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tember that unwilling fair one was dragged to James, that naturally, in former times, hated the altar, in the chapel royal at Hampton Court, women, had his lodgings replenished with them, to marry a sickly idiot. A splendid feast, en and all of the kindred; . . . and little children lightened by the presence of royalty, was given did run up and down the king's lodgings like soon after at Lady Hatton's house in Holborn; little rabbits started about their burrows." 3 and to make it more absolutely her own, express People now looked back with regret to the days orders were given by her ladyship, as was re- of Somerset, for that favourite had some decency, ported, that neither Sir Edward Coke nor any of some moderation; and, if he trafficked in places his servants should be admitted.' The union, as and honours, he trafficked alone. But "the kinmight be expected, turned out a most wretched dred," one and all, engaged in this lucrative one; and this appears to have been the case with business. The greatest trafficker, or most active nearly all the matches promoted by James, who, broker, in the market, was the Old Countess, as in the matter of number, was one of the greatest Buckingham's mother, though not an old but of match-makers. The daughter of Coke became very beautiful woman-and infamous as beautia profligate and an adulteress;2 and the crazy ful-was commonly called. She sold peerages, Sir John Villiers, created Viscount Purbeck about and took money for all kinds of honours and proa year and a half after his marriage, became so motions, whether in the army, navy, courts of mad that it was necessary to place him in con- law, or the church. There were plenty of purfinement. His brother Buckingham took charge chasers not over-scrupulous as to the purity of of the property his young wife had brought him, the sources whence they derived their honours and kept it, or spent it upon himself. But, after or titles; but, in some cases, wealthy men were all, the selfish father of the victim-the great forced into the market against their inclination, lawyer— was juggled by Buckingham and that and made to pay for distinctions which they were courtly crew. As soon as the favourite saw the wise enough not to covet. Thus one Richard marriage completed and the dower safe, he felt a Robartes, a rich merchant of Truro, in the county natural repugnance to risking favour by urging of Cornwall, was compelled to accept the title of the suit of a bold-spoken, obnoxious man. Bacon, Baron Robartes of Truro, and to pay £10,000 for again in cordial alliance with Lady Hatton, who it." The titles that were not sold were given out was most conjugally disposed to thwart and spite of family considerations: one of the favourite's her husband in all things, administered daily to brothers, as already mentioned, was made Visthe king's antipathies; and all that Coke got by count Purbeck, another Earl of Anglesey; Fieldsacrificing his poor child was his restoration to ing, who married the favourite's sister, was made a seat at the council-table-a place where he was Earl of Denbigh, and Fielding's brother Earl of no match for his rival.
Desmond in Ireland. Cranfield also “mounted is. On the 4th of January the supple to be Earl of Middlesex, from marrying one of A.D. 1010. lord-keeper was converted into lord Buckingham's kindred.” 6 James, in one of his high-chancellor, and in the month of July follow- lengthy speeches, delivered in the Star Chamber ing he was created Baron Verulam. “And now in 1616, complained that churchmen were had in Buckingham, having the chancellor or treasurer, too much contempt by people of all degrees, from and all great officers, his very slaves, swells in the the highest to the lowest; and yet, notwithstandheight of pride, and summons up all his country | ing the sharp criticisms of the Puritans, who were kindred, the old countess providing a place for every day finding more reasons for reviling the them to learn to carry themselves in a court-like whole hierarchy, he permitted his minion and garb.” Rich heiresses, or daughters of noble- "the kindred” to hold all the keys to church men, were soon provided as wives for his brothers, promotion, and to sell every turn of them to the half-brothers, and cousins of the male gender. highest bidder, or to give them as rewards to "And then must the women kindred be married their companions and creatures. to earls, earls' eldest sons, barons, or chief gen- In the course of this year the favourite was tlemen of greatest estates; insomuch that his very created a marquis, and as he expressed a desire female kindred were so numerous as sufficient to for the post of lord high-admiral, the brave old have peopled any plantation. . . . So that King Howard, Earl of Nottingham, the commander-inchief of the fleets that had scattered the Spanish | The doting, gloating king bad taught Somerset Armada, was obliged to accept a pension, and Latin; Buckingham he attempted to teach divimake room for the master of the horse, who was nity and prayer-writing, and these exercises apentirely ignorant of ships and sea affairs. To all pear prominently in a correspondence, for the these high offices were subsequently added those most part too gross for quotation, wherein the of warden of the Cinque-ports, chief-justice in favourite calls the king “dear dad and gossip," eyre of all the parks and forests south of Trent, or “your sow-ship," and the king calls the famaster of the King's Bench-office, high-steward vourite “Steenie.” It was a strange intercourse of Westminster, and constable of Windsor Castle. I between teacher and pupil, king and subject.
1 Strafford Papers. It is said that Coke, on the day of this the Petres, the Arundels, the Sackvilles, the Cavendishes, the great feast, dined among the lawyers at the Temple,
Montagues, &c., were purchased à poids d'or, except those that 2 Mr. D'Israeli Curiosities of Literature) says that Coke's were granted to the vilest favouritism. This practice also cut daughter, Lady Purbeck, was condemned, as a wanton, to stand tinued through the reign of Charles I., and was even more pab in a white sheet; but he does not give his authority for this licly acted upon as the necessities of the king and his courtiers assertion, which seems to be contradicted by published letters rendered the sums of money so obtained the more necessary to of the time.
3 Weldon. them. Among the noble families who appear to owe tbelt * She was created Countess of Buckingham for life, in July, honours to these causes, inay be mentioned the Stanhopes, 1018.
Tuftons, and many others.-Remarks on the Origin of the Fast • All the titles of that date, borne by the Spensers, the Fanes, lies and Honours of the Brilish Peerage.
CHAPTER IV.-CIVIL AND MILITARY HISTORY.-A.D. 1618—1621.
The favourite persecutes the Earl of Suffolk--Distinguished prisoners in the Tower--Sir Walter Raleigh's im
prisonment there-His studies and pursuits in confinement--His History of the World-His proposal about a gold mine in Guiana--He is liberated from the Tower-Count Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador-Raleigh sets sail for Guiana---His attack on the Spaniards-His troops repulsed-Failure of the expedition-Complaints of the Spaniards against Raleigh- He is arrested--His fruitless attempts to escape from London-His trial His conduct and speeches at the bar-His sentence-His demeanour in his last moments--His executionBohenia-Its religious reformation-Crown of Bohemia offered to the Palatine Frederick, son-in-law of Janes-He accepts it--Perplexity of James at the event-He asks supplies from parliament to aid his sonin-law-Parliament complies, and proceeds to the reform of abuses-- Bacon accused, displaced, and fined-His behaviour under his fall-Serere punishment inflicted by the commons on Edward Floyde-The king prorogues parliament-War in Bohemia- The Palatine unsuccessful - Expedition against the Algerines-Applicati n of James for supplies-Resentment of the commons against him-Altercation between James and the commons-Protest of the commons against his arbitrary principles, He prorogues parliament-He commits some of its members to prison.
UCKINGHAM this year attacked by some of his old sharp practices, charged the the Earl of Suffolk, lord-treasurer, prisoners on one side, while Bacon, who spoke and father-in-law of the disgraced like an Aristides, assailed them on the other. Somerset-all the rest of that party The venal and corrupt chancellor was eloquent in had long since been dismissed the exposing the shameful vice of corruption. Suf
court-and that noble Howard was folk, disregarding a hint to plead guilty and now charged with peculation and corruption, par- make sure of the royal pardon, stood upon his ticularly with reference to the money paid by the innocence, and it was the general opinion that, Dutch for the recovery of the cautionary towns, as compared with his wife, he was innocent. But a business in which all the public men had taken the Star Chamber sentenced them to pay a fine of bribes. Suffolk and his wife were both thrown £30,000, and sent them both back to the Tower. into the Tower, and the ingenuity of Bacon, and After some time, however, the fine was reduced of commissioners appointed by him, was em- to £7000, which was “clutched up by Ramsay, ployed in making out a strong case of embezzle- Earl of Haddington," and the Earl and Countess ment against the treasurer. The earl wrote to of Suffolk recovered their liberty. The post of the king, imploring him to pardon his weakness lord-treasurer was sold to Sir Henry Montague, and errors--guilt he would never confess—and chief-justice of the King's Bench, for a large telling him that, instead of being enriched by the sum; but in less than a year it was taken from places he had held, he was little less than £40,000 him and bestowed on Cranfield, afterwards Earl in debt. The name of this Howard was rather of Middlesex, who had married one of “the popular, for he had fought bravely at sea in the kindred." time of Elizabeth, and James was half inclined ! But this same year witnessed a far more memoto stop proceedings against him: but Buckingham rable proceeding--one which, while it blackened was of a different mind, and the earl and coun- for all ages the name of James, has perhaps tess were brought up to the Star Chamber. There, brightened beyond their deserts the fame and Coke, who hoped to fight his way back to favour character of the illustrious victim. Sir Walter I Cabala.
7 Raleigh, it will be remembered, after receiving sentence of death at Winchester, was immured / a grant of the lands of Anthony Babington, leav in the Tower of London. In that dismal state. ing the young and innocent widow and children to prison he found several men fit to be his mates; beggary. The letter to the favourite produced and these were increased year after year by the no effect. Then the prisoner's wife, the devoted absurd tyranny of the court, until it seemed and spirited Lady Raleigh, got access to the king, almost to be James's intention to shut up all the and throwing herself on her knees, with her chil. genius, taste, and enterprise of England in that dren kneeling with her, implored him to spare great cage. Henry Percy, the accomplished and the remnant of their fortunes. James's only reply munificent Earl of Northumberland--the friend was, “I maun ha' the land-I maun ha' it for of science and scientific men, the enthusiastic Carr;" and the minion had it accordingly. From promoter of natural and experimental philoso- this time it is probable that the hospitable table phy, the favourer of all good learning-and Ser- kept by the Earl of Northumberland was of conjeant Hoskins, the scholar, poet, wit, and critic, sequence to Raleigh on other grounds than those the admired of Camden, Selden, Daniel, the of society and conversation. This extraordinary friend and polisher of Ben Jonson-were among man had always had a determined turn to letters the distinguished co-mates of Raleigh ; and these and the sciences; in the bustle of the camp, in the men constantly attracted to the Tower some of court, in the discomforts of the sea, he had snatched the most intellectual of their contemporaries, who hours for intense studies, which had embraced the enlivened their captivity with learned and plea- wide range of poetry, history, law, divinity, assant discourse. Northumberland served as a tronomy, chemistry, and other sciences. In the centre for these wits, and his purse appears to Tower, the quiet of the place, the necessity his have been always open to such as were in need, restless mind felt for employment and excitewhether prisoners or free. For some time Ra- ment, and the tastes of his fellow-prisoners and leigh did not require pecuniary assistance; for, visitors, all led him to an increased devotion to though his moveable estate was forfeited by his these absorbing pursuits. If he was a rarely. attainder, it was consigued to trustees appointed accomplished man when he entered his prisonby himself for the benefit of his family and cre- house, the thirteen years he passed there in this ditors, and his principal estate and castle of Sher- kind of life were likely to qualify him for great borne in Dorsetshire, which his taste and unspar- literary undertakings. During one part of his ing outlay of money in his prosperous days "had confinement he devoted a great deal of his time beautified with orchards, gardens, and groves of i to chemistry, not without the usual leaning to much variety and great delight," had been cau alchemy, and an indefinite hope of discovering the tiously conveyed to his eldest son some time philosopher's stone-a dream which was fully inbefore the death of Elizabeth and the beginning dulged in by his friend Northumberland, and of his troubles. But some sharp eye, in looking which was no stranger to Bacon himself. Rafor prey, discovered that there was a legal flaw leigh fancied that he had discovered an elixir, or in the deed of conveyance, and the chief-justice, grand cordial of sovereign remedy in all diseases Popham, Raleigh's personal enemy, and the same – a sort of panacea. On one occasion, when the that had sat on his trial, decided that, from the queen was very ill, she took his draught, and omission of some technicality, the deed was alto-experienced or fancied immediate relief. Prince gether invalid. No doubt the chief-justice knew Henry, who had always taken a lively interest in beforehand that the king wanted the property his fate, and for whom Raleigh had written some for his minion Robert Carr, who was just then admirable treatises in the Tower, joined his commencing his career at court. From his pri grateful mother in petitions for his liberation; son Raleigh wrote to the young favourite, telling but without avail. For the instruction of the him that, if the inheritance of his children were young prince, Raleigh commenced his famous thus taken from them for want of a word, there History of the World—a work, as far as it goes, would remain to him but the name of life. Some of uncommon learning and genius, and altogether of the expressions in this letter are exceedingly extraordinary, if we consider the time, the trying affecting; but, in reading them, we cannot but circumstances under which it was written, and remember that Raleigh himself, at his own dawn, the previous busy life of the author. The first had greedily grasped at the possessions of the fa part was finished in 1612. Shortly after young therless-that he himself had got from Elizabeth Henry died; and then, though (to use his own
The first entry in Lord Burghley's Diary, under the year honour, I beseech you not to begin your first building upon the 1587, is the following:
ruins of the innocent, and that their sorrows with mine nay “A grant of Anthony Babington to Sir Walter Raleigh." not attend your first plantation ....I therefore trust, sir, The touching expressions in Raleigh's letter to Carr are these: that you will not be the first who shall kill us outright, cut
" And for yourself, sir, seeing your fair day is now in the down the tree with the fruit, and undergo the care of them dawn, and mine drawu to the evening, your own virtues and that enter the fields of the fatherless. '- Serin. Sae. the king's grace assuring you of nany favours and of much ? It was not published till 1614.
expression) he had “hewn out” the second and tious man of business, was captivated by the third parts, he had not heart to finish them.' project, and he recommended it to the king as a In 1614 the revolutions at court had thrown So- promising speculation. James, who was almost merset into disgrace, and brought Buckingham penniless, entered into it at first with more eagerinto favour. Raleigh built new hopes on the ness than the secretary; but, on reflection, he change, and instantly became a suitor to George | fancied that the enterprise might involve him in Villiers. But he and his friends had never a war with Spain, which still pretended its ex
clusive right, by Papal bull, to all those regions; and war was James's horror. Still, however, his increasing wants made him often dream of El Dorado, and he began to talk about Raleigh as a brave and skilful man. Some noble friends of the captive took advantage of this frame of mind: but nothing was now to be done at court without conciliating “the kindred;" and it was a sum of £1500 paid to Sir William St. John and Sir Edward Villiers, uncles of the favourite, that undid the gates of the Tower. Raleigh walked forth in the beginning of March, leaving behind him, in that fortress, the fallen Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, who, in the following month, was brought to his trial for the murder of Overbury. But, though admitted to liberty, Sir Walter as yet had no pardon; and to obtain one, and to restore his shattered fortune, to indulge again in his favourite pursuits, his romantic adventures, he laboured heart and soul to remove the king's objections to his great project. James had a
hard struggle between his timidity and his cuSir WALTER RALEIGH. From the print in his “ History of the World," ed. 1677. pidity: he longed for the gold as the traveller in
the desert longs for water, but still he dreaded the ceased their endeavours at court, and before this Spaniards, the dragons of the mine. His indecitime Sir Walter had proposed to Secretary Win- sion was increased when, by his indiscreet goswood a scheme which, he fancied, must excite siping, the project became known to the Spanish the king's cupidity, and lead to his immediate ambassador. Count Gondomar was a very acrelease. In the year 1595, Raleigh, in the course complished diplomatist, the best that could posof one of his adventurous voyages, had visited sibly have been found for such a court as that of Guiana in South America, the fabled El Dorado, James. “He had as free access to the king as or Land of Gold, which, though discovered by the any courtier of them all, Buckingham only exSpaniards, had not been conquered or settled. cepted; and the king took delight to talk with The capital city of Manoa, which had been de him, for he was full of conceits, and would speak scribed by Spanish writers as one vast palace of false Latin a purpose, in his merry fits, to please Aladdin-a congeries of precious stones and pre- the king; telling the king plainly, “You speak cious metals-eluded his pursuit; but he found Latin like a pedant, but I speak it like a gentlethe country to be fertile and beautiful, and he man.""? While he could drink wine with his discovered at an accessible point, not far from majesty and the men, he could win the ladies of the banks of the mighty Orinoco, some signs of the court by his gallantry and liberality; and it à gold mine. He now proposed to Secretary is said that, in that sink of dishonour and immoWinwood an expedition to secure and work that rality, he intrigued with some of the highest virgin mine, which he was confident would yield dames, and bribed some of the proudest nobles. exhaustless treasures. The ships necessary, their If the indiscretion of the king over his cups equipment, and all expenses, he undertook to were not enough, he had plenty of other keys to provide by himself and his friends; he asked the secrets of government. According to James's nothing from the king, who was to have one-fifth own declaration, Gondomar “took great alarm, of the gold, but his liberty and an ample com- and made vehement assertions, in repeated audimission. Winwood, though a practised and cau- ences, that he had discovered the objects of the
expedition to be hostile and piratical, tending to 'It should be remembered, however, that he was released a breach of the late peace between the two from the Tower after the prince's death, and again involved in the active business of life..
2 Arthur Wilson.
crowns."! Raleigh drew up a memorial, stating Islands before October, and it was the 13th of that he intended to sail pot for any Spanish pos- November when they “recovered the land of session, but for a country over which England Guiana.” During the long rough voyage, disease could claim a right both by priority of discovery had broken out among the sailors; forty-two med and consent of the natives; that there would be died on board the admiral's ship alone, and Rano hostile collision with the Spaniards; and that leigh suffered the most violent calenture that
ever man did and lived. But he wrote to his wife, “We are still strong enough, I hope, to perform what we have undertaken, if the diligent care at London to make our strength known to the Spanish king by his ambassador have not taught that monarch to fortify all the entrances against us." He was received by his old friends, the Indians on the coast, with enthusiasm ; but he soon learned that the Spaniards were up the country, and prepared to dispute with him the possession of it. Being himself so reduced by sickness as to be unable to walk, he sent Captain Keymis up the river Orinoco with five of the ships, and took up his station with the rest at the island of Trinidad; close to the mouths of that river. He had been given to understand that a Spanish fleet was in the neighbourhood; and it is quite certain that he intended not only to fight it if challenged, but also to fight in order to prevent it following Keymis up the river. This
brave captain, who had been for many years deCOUNT GONDOMAR, Spanish Ambassador. From a priut by S. Pass.
voted to Raleigh, and had suffered many troubles
on his account, had explored the country where the arms and soldiers he took with him would the mine was situated in 1595, and he was now be solely for self-defence. According to James, ordered to make direct for the mine, “the star the ambassador then seemed to be satisfied, ob- that directed them thither.” If he found it rich serving to Secretary Winwood, that if Raleigh and royal he was to establish himself at it; if only meant to make a peaceful settlement, Spain poor and unpromising, he was to bring away with would offer no resistance. Thereupon the ener- him a basket or two of ore, to convince the king getic adventurer pressed the preparations for his that the design was not altogether visionary. expedition, and his reputation and merit“ brought Keymis began sailing up the river on the 10th of many gentlemen of quality to venture their estates December. If we are to believe the English acand persons upon the design." Sir Walter ob- counts, the Spaniards began the war, and shot at tained from the Countess of Bedford £8000, the ships both with their ordnance and muskets, which were owing to him, and Lady Raleigh sold which they were very likely to do, even without her estate of Mitcham for £2500; all of which a reference to the exclusive pretension of sovemoney he embarked in the adventure. Having reignty, from the recollection of the mode in obtained ample information as to the course he which the great Drake and other English conintended to pursue, and securities, in persons of manders had behaved, and that too when, as wealth and rank, for his good behaviour and re- now, there was no declaration of war between turn, James granted his commission under the England and Spain. Keymis soon arrived off the privy seal, constituting Raleigh general and com- | town of St. Thomas, which the Spaniards had remander-in-chief of the expedition, and governor cently built on the right bank of the river; and of the colony which he was about to found. On he landed and took up a position between that the 28th of March, 1617, he set sail with a fleet town and the mine. It is said that he had no of fourteen vessels. The Destiny, in which he intention of attacking the place—we confess that, hoisted his flag, had on board 200 men, including from a consideration of the circumstances, we sixty gentlemen, many of whom were his own or
? “To tell you that I might here be king of the Indians were his wife's relations. The voyage began inauspi
| a vanity. But my name hath still lived among them hera ciously; the ships were driven by a storm into They feed me with fresh meat, and all that the country yields the Cove of Cork, where they lay till the month all offer to obey me."— Letter to his Wife. of August. They did not reach the Cape de Verd ,
3 It was an axiom with sailors long before and long after the
voyage of Raleigh, that the treaties of Europe did not extend " James's declaration in Appendix to Cayley's Life of Raleigh. across the ocean-that there was “no peace beyond the Line"