at least as the upper house was king, stating, that they could not attend in their concerned, and the slur of illegality might have places in parliament, where they had a clear and been cast upon all the acts that had been passer! indubitable right to vote, because they had seve- during the last year in the frequent absence of ral times been violently menaced, affronted, and the lords spiritual. The move on the part of the assaulted by multitudes of people, and had lately court was a bold one; but the revolution was now been chased away from the House of Lords, and in progress, and, without even offering to provide put in danger of their lives for all which they for the bishops' safety, so that they might come could find no redress or protection, though they to their house, or be accused of staying away hul lodged several complaints in both houses. wilfully and voluntarily, the lords desired a con* Therefore," continuer the document, “they (the ference with the commons, and denounced the bishops) do in all duty and humility protest be- petition and protest as highly criminal, and subfore your majesty and the peers against all laws, versive of the fundamental privileges and the orders, votes, resolutions, and determinations, as very being of parliament. The commons inin themselves null and of none effect, which in stantly re-echoed the charge, accused these twelve their absence have already passed; as likewise bishops of high treason, and sent Mr. Glynne to against all such as shall hereafter pass in the the bar of the lords, to charge the prelates in the House of Lords, during the time of this their name of the House of Commons, and to desire forced and violent absence,” &c. To the surprise that they might be forth with sequestered from of most men, the first signature to this protest parliament and put into safe custody. “The and petition was that of old Williams, who had : lords sent the black rod instantly to find out the been translated to the archbishopric of York a bishops and apprehend them; and by eight o'clock VOL. II,

169–70

at night they were all taken, and brought upon without delay, as the commons had requested, or their knees to the bar, and ten of them commit- enjoined, but three days after. In the interval ted to the Tower; and two (in regard of their the commons had ordered that halberts should age, and indeed of the worthy parts of one of be provided and brought into the house for their them, the learned Bishop of Durham) were com- own better security. The halberts were brought mitted to the black rod.”! Thus ten more pre- in accordingly, and Rushworth informs us that lates were sent to join Laud in his captivity- they stood in the house for a considerable time twelve votes were lost to the court party in the afterwards. Then, understanding that the lords House of Lords.

would not sit on the morrow, which was New On the last day of this eventful year the com- Year's Day, they adjourned till Monday, the 3d mons sent Mr. Denzil Hollis to the king, with of January, resolving, bowever, that they should what they called an Address to his majesty, pray- meet on the morrow, in a grand committee at ing for a guard, and an answer without delay. Guildhall, leaving another committee at West

minster, to receive his majesty's answer to their petition, if it should come in the meantime.

On the 3d of January the commons, meeting in their usual place, received the kiug's tardy and unsatisfactory answer to their petition for a guard. Charles expressed his great grief of heart at finding, after a whole year's sitting of this parliament, that there should be such jealousies, distrusts, and fears; he protested his ig. norance of the grounds of their apprehension, and he offered to appoint them a guard if they should continue to think one necessary. A guard of the king's appointing was precisely the thing that the commons did not want. While they were debatiug upon the message they received a communication from the lords, the effect of which was galvanic. That morning Herbert, the king's attorney, was admitted into the House of Lords at the request of the lord-keeper, and approach

ing the clerks' table (not the bar), Herbert said DENZIL HOLLIS.-From a print by R. Wbite.

that the king had commanded him to tell their

lordships that divers great and treasonable de Hollis told the king, by word of mouth, that the signs and practices, against him and the state, House of Commons were ready to spend the last had come to his majesty's knowledge. “ For drop of their blood for his majesty, but that they which," continued Herbert, “his majesty hath had great apprehensions and just fears of mis- given me command, in his name, to accuse, and chievous designs to ruin and destroy them; that I do accuse, by delivering unto your lordships there had been several attempts made heretofore these articles in writing, which I received of bis to bring destruction upon their whole body at majesty, the six persons therein named of bigt once, and threats and menaces used against par-treason, the heads of which treason are contained ticular persons; that there was a malignant party in the said articles, which I desire may be read." daily gathering strength and confidence, and now The lords took the articles, and commanded the come to such a height as to imbrue their hands reading of them. They were entitled “Articles in blood in the face and at the very doors of the of high treason, and other high misdemeanours. parliament; and that the same party at his ma- against the Lord Kimbolton, Mr. Denzil Hollis jesty's own gates had given out insolent and Sir Arthur Hazlerig, Mr. John Pym, Mr. John menacing speeches against the parliament itself. Hampden, and Mr. William Strode.” The serAnd in the end Hollis informed him, that it was enth, and the last and most significant article. the humble desire of the commons to have a guard to protect them out of the city, and com ? Rushworth. This establishing a committee in the city befor: manded by the Earl of Essex, chamberlain of his

| the king's violent act of attempting to seize the five members

has been generally overlooked. majesty's household, and equally faithful to his

* The attorney and solicitor-general are legally considered t majesty and the commonwealth. Charles desired be attendants upon the House of Lords, aud bave, as well ** to have this message in writing; the paper was the judges, their regular writs of summons issued out at the be

ginning of every parliament, ad tractandum et cons i spet sent to him accordingly, and he replied to it, not

dendum, though not ad consentienduin, with their lurusluus I Rushcorth.

| Blackstone, Com. i. 168.

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affirmed "that they have traitorously conspired House of Commons; and those gentlemen being to levy, and actually have levied war against the delivered, I am commanded to arrest them, in his king." Lord Kimbolton, who was in his seat, majesty's name, of high treason: their names are stood up, and expressed his readiness to meet Denzil Hollis, Arthur Hazlerig, John Pyn, John the charge, offering to obey whatever the house Hampden, and William Strode.” When he had should order. None of the courtiers had courage delivered this message the house commanded him to move his arrest as a traitor. The lords wav- to withdraw, and sent Lord Falkland, and three ered, stood still, and then appointed a committee, other members, to acquaint his majesty that the consisting of the lord-steward, and the Earls of matter was of great consequence, and that the Essex, Bath, Southampton, Warwick, Bristol, House of Commons would take it into their seand Holland, to consider precedents and records rious consideration, holding the members ready touching the regularity of this accusation, and to answer any legal charge made against them, to discover whether such an accusation might be All this was on the 3d of January. “The brought by the king's attorney into their house next day after that the king had answered the against a peer, &c. Thus they avoided commit-petition of the house (about the guard), being ting themselves, gained time, and no doubt made the 4th of January, 1642,” says May, “he gave, sure that the commons, whom they warned by unhappily, a just occasion for all men to think message, would take the affair upon themselves.' that their fears and jealousies were not causeless." And nearly at the same moment that their mes. He spent the preceding evening in making presage was delivered in the lower house, informa- parations. Arms were removed from the Tower tion was also carried thither that several officers to Whitehall, where a table was spread in the were sealing up the doors, trunks, and papers of palace for a band of rash young men, who were Hampden, Pym, and the other accused members. ready to proceed to extremities for the re-estabC'pon which the commons instantly voted, “That lishment of royalty in its pristine state. Charles if any person whatsoever shall come to the lodg- had determined to charge the five members with ings of any member of this house, and offer to private meetings and treasonable correspondence seal the trunks, doors, or papers of any of them, with the Scots (a case met and provided for by or seize upon their persons, such member shall the amnesty which had been procured both in require the aid of the constable to keep such per- Scotland and England), and with countenancing sons in safe custody till this house do give fur- the late tumults from the city of London; and ther order; and that if any person whatsoever he now resolved to go in person to seize the five shall offer to arrest or detain the person of any members of the House of Commons. On the member without first acquainting this house, it is morning of the 4th the five accused members lawful for such member, or any person, to assist attended in their places, as they had been ordered. him, and to stand upon his or their guard of de- Lord Falkland stated, that he was desired to infence, and to make a resistance, according to the form the house that the serjeant-at-arms had protestation taken to defend the privileges of done nothing the preceding day but what he had parliament."? They also ordered that the ser- it in command to do. Then Hampden rose, and jeant-at-arms attending their house should pro- powerfully repelled the vague accusations which ceed and break open the seals set upon the doors, had been brought against them by the king. If papers, &c., of Mr. Hampden and the rest; and to be resolute in the defence of parliament, the that the speaker should sign a warrant for the liberties of the subject, the Reformed religion, apprehension of those who had done the deed. was to be a traitor, then he acknowledged he The house then desired an immediate conference might be guilty of treason, but not otherwise. with the lords; but before they could receive an Hazlerig followed Hampden. The house being answer, they were told that a serjeant-at-arms informed that it was Sir William Fleming and was at their door, with a message to deliver from Sir William Killigrew, with others, who had bis majesty to their speaker. Forth with they sealed up the studies and papers of the five memcalled in the said serjeant to the bar, making him, bers, ordered that they should be forthwith aphowever, leave his mace behind him. “I am prehended, and kept in the custody of the sercommanded by the king's majesty, my master," jeant-at-arms till further notice. They also voted said the serjeant, "upon my allegiance, to require that a conference should be desired with the of Mr. Speaker five gentlemen, members of the lords, to acquaint them of a scandalous paper,

published with articles of high treason, against Rushworth; Parl. Hist. Clarendon says, “ The House of Perts was somewhat appalled at this alarum, but took time to

in their five members, and the Lord Kimbolton, a consider of it till the next day, that they might see how their masters, the commons, would behave themselves; the Lord kibolton being present in the house, and making great pro. fessions of his innocence: and no lord being so hardy to press

scarcely taken their seats when intelligence was for his commitment on the behalf of the king." ? Whitelock. brought by Captain Langrish, who had passed

the party in the streets, that the king was ad- | the door and in the hall, he entered the house, vancing towards Westminster Hall, guarded by with his nephew Charles, the Prince-palatine his gentlemen pensioners, and followed by some of the Rhine, at his side. He glanced his eyes hundreds of courtiers, officers, and soldiers of towards the place where Pym usually sat, and fortune, most of them armed with swords and then walked directly to the chair, saying, “By pistols. The house was bound by its recent and your leave, Mr. Speaker, I must borrow your solemn protestation to protect its privileges and chair a little." Lenthall, the speaker, dropped the persons of its menubers: there were halberts upon his knee, and Charles took his seat; the and probably other arms at hand; but could they mace was removed; the whole house stood up defend their members against this array, led on uncovered. Charles cast searching glances among by the king in person? Would it be wise, on them, but he could nowhere see any of the five any grounds, to make the sacred inclosures of members. He then sat down and addressed them parliament a scene of war and bloodshed? They with much agitation :-"Gentlemen," said he, "I ordered the five members to withdraw;" to the am sorry for this occasion of coming unto you: end,” says Rushworth, “to avoid combustion in yesterday I sent a serjeant-at-arms upon a very the house, if the said soldiers should use violence important occasion, to apprehend some that upon to pull any of them out.” Four of the members my commandment were accused of high treason, yielded ready obedience to this prudent order, whereunto I did expect obedience, and not a but Mr. Strode insisted upon staying and facing message; and I must declare unto you bere, that, the king, and was obstinate till his old friend albeit no king that ever was in Eugland shall be Sir Walter Earle pulled him out by force, the more careful of your privileges, to maintain them king being at that time entering into New Palace to the utmost of his power, thay I shall be; yet yard, and almost at the door of the house. As you must know, that in cases of treason no perCharles passed through Westminster Hall to the son hath a privilege, and therefore I am come to

| know if any of those persons that I have accused, for no slight crime, but for treason, are here. I cannot expect that this house can be in the right way that I do heartily wish it, therefore I am come to tell you, that I must have them wheresoever I find them.” Then he again looked round the house, and said to the speaker, now standing below the chair, “Are any of those persons in the house? Do you see any of them! Where are they?" Lenthall fell on his knees, and told his majesty that he had neither eyes to see, nor tongue to speak in that place, but as the house was pleased to direct him. Then again casting his eyes round about the house, Charles said, “Well, since I see all the birds are flown, I do expect from you, that you do send them to me, as soon as they return hither. But I assure you, on the word of a king, I never did intend any force, but shall proceed against them in a legal and fair way, for I never meant any other. And now, since I see I cannot do what I came for, I think this no unfit occasion to repeat | what I have said formerly; that whatsoever I have done in favour, and to the good of my subjects, I do mean to maintain it. I will trouble

you no more, but tell you I do expect, as soon as PASSAGE FROM WESTMINSTER HALL TO THE HOUSE OF they come to the house, you will send them to

me; otherwise I must take my own course to entrance of the House of Commons, the officers, find them.” With these words the disappointed reformados, &c., that attended himn made a lane king rose and retired amidst loud cries of “Privion both sides the hall, reaching to the door of lege! privilege !".-and the house instantly adthe commons. He knocked hastily, and the door journed.? was opened to him. Leaving his armed band at That night the city was a gayer place than the

court. Early on the following morning the cont ? From a sketch by J. W. Archer, taken inımediately after the burning of the Houses of Parliament.

2 Rushrcorth: Whitclock.

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COMMONS.

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