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them till they confessed what was an impossi- England just at the moment that Buckingham bility or a flitting dream of madness,' and had was preparing to assist the Dutch in their own then cut off their heads or strangled them. country. The English court made formal re

The news of this atrocious proceeding reached monstrances; the States apologized and proc:sed

MUSKETEER AND PIKEMAN OF THE PERIOD. - From Meyrick's Ancient Armour.

redress; and the “massacre of Amboyna,” as Maurice moved upon the castle of Antwerp, which it was called by the people, was lost sight of he was informed had been left with a weak garfor a time. Though it was the high notion of rison; and he was so confident of taking it, that Buckingham to niake this a war of religion, it he would have none but the Dutch with him. was found necessary to include in the league the Here also he failed. “And so, with some few Catholic states of France, Savoy, and Venice, little bickerings of small parties of horse, betwixt who were led on by their jealousy of the house two entrenched armies, the whole summer was of Austria. After the Dutch, the Protestant shuffled away;" and, winter approaching, Prince powers that contracted were Denmark, Sweden, Maurice retired to winter-quarters. The prince and some of the German states, who all required died at the Hague: the Earl of Southampton and subsidies in English money. The first object to other English officers returned home to England. be achieved was the expulsion of the Spaniards During the summer, Count Mansfeldt, one of the from the Netherlands, and of the Spaniards, former heroes of the Palatinate war, was enAustrians, and Bavarians from the Palatinate. ployed in raising mercenaries on the Continent, The result of the campaign, as far as the English and in the autumn he embarked from Zealand were engaged, may be told in a few words of to procure English money and English troops shame and disgrace. The 6000 men already in which had been promised him, The ship which Holland acted as auxiliaries to the Dutch army bore him was wrecked; the English captain and commanded by Prince Maurice of Orange, who crew were drowned: but Mansfeldt, with some soon felt himself overmatched by Spinola. The of his followers, escaped in the long boat and got Italian took Breda before the prince's eyes. safe to England. There was at least one person I “There were not twenty Englishmen, nor above thirty

here who wished the waves had swallowed him Japanese, in the whole island, with whom they were said to ---and this was King James, who for some time machinate this conspiracy, and the castle had in it two hundred | would not admit the adventurer to a

wo hundred would not admit the adventurer to an audience. Dutch soldiers, and eight ships riding before it well manned, whereof two were above 1200 tons a-piece ; besides, the Dutch

But, in the end, Mansfeldt obtained the promise had two other castles in the same island: and what probability of £20,000 per month, and of the command of could there be (if the plot were as plain as their malicious 12,000 Englishmen, who were to be levied by tongues could make it) that so weak a force should attempt

press. These pressed men when raised were upon so many, having men enough in the ships and castles to have devoured the attempters?"- Wilson.

fitter to march through Coventry than to retrieve

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the somewhat tarnished honour of the British / and his colleagues that it was security enough. arms. No time was allowed to train and disci. “But,” say they, “we did sing a song to the pline them; they were marched to Dover (where deaf, for they would not endure to hear of it." several of them were hanged), and then hurried “In the next place,” continue these diplomatists, on board ship. The court had negotiated for “we offered the same to be signed by his hightheir passage through a part of France, but when ness (Prince Charles) and a secretary of state, they appeared off Calais they were refused a wherein we pretended to come home to their landing. Mansfeldt thence led them to the island own asking; but this would not serve the turn of Zealand, where the Dutch were scarcely more neither.” Carlisle made a good stand, and would willing to receive them than the French had have bartered a toleration in England for French been. When, at last, Mansfeldt reached the troops to be sent into the Palatinate. He reRhine and the border of the Palatinate, he found peated words which they had used at the first that more than one-half of his army was gone, opening of the negotiation—“Give us priests," and that it would be impossible for him to under- said the cardinal, “and we will give you colonels.” take any offensive operations.

“Give us pomp and ceremony to content the While these events were in progress, nay, even pope," said another, “and we will throw ourbefore the warlike note was sounded, and before selves wholly in your interests.” “Yes," said the the Spanish match was actually broken off, a chancellor, “we will espouse all your interests new matrimonial treaty was set on foot with as if they were our own." They confessed to France for the hand of Louis' sister, Henrietta these expressions, but pretended that they had Maria. Some time before, Lord Herbert of Cher- already done enough in joining the league. Carbury, the resident ambassador, was assured by lisle made several good struggles, but he was the favourite De Luynes, that if there were any badly supported. Secretary Conway, whose inoverture made for such a match, it should be structions and despatches seem to have been dicreceived with all honour and affection. An over-tated entirely by Charles and Buckingham, beture was made; and it was thought fit, for the came very obscure or ambiguous”: After some concluding of the match, that the Earl of Car- negotiation, Richelieu consented to the écrit secret, lisle and Lord Kensington-created on the occa- as it was styled in French diplomacy, and Car sion Earl of Holland-should be sent as ambas-lisle dropped the question of the French army sadors extraordinary to France. It was in this for the Palatinate. The secret promise imported embassy that Hay displayed all his pomp and ex- that James would permit all his Roman Catholic travagance; but though a sensualist and a solenın subjects to enjoy greater franchise and freedom fop, the Scottish Earl of Carlisle was destitute of religion than they would have enjoyed in virneither of abilities nor spirit. But he had to tue of any articles of the Spanish treaty of marmeasure himself against one of the most wonder riage. This paper was duly signed in November, ful of men—the incomparably crafty and resolute by James, by Charles, and by a secretary of state; Cardinal Richelieu, who had now established a and a copy of the engagement was signed by sort of dictatorship over both the court and the Carlisle and Holland. The marriage treaty was nation, and who was at once a ruthless tyrant signed and ratified by the solemn oaths of King and a benefactor to France. Richelieu, who was James and King Louis. But even after this the most eager to defeat Charles's Spanish match, French ministers raised a fresh objection. They was all obsequiousness till it was absolutely bro- represented that the secret promise was conceived ken off, and then he “stood upon his tip-toes,” | in general or vague terms, and they demanded resolving not to abate a jot of the articles of re- that James should specify the favours he inligion, and of liberty to the Catholics of Eng-tended. Carlisle was indignant, and recommended land, which had been agreed upon with Spain. a resistance to this demand, but James and his This was excessively inconvenient to King James son feared to try the temper of Richelieu and the and Prince Charles, who only six months before queen-mother, and they submitted to the specitihad both solemnly vowed that they would never cation of the three following articles:--1. That tolerate the Papists. In fact, when the proposal | all Catholics in prison for their religion since the was made, they were permitting a fresh persecu- rising of parliament should be set free. 2. That tion of the recusants. James, however, signed all fines levied on them since that period should a private paper, promising favour to the Ca- be repaid. 3. That, for the future, they might tholics, without which the pope would not grant freely exercise their own worship in private. the dispensation. Carlisle presented this docu- There was another incident of a very different ment, and endeavoured to convince Richelieu kind, which occurred during the latter part of "Life of Lord Herbert.

these negotiations, to the great alarm of James, ? Lord Nithsdale, a Catholic, was sent to Rome to make pro | The Huguenots, or “those of the religion," as mises and compliments to the pope, in the name of King James and his son.

3 Hardwicke State Papers.

they were called in France, had received harsh for the observation of the public faith and the treatment from Louis; Soubise, who was now at edicts granting toleration to French Protestanta their head, and who at one time had maintained | Carlisle declared this proceeding to be unadvery friendly relations with some members of vised, unseasonable, shameful; the French court the English government, seized upon the island agreed to believe that the English Protestants of Rhé, near Rochelle, fortified it, fitted out some had nothing to do with the movement; and the ships, and proclaimed that he would not lay lively Henrietta Maria prepared for her removal down his arms till he obtained a better security to England. Her portion was fixed at 800,00)

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THE PALACE OF THEOBALDS. —From a picture by Vinkenboone, in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge.

crowns-a small sum compared with the dower physicians. They may have produced irritation which had been promised with the infanta. and done mischief; but we cannot believe that

But James did not live to see the arrival either they were the cause of the death of James, or of the money or of the long-sought daughter-in- even intended to hasten his end. On the fourlaw. His health had long been breaking under | teenth day of his illness, being Sunday, the 27th the united influences of anxiety, fear, full-feed- of March,” he sent before day-break for the ing, and continual use of sweet wines; and he prince, who rose out of his bed and went to hini returned to Theobalds from his last hunting in his night-gown. The king seemed to have some party with a disease which the doctors called a earnest thing to say to him, and so endeavoured tertian ague. But it should appear that he had to raise himself upon his pillow; but his spirita also the worst kind of gout upon him. He had were so spent that he had not strength to make always entertained a great aversion to medicine | his words audible. He lingered for a few hours, and physicians, but at this extremity all the and then “went to his last rest, upon the day of court doctors were called in. While they were rest, presently after sermon was done."$ James in attendance, Buckingham's mother presented was in his fifty-ninth year, and he had been herself with an infallible remedy, in the shape twenty-two years King of England. As soon as of a plaster and a posset, which she had procured the breath was out of his body the privy council, from one Remington, a quack living in Essex, or all the members of it that were at Theobalds, where, it was said, he had cured many agues. assembled, and in less than a quarter of an It should appear that the plaster was applied and hour King Charles was proclaimed at Theohalds the drink given contrary to the advice of the court-gate by Sir Edward Zouch, knight-marshal.

1 The palace of Theobalds was situated a little north of the majesty took a fancy to the house, and shortly afterwards is road to Ware, about twelve miles from London. The estate was duced the earl to exchange it for Hatfield. He gave up puisses purchased by Sir William Cecil, afterwards Lord Burghley, in sion in 1607, and it continued to be James's favourite residence 1563; and he appears to have immediately commenced build till the time of his death, after which it became the residence ing this magnificent residence, which he must have finished his son Charles I. In 1650, by order of parliament, the greater before 1571. He had subsequently to enlarge it on account of part was levelled with the ground for the sake of the the visits of Queen Elizabeth, of which he received ten or twelve but the room in which James 1. died, with some other apartat Theobalds, costing him from £2000 to £3000 each, an enor ments, was standing in 1765, at which time, having posant mous sum in those days. After the death of Lord Burghley, in through various Lands, it had been purchased by Mr. Prescott 1598, his son Sir Robert Cecil, afterwards Earl of Salisbury, (in 1763), who cleared away the entire remains to make a and lord-treasurer under James I., succeeded to the estate, and for building new houses. having here entertained the king at two splendid banquets, his ? That is, the Sth of April, n. S.

CHAPTER VI.- CIVIL AND MILITARY HISTORY.-A.D. 1625—1627.

CHARLES 1.-ACCESSION, A.D. 1625-DEATH, A.D. 1649.

accession of Charles I.-His marriage with Henrietta Maria-Her arrival in England-Her train of Popish

priests ---Charles applies to parliament for money—Their restricted supply-Their applications for religious reforms—Discontent at Charles's proceedings in the war of the French Huguenots-Money refused for the prosecution of the war-Bold remonstrance of parliament-Its dissolution-Unsuccessful expedition against Spain-Buckinghain's proceedings to precipitate a war with France-His insolent conduct to Queen Heurietta -Charles revives the old statutes against Papists—His coronation-Opening of parliament--Its proceedings in the reform of abuses-Charles interferes—Opposition of the commons to his interference—They impeach the Duke of Buckingham-Charles quarrels with the House of Lords-Accusations of the Earl of Bristol against the Duke of Buckingham-The duke's trial—The proceedings interrupted by the king-He confers additional honours on Buckingham-Parliament dissolved-Despotic measures of Charles to raise moneyDiscontent occasioned by them-His proceedings defended from the pulpit-Puritanism thereby increasedCharles drives the queen's priests out of the kingdom-Complaints of the French court in consequenceAnswer of the English council-War against France commenced-Buckinghan's expedition for the relief of Rochelle-His attempts on the island of Rhé-His unwise and inefficient proceedings-His ruinous retreatHis welcome from Charles at his return to England.

V N the afternoon of Monday, the the church, and an attentive listener to prayers

28th of March, Charles took coach and sermons; that he intended to pay all his at Theobalds with the Duke of father's, mother's, and brother's debts; and that, by Buckingham, and came to White- disparking most of his remote parks and chases,

hall, On the same day he was to reform the court of unnecessary charges, and E proclaimed at Whitehall-gate and to drive from it all recusant Papists. On the in Cheapside, in the midst of a sad shower of 30th of March, three days after his father's rain; and the weather was thought suitable to death, Charles ratified, as king, the treaty with the condition in which he found the kingdom. France; and on the 1st of May the marriage A few days after, the

ceremony was performed plague broke out in

at Paris— the Duke of Whitechapel, whence it

Chevreuse, a member of extended its ravages to

the house of Guise, actevery part of London. It

ing as Charles's proxy. was said to be even a

Buckingham was apworse plague than that

pointed to bring the bride which raged at the time

to England, and he proof his father's corona

ceeded with an immense tion. Charles re-appoin

retinue to Paris, where ted the council and the

he dazzled all eyes with officers of government,

his splendour. This making scarcely any

man's gallantry was not change. Buckingham

checked by the national stood forward more pow

shyness of Englishmen; erful and vainglorious

for he had scarcely set than ever. There was,

foot in the French court, however, some change

when he declared love to for the better at court;

the young qucen, Anne the fools, and buffoons,

of Austria. The Cardiand other familiars of CHARLES I.- After Vandyke.

pal Richelieu made all James were dismissed,

the haste he decently the courtiers were required to be attentive to re- could to get him back to England, and, after ligion, and modest and quiet in their demeanour, eight days, Buckingham left Paris, with Henand they generally became, if not more moral, far rietta Maria. They travelled very slowly, or more decorous. In a few days after the accession, stopped very frequently; for though they beit was reported of the new sovereigu that he was gan their journey on the 23d of May, they did zealous for God's truth, a diligent frequenter of not reach Dover till the 12th of Juae in the

de

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evening. That night the young queen slept in she had been a fortnight in England. MeanDover Castle. On the morrow morning Charles, while, the plague grew worse and worse. In the who had slept at Canterbury, rode to Dover to eyes of the Puritans the inference was obrious receive his wife. They met in the castle: the the land was scourged for relapsing into idolatry. bride knelt down at his feet, and would have Charles had issued writs for a parliament to kissed his hand, but the king took her up in his meet on the 17th of May; but in consequence of arms and kissed her with many kisses. The two prorogations, it did not assemble till the royal couple proceeded together to Canterbury, 10th of June, the very day after his arrival at on the following day to Rochester, the day after Whitehall with his queen. Though not yet to Gravesend, and, on the 16th, there being a crowned, he wore the crown on his head. The very great shower, the king and queen, in the young king (he was in his twenty-fifth year) was royal barge, passed through London bridge to no orator, and he had the defect of stammering; Whitehall. Notwithstanding the rain and the but the words of his first address were plain and plague, the Londoners crowded the river and its sensible. Instead of trying the patience of the banks to get a sight of the bride, whose appear- houses with long, rambling, pedantic speeches, ance and cheerful manners gave them much he went at once to the point. He wanted money, satisfaction. Stories were soon circulated of her and he told them so. In fact, the debts which wit, and freedom from bigotry. It was said his father had left amounted to £700,000; he had (and the thing was considered very important) | already contracted considerable debts of his own: that she had eaten pheasant and venison on a and the money voted for the war was long since fast-day, notwithstanding the remonstrance of swallowed up. He did not hint at a peace;) he her confessor, and that, upon being asked if she said, on the contrary, that the war must be could abide a Huguenot, she replied, “Why pushed with vigour, and here minded them that not ?—was not my father one?" In short, be- they themselves had voted a recourse to arms, fore she had been four-and-twenty hours at and, therefore, the war being their own work, the Whitehall, it was joyfully announced that she dishonour would lie upon them, if it were not had already given some good signs of hope that followed up with spirit from a want of the neshe might ere long become a very good Protes | cessary supplies. But though still inclined to tant. But in a few days these bright hopes hostilities with Spain and the Catholics, the seemed to fade; and people began to count the commons knew by this time that the war hadd great number of priests she had brought over in been most miserably conducted. They now hated her train, and to murmur at the idolatry of the and suspected Buckingham, whose popularity mass being again set up in the palaces of their bloomed and died almost as fast as a flower; kings. She had twenty-nine priests, fourteen of and they required from the new king, who had them Theatines,' and fifteen seculars, besides a already declared against concession, some pledges bishop, a young man under thirty years of age. of an extensive reform. In this temper they On Sundays and saints' days mass was celebrated | limited their votes to two subsidies (about in the queen's closet at Whitehall, Charles giving £140,000), and the duties of tonnage and poundstrict orders that no English man or woman age, not for life, as had been practised for two should come near the place during the celebra-centuries, but for one year. They were also distion. The priests were very importunate to have tressed by the anomalous position of the kinga large chapel finished at St. James's, but the the head of the Protestant league, the chief of king was very slow in gratifying them in this a war of religion, or what they at least meant particular. If the French princess had been the should be such—and yet suffering mass to be most excellent and amiable of women, these cir- celebrated in his own house, and his court to cumstances would have rendered her odious in swarm with Papists and priests. They prethe eyes of the nation; but Henrietta Maria, sented a “a pious petition " to his majesty, conthough lively and pleasant, when pleased, was juring him to put into immediate execution all not the most amiable of women: she was self- the penal statutes against Catholics and miswilled, obstinate, haughty, and overbearing, and sionaries. Charles had promised, had signed, began to show her temper, even in public, before and sealed, and solemnly sworn, in his matri

An order founded at Rome in 1524, by John Peter Caraffa, frown, divers of us being at Whitehall to see her being at dinnat, afterwards Pope Paul IV., then Archbishop of Chieti, or Theate, and the room somewhat over-heated with the fire and company, in the province of Abruzzi, in the kingdom of Naples.

she drove us all out of the chamber. I suppose none but a ? Meade, in one of his epistles, gives the following passage queen could have cast such a scowl." from a letter written by his court-frequenting friend, Mr. 3 Although troops had been sent to Holland and the Rhine, Mordant:

no war had been declared against any one either at Charles's “The queen, howsoever, very little of stature, is yet of a accession or at the dissolution of the late parliament. If pleasing countenance (i she be pleased), but full of spirit and had not been more eager for war than for peace, he might easily vigonr; and seems of more than ordinary resolution. With one have negotiated.

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