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Arundel, who hated him to death, though a little lated on her happy success by Elizabeth. The before he had professed a wish to spend his heart's greater part of her army, which had never exblood in his service. The duke, who was utterly ceeded 13,000 men, and which had never drawn devoid of greatness of mind, fell on his knees a sword, was disbanded; and on the 3d of Anbefore the earl, and abjectly begged for life; but gust, attended by a vast concourse of the nobilArundel, who rejoiced in his ruin and abasement, ity, Mary made her triumphant entrance through carried him off to London and lodged him in the London to the Tower, here the old Duke of Tower, even as Queen Mary had commanded. Norfolk, Edward Courtenay, son to the MarThe Lady Jane, having, “ as on a stage, for ten quis of Exeter, beheaded in the year 1538, Gardays only personated a queen,” was already in diner, late Bishop of Winchester, and Anne, safe custody within those dismal walls; and the Dowager-duchess of Somerset, presented thenEarl of Warwick, Lord Ambrose, and Lord Henry selves on their knees—Bishop Gardiner, in the Dudley, the three sons of the Duke of Northum- name of them all, delivering a congratulatory oraberland; Sir A. Dudley, the duke's brother, the tion, and blessing the Lord, on their owu account, Marquis of Northampton, the Earl of Hunting- for her happy accession. It was, indeed, a time of don, Sir Thomas Palmer, Sir John Gates, his triumph for all of the Catholic party! The queen brother Sir Henry Gates, and Dr. Edwin Sandys, courteously raised them, kissed each of them, vice-chancellor of the university of Cambridge, saying, “These are all my own prisoners,” and who had impugned Queen Mary's rights from gave orders for their immediate discharge from the pulpit, were very soon lodged in the same the Tower. A day or two after, Bonner, late fortress; and two days after these committals Bishop of London, and Tonstal, the old Bishop of Sir Roger Cholmley, lord chief-justice of the Durham, were released from the harsh imprisonKing's Bench, Sir Edmund Montague, chief-jus- ment to which they had been committed by the tice of the Common Pleas, the Duke of Suffolk, Protestant party, and immediate measures were and Sir John Cheke, were added to the list of adopted for restoring them and several of their state prisoners: but on the 31st of July the Duke friends—all zealous Papists—to their respective of Suffolk, Lady Jane's father, was discharged out sees.” of the Tower by the Earl of Arundel, and soon On the 18th of August, John Dudley, Duke of after obtained the queen's pardon. On the 30th Northumberland, his eldest son John, Earl of day of this same busy month, the Lady Elizabeth Warwick, and William Parr, Marquis of Northrode from her palace in the Strand (where she ampton, were arraigned at Westminster Hall, had arrived the night before) through the city where Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, high-steward of of London, and then out by Aldgate, to meet England, the recently liberated captive—the surher sister Mary, accompanied by 1000 horse, of vivor of his accomplished son, the Earl of Surrey knights, ladies, gentlemen, and their servants. --presided at the trial. The Duke of NorthumAt this difficult crisis the conduct of Elizabeth, berland pleaded that he had done nothing but by which is supposed to have been prescribed by Sir the authority of the council, and by warrant of William Cecil-afterwards her own great minister the same under the great seal of England; and Lord Burghley-was exceeding politic, and at the he asked whether any such persons as were same time bold. When waited upon in Hert- equally culpable with him, and those by whose fordshire by messengers from the Duke of Nor- letters and commandments he had been directed thumberland, who apprized her of the accession in all his doings, might be his judges, or sit upon of the Lady Jane, and proposed that she, Eliza- his trial as jurors? The latter query did him no beth, should resign her own title in consideration good: the members of the council averred that of certain lands and pensions, she replied that they had acted under peril—that they had been her elder sister Mary was first to be agreed with, coerced by the duke—and Suffolk (the father of and that, during her lifetime, she could claim no Lady Jane !) Cranmer, Cecil, and the rest, conright to the throne. She determined to make tinued to sit in judgment, and with very little common cause with her sister against those who loss of time proceeded to pass sentence. The were bent on excluding them both; she called duke hesitated at no meanness to avert his doom; around her a number of friends to prevent her but self-prostration was of no avail. When senseizure ; she waited the course of events; and, at tence was passed he craved the favour of such a the right moment, hurried to the capital, whence, death as was usually allowed to noblemen: he as we have seen, she set out, well attended, to besought the court to be merciful to his sons, on welcome Mary and give strength to her party.' account of their youth and inexperience; and

The queen travelled by slow journeys from then, as a last hope of gaining the queen's pardon Norfolk to Wanstead, in Essex, where she ar- by apostasy, he requested that he might be perrived on the 1st of August, and was congratu

Bonner had been a prisoner in the Mari Heylin; Holinshed; Speed; Godwin.

shalsea, Tonstal in the King's Bench.

2 Stow; Godwin.


mitted to confer with some learned divine for the psalms of Miserere and De Profundis, his Pater settling of his conscience, and that her majesty Noster, and six of the first verses of the psalm In would be graciously pleased to send unto him four te, Domine, speravi, ending with, “Into thy hands, of her council, to whom he might discover cer- O Lord, I commend my spirit.” Then bowing tain things that nearly concerned the safety of her towards the block, he said that he had deserved realm. His son, the Earl of Warwick, showed a a thousand deaths, and laying his head over it, higher spirit, hearing his sentence with great his neck was instantly severed. They took up firmness, and craving no other favour than that his body, with the head, and buried it in the his debts might be paid out of his property con- Tower, by the body of his victim the late Duke fiscated to the crown. The Marquis of North- of Somerset, so that there lay before the high ampton pleaded that, from the beginning of these tumults, he had discharged no public office, and that, being all that time intent on hunting and other sports, he had not partaken in the conspiracy; but the court held it to be manifest that he was a party with the duke, and passed sentence on him likewise. On the next day Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John Gates, Sir Henry Gates, and Sir Thomas Palmer, condemned as traitors in the same court.' On Tuesday, the 22d of August, the Duke of Northumberland, Sir John Gates, and Sir Thomas Palmer, were brought forth to Towerbill, for execution. When the duke met Sir John


from his sketch on the spot. Gates he told him that he forgave him with all his heart, although he and altar in St. Peter's Chapel two headless dukes the council were the great cause of his present between two headless queens—the Duke of Somcondition. Gates replied that he forgave the erset and the Duke of Northumberland between duke as he would be forgiven, although he and Queen Anne Boleyn and Queen Catherine Howhis high authority were the original causes of the ard, all four beheaded and interred in the Tower." whole calamity. From the scaffold Northumber- The head of Sir John Gates fell immediately land addressed the people in a long and contrite after that of Northumberland. Gates also made speech, in which he told them that they should a long penitential speech on the scaffold, telling all most heartily pray that it might please God the people that he had lived as viciously and to grant ber majesty Queen Mary a long reign. wickedly all the days of his life as any man ;' After he had spoken to the people, he knelt that he had been the greatest reader and worst down, saying to those that were about him, “1 observer of Scripture of any one living. Sir beseech you all to bear me witness that I die in Thomas Palmer was next beheaded, and in his the true Catholic faith ;" and then he repeated the dying speech he thanked God who had made 1 Heylin; Holinsked; Stow; Strype.

It contains some ancient tombs, the earliest of which is that of : Godwin says that Northumberland spoke and acted thus, Sir Richard Cholmondeley, lieutenant of the Tower in the reign " by the persuasion of Nicholas Heath, afterwards Bishop of of Henry VII. In addition to those illustrious personages menYork." But it was usual (as we have shown repeatedly) to die tioned in the text, there are buried in this chapel, Fisher, in strict conformity to the will of the court.

Bishop of Rochester; Sir Thomas More; Cromwell, Earl of Es. This church was founded by Edward III., and dedicated in sex; Margaret, Countess of Salisbury; Lord-admiral Seymour, the name of “St. Peter in Chains," commonly called “St. Peter of Sudley; the Protector Somerset; Lady Jane Grey, an ad Vincula within the Tower.” The building is simple and with husband, Lord Guildford Dudley; and numerous other persone out ornament, but has been so disfigured by successive altera of historical note tions and additions that little of the original structure remains.

* Stor

6 Holinshed; Stov.


him learn more in one little dark corner of the all these wrongs; a young woman, with a sound Tower, than in all his many travels.

constitution, and its concomitant-a light anri On the day after these executions, Gardiner, cheerful spirit, might have forgotten them graBishop of Winchester, was made chancellor; and, dually in the full sunshine of prosperity; but on the Sunday following, the old Catholic service Mary was thirty-seven years old, an age at which was sung in Latin in St. Paul's Church. It was it is difficult to erase any deep impressions; and fully expected that the active Gardiner, would partly through the effects of long years of grief proceed at once to extremities against the Pro- and fear, and partly through the defects of her testant party; but for a short time there was an original formation, her constitution was shatawful pause. The Emperor Charles, whom she tered, and the ill-humour and moroseness of the consulted on all affairs of importance, strongly confirmed valetudinarian were superadded to the advised the queen to proceed in everything with other fertile causes which were to make her a the utmost caution-to wait the effect of time curse to the nation. and example on the religious faith of her people. This unhappy woman, with an unhealthy mind – to punish only her principal enemies, and to in an unsound body, had all along considered quiet the apprehensions of the rest, who might Cranmer as the greatest enemy of her mother, be driven to desperation by over-severity. Mary whose divorce he had pronounced. After being replied, “God, who has protected me in all my left at large from the day of her entrance into misfortunes, is my trust. I will not show him London to the 14th or 15th of September, the my gratitude tardily and in secret, but imme- archbishop was suddenly arrested and committed diately and openly."? She was fain, however, to to the Tower, with Latimer and some others. issue a public declaration that she would con- There is an immediate cause assigned by some strain nobody in religious matters, but must only writers for his arrest at this moment. Men reinsist that her people should refrain from the membered Cranmer's conduct in the days of offensive expressions of “Papist” and “heretic.” King Henry, when he sat at the head of tribuBut the spirit of the zealot was not to be wholly nals which sentenced Protestants to the flames; repressed by any considerations of political ex- he was generally believed to be deficient in that pediency. It was only nine days after the issu- extreme courage which braves torture and death; ing of the proclamation that she had caused mass and it was reported of him, that, in order to pay to be sung in the first church in the city of Lon- court to this most Catholic queen, he had engaged don; and she proceeded to establish a most rigo- to restore the rites of the old church, and to offirous censorship of the press, and to prohibit all ciate personally in them. He had certainly never persons from speaking against herself or her coun- shown such courage before, and he could not be cil, because all that they did, or might do, was for blind to the great risk he was running; but, being the honour of God and the welfare of her subjects' assisted by the learned Peter Martyr, he wrota immortal souls. There can be no doubt that and published (it is said) a manifesto of his entire Mary was sincere in her convictions: she was an Protestant faith, and his abhorrence of masses honest fanatic, but her fanaticism was only the and all other abominations of the Popish super more dangerous from her honesty, and the per- stition. A few days after his arrest, Queen Mary suasion which she held in common with other went to the Tower by water, accompanied by the zealots, that all her plans were for the service of Princess Elizabeth and other ladies. This was the Almighty. Even the darkest and fiercest preparatory to the coronation. On the last day oi passions were in her case masked by religion, September the queen rode in great state from the and by filial piety; and it appeared to her a sa- Tower, through the city of London, towards cred duty to avenge on the reforming party the Westminster, sitting in a chariot covered with wrongs and sufferings of her mother Catherine: cloth of gold. Before her rode a number of genMary's youth had been passed in gloom and in tlemen and knights, then judges, then doctors, storms; her father had alternately threatened to then bishops, then lords, then the council: after make her a nun and to take off her head; he and whom followed the knights of the Bath in their his ministers had forced her to sign a paper in robes; the Bishop of Winchester, lord-chancel. which she formally acknowledged that the church lor; the Marquis of Winchester, lord high-treashe adored was a cheat, and that the mother who surer; the Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Oxbore her had never been her father's lawful wife. ford, bearing the sword of state; and the lordFrom the time of the marriage of Anne Boleyn mayor of London, bearing the sceptre of gold. she had been persecuted, insulted, and driven After the queen's chariot Sir Edward Hastings from place to place, almost like a common crimi

3 It is certainly by no means clear that Cranmer ever put nal and vagabond. A woman of an angelic tem-lished such a bold manifesto. Some accounts seem to say that per might, by miraculous exertion, have forgiven certain declarations of his were treacherously put into the quwen's

hands. But Mary wanted no additional provocation to hunt Ambassades de Renaud, quoted by Raumer. 3 Ibid.

him to infamy and death,


led her horse in hand; and after her horse came Edward III., and every species of felony not set another chariot covered all over with white silver down in the statute-book previously to the first cloth, wherein sat side by side, with smiling year of Henry VIII. They next declared the faces, the Princess Elizabeth and our old fair- queen to be legitimate, and annulled the divorce complexioned and contented friend THE LADY of her mother pronounced by Cranmer, greatiy ANNE OF CLEVES! On the morrow the queen blaming the archbishop for that deed. Then, went by water from Whitehall to the old palace by one vote, they repealed all the statutes of the of Westminster, and there remained till about late reign that in any way regarded religion, thus noon, and then walked on foot upon blue cloth, returning to the point at which matters stood in which was railed on each side, to St. Peter's the last year of the reign of Henry VIII., when Church, where she was solemnly crowned and most of the offices and ceremonies of the Roman anointed by Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, church, the doctrine of transubstantiation, the who took good care not to omit any of the an- celibacy of the clergy, and other matters odious cient rites.'

to Protestants, were fully insisted upon. The Five days after the coronation a parliament queen neither renounced the title of supreme assembled at Westminster, and both lords and head of the church-a title most odious, frightcommons soon gave melancholy proofs that they | ful, or ridiculous to Catholic ears—nor pressed had made up their minds

for restitution of the to float with the prevail

abbey lands; though, to ing current, and to make

give proof of her own no efforts for the protec

disinterestedness, she tion of anything except

prepared to restore of her the estates of the church

own free-will all property that had fallen into their

of that kind which had own hands. As there was

been attached to the scarcely a member in the

crown. It was quite cerupper house but had

tain that the lords, who shared in the spoil in the

so compliant ir time of Henry and Ed

matters of doctrine and ward, and as it was

faith, that concerned known that their only

their souls, would have anxiety was for the pre

offered a vigorous resistservation of what they

ance to any bill that had gotten, no apprehen

touched their estates or sion was entertained of

their goods and chattels; any serious opposition on

and Mary had been well the part of the peers ;

warned on this point. and as for the commons, QUEEN MARY.-After Zucchero.

Gardiner, who had al. they had long been timid

ready dismissed all sucli and subservient in the extreme, and on the pre-, of the Protestant bishops as would not conform or sent occasion, out of a prudent regard to their enter into a compromise, now summoned the corpersonal safety, those who were not Papists had vocation, to settle once more all doubts and discontrived to keep away from parliament. The putations concerning the sacrament of the Lord's very first act of the new parliament was decisive: Supper. With the exception of a few words proceedings were opened in each of the houses spoken by John Ailmer, Richard Cheney, Johu by celebrating high mass; and the men who, a Philpot, James Hadden, and Walter Philips, the few years before, had voted the observance to be Papists had it all their own way. Harpsfield, damnable, all fell on their knees at the elevation the Bishop of London's chaplain, who opened the of the host. Only Taylor, Bishop of Lincoln, convocation with a sermon, set no limits to his refused to kneel; for which he was harshly exultation; and, in the vehemence of his joy and treated, and kicked or thrust out of the House of gratitude, he compared Queen Mary to all the Lords. The first bill that was passed, in imita- females of greatest celebrity in Holy Writ and tion of what was done by the Protestant party the Apocrypha, not even excepting the Virgin at the accession of the late king, abolished every Mary. It would scarcely be expected by people species of treason not contained in the statute of of ordinary imagination that it was possible for

any one to surpass the hyperbole of Harpsfield; At this coronation the Princess Elizabeth carried the crown. and yet this feat seems fairly to have been perIt is said that she whispered to the French ambassador, Noailles, formed by Weston, the prolocutor. Caat it was very heavy; and that he replied, “Be patient; it will seem lighter when it is on your own head."

: Parl. Jour.; Despatches of Noailles; Burnet. VOL. II.

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After these orations the convocation proceeded preaching at Paul's Cross in defence of Queen to business, and in some matters came to impor- Jane's title, and for “heretical pravity;" Poynet, tant decisions without waiting for the authority who had held the bishopric of Winchester during either of the queen or the parliament, being sure Gardiner's deprivation and imprisonment, wils of the one and entertaining a well-merited con- also committed to prison for being married. tempt for the other. They declared the Book Taylor, Bishop of Lincoln, who had refused to of Common Prayer to be an abomination; they kneel at the elevation of the host in the House called for the immediate suppression of the re- of Lords, was deprived "for thinking amiss conformed English Catechism; they recommended cerning the eucharist;" Hooper, Bishop of Worthe most violent measures against all such of the cester and Gloucester, for having a wife, and clergy as would not forth with dismiss their other demerits; Harley, Bishop of Hereford, for wives, and adopt the Catholic opinion as to the wedlock and heresy; Ferrar, Bishop of St. David's, real presence. In London and the great cities, for the same offences; Bird, Bishop of Chester, where the Protestant doctrine had taken deeper for marriage. Coverdale of Exeter, the transroot, the change, though rapid, was somewhat lator of the Bible, was also ejected and thrown less sudden; but in the rural districts generally, into prison, where he lay two years, not without where the population had never been properly danger of being burned.

of Bath and converted, the mass re-appeared at once, and Wells, and Bush of Bristol, voluntarily resigned every part of the Reformed service was thrown their sees.” aside even before any express orders to that effect On the 13th of November Cranmer was brought from court or from convocation. Hosts of priests, to trial for high treason, together with the Lady and particularly the residue of the abbeys and Jane Grey, her youthful husband Lord Guildford monasteries, who had conformed to save their Dudley, and his brother Lord Ambrose Dudley. lives or to obtain the means of supporting them- They were all condemned to suffer death as selves, declared that they had acted under com- traitors, by the very men who a short time before pulsion, and joyfully returned to their Latin had acted with them, and had sworn allegiance masses, their confessions, their holy water, and to Jane; but the youth of three of these victims the rest. Many again, who really preferred the to the ambition and imbecility of others excited Reformed religion, were fain to conform to what a lively sympathy in the nation, and the queen they disapproved of, just as their opponents had sent them back to the Tower, apparently with done in the preceding reign, and from the same no intention of ever bringing them to the block. worldly motives. But still there were many Even the fourth victim, Cranmer, was respited, married priests who would on no account part and was pardoned of his treason ; but he was with their wives, or receive, as the rules of sal- sent back to the Tower on the equally perilous vation, tenets which, for years, they had con- charge of heresy. He was strongly advised by demned as the inventions of the devil. Some, his friends, both before his apprehension and also, there were who had made to themselves, by also now, to attempt to escape out of the king. their intolerance in the days of their prosperity, dom, but he is said to have replied, that his trust bitter enemies among those who were now in was in God, and in his holy word, and that he the ascendent. The prisons began to fill with had resolved to show a constancy worthy of a Protestant clergymen of these classes; and others Christian prelate. He repeatedly professed to of them, being deprived of their livings, were have a great desire to be admitted to a private thrown upon the highways to beg or starve, as audience of the queen; but Mary had no inclinathe monks had been in the days of Henry VIII., tion to receive the man who had sealed her their condition being so much the worse as they mother's dishonour, and the party about her had wives and children.

seconded this strong and natural feeling of averAbout half of the English bishops, bending to sion. the storm, conformed, in all outward appearances, Before parliament was dissolved the attainder with the triumphant sect.' Those who did not, of the old Duke of Norfolk was legally reversed, or who were peculiarly obnoxious to the domi- it being declared, with some reason, that no nant party, were deprived of their sees and what special matter had been proved either against ever they possessed, and cast into prison. We him or his son the Earl of Surrey, except the have already seen Cranmer and Latimer sent to wearing of part of a coat-of-arms. On the 21st the Tower. Shortly after, Holgate, Archbishop of December, a few days after the dissolution of of York, was committed to the same state prison parliament, the church service began to be perfor marriage ; and Ridley, Bishop of London, for formed in Latin throughout England. At the

same time the Lady Jane had the liberty of the In this number were some who were really Catholics all along, Tower granted her, being allowed to walk in the ani who had strained their consciences by conformity in the Irst reigns. Insincere then, they were sincere now.

2 Strupe: Collier: Soames, Hist. Reform.; Blunt.

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