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By this time the conspirators were closely fol- 1 house. Sir Everard Digby was overtaken near lowed by Sir Richard Walsh, sheriff of Worces Dudley by the hue-and-cry, and made fast. Steter, attended by many gentlemen of the country phen Littleton and Robert Winter were betrayed and the whole posse comitatus. Although the several days after by a servant of Mrs. Littleton road was open towards Wales, they resolved to of Hagley, in whose house they had been secreted. stand at bay, and defend themselves in the house Thomas Bates, Catesby's servant, was arrested in of Holbeach. If their people had remained firm, Staffordshire; Keyes in Warwickshire. They they might possibly have repulsed the tumultuary were all carried up to London, and lodged in the assault of the sheriff, but these serving-men stole Tower. Tresham, who had never left London, away during the night. Early on the following and who appears to have been confident of his morning Stephen Littleton, who had been ad own safety, was arrested and committed to the mitted into the whole plot, got out of the house, Tower on the 12th of November, or four days and fled through fear; and Sir Everard Digby after the death or seizure of his associates at went off, in order, as he said, to bring up succour. Holbeach. Sir Everard had scarcely got out of the house Guido Fawkes, in the meanwhile, had been when some damp gunpowder which they were repeatedly examined, not only by lords-commisdrying before a fire ignited and blew up with a sioners named by the king, but also by the Lord tremendous explosion. Catesby was burned and Chief-justice Popham, Sir Edward Coke, and blackened and nearly killed, and two or three of Sir William Wood, the lieutenant of the Tower. the others were seriously injured. They now No promises, no threats, could shake his firmness, began to fear that God disapproved of their pro- or disturb his self-possession. When urged with ject; and Rookwood and others, “perceiving God the argument that his denial of the names of his to be against them, prayed before the picture of companions was useless, because by their flight our Lady, and confessed that the act was so they had been sufficiently discovered, he said, bloody as they desired God to forgive thein.” | “If that be so, it would be superfluous for me to Robert Winter, filled with horror and affright, declare them, seeing by that circumstance they stole out of the house, and came up with Stephen have named themselves." He confessed freely to Littleton in a wood hard by, and shortly after all his own doing, said he was ready to die, and his evasion Catesby's servant, Thomas Bates, es- rather wished ten thousand deaths than to accuse caped in the same manner. About the hour of Percy or any other. But he was told that Perey noon Sir Richard Walsh surrounded the mansion, and several of his confederates were apprehended, and summoned the rebels to lay down their arms. and he was racked apparently beyond the limits A successful resistance was now hopeless; but, of mortal endurance. On the 8th of November, preferring to die where they stood, to suffering before any violent torture was applied, he sigued the horrid death prescribed by the laws, they re- his name to a deposition with a bold, firm hand; fused to surrender, and defied their numerous but two days after, his signature to a fuller stateassailants. Upon this, the sheriff ordered one ment, in which he names his accomplices, is in a part of his company to set fire to the house, and faint and trembling hand, jagged and incomplete, another to make an attack on the gates of the bearing every appearance of being written in court-yard. The conspirators, with nothing but bodily agony. The Christian name (Guido) alone their swords in their hands, presented themselves is completed, and after it there is a scrawl as if as marks to be shot at. Thomas Winter was the pen had fallen from his hand. This single presently hit in the right arm and disabled. “Stand by me, Tom,” cried Catesby, “and we will die together.” And presently, as they were standing back to back, they were both shot through the body with two bullets from one musket. Catesby crawled into the house upon his hands and knees, and, seizing an image of the Virgin which stood in the vestibule, clasped it to his bosom, and expired. Two other merciful shots | AUTOGRAPHS OF GUIDO FAWKES BEFORE AND AFTER TORTURI despatched the two brothers, John and Christopher Wright, and another wounded Percy so badly incident tells a tale of horror. But it appears that he died the next day. Rookwood, who had that Fawkes never put the government in posbeen severely hurt in the morning, by the explo- session of a single secret with which they were sion of the powder, was wounded in the body with not previously acquainted, and that he would, a pike, and had his arm broken by a bullet. At under no excruciating pain, impeach the Jesuits, a rush he was made prisoner, and the other men, some of whom were suspected, from the beginwounded and disarmed, were seized within the

" Jardine, Criminal Trials.

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ning, of being implicated in the plot. Thus his indictment contained viany things to which they examiners were barbarous to no purpose. Bates, were strangers. The evidence produced consisted the servant of Catesby, was less able to go through entirely of the written depositions of the prisoners the ordeal: he confessed whatever was wished, and of a servant of Sir Everard Digby. No and was the first to implicate the Jesuits. Nor witness was orally examined. There was nothing was Tresham much more firm than Bates; for, developed on the trial to connect the conspiracy though he did not implicate the priests in the with many English Catholics beyond the actual gunpowder treason, he confessed that Father plotters. Indeed, the Papists in general regarded Garnet and Father Greenway were both privy the whole affair with horror, and Sir Everard and party to a traitorous correspondence carried Digby pathetically lamented that the project, for on about a year before the death of Elizabeth which he had sacrificed everything he had in the with the court of Spain by Catesby and others. world, was disapproved by Catholics and priests, Soon after his committal to the Tower, this and that the act which brought him to his death wretched man, who appears to have been over- was considered by them to be a great sin. In reached by the government he saved, was attacked general the principal conspirators again denied by an agonizing disease. In his extremity of that either Garnet or any other Jesuit was aware weakness he was allowed the assistance of a con- of the project of the powder, though several fidential servant and the society of his wife. On allowed that they had frequent conference both the 22d of December, at the close approach of with Garnet and Greenway. In extenuation, death, he dictated to his servant a statement in they pleaded the sufferings they and their families which he most solemnly retracted all that he had and friends had undergone—the violated promises confessed about Garnet and Greenway. This of the king, who before his accession had assured paper he signed, and made his man-servant and them of toleration-their despair of any relief a female servant of the Tower put their hands from the established government-their dread of to it as witnesses. In the course of the night he still harsher persecution-and their natural degave this statement to his wife, charging her to sire to re-establish what they considered the deliver it with her own hands to Cecil ;' and he only true church of Christ. They were all conexpired about two o'clock on the following morn- | demned to die the usual death of traitors, and ing. Catholic writers have ascribed his death to sentence was executed to the letter-for this was foul play at the hands of government. This sus- not an occasion on which the government was picion seems rather groundless, but there are likely to omit an iota of the torturing and bloody reasons for believing that some state secrets re- law. Sir Everard Digby, Robert Winter, John specting the discovery of the plot were buried in Grant, and Thomas Bates suffered on the 30th the grave of the miserable man.

of January: Thomas Winter, Rookwood, Keyes, On the 15th of January, 1606, a royal pro- and Guido Fawkes—“the Devil of the Vault”— clamation was issued against Garnet, Greenway, on the next day: they all died courageously, reand Gerard, all three English Jesuits who had penting of their intention, but professing an unbeen lurking in the country for years. The trial altered attachment to the Roman church. The of the surviving chief conspirators commenced on scene chosen for their exit was the west end of the 27th of January, having been delayed nearly St. Paul's churchyard. two months, mainly in order to bring in the Before Fawkes and the other conspirators were priests, and to get possession of the persons of led to the scaffold, the Jesuit Garnet was on his Baldwin, a Jesuit, Owen, and Sir William Stanley, way to the Tower, having been discovered hid in then residing in the Flemish dominions of the a secret chamber at Hendlip, near Worcester, the Spaniards, who refused to give them up. The seat of Thomas Abington, who had married the prisoners, Sir Everard Digby, Robert Winter, sister of Lord Mounteagle. The other two JeThomas Winter, Ambrose Rookwood, John suits, Gerard and Greenway, after many advenGrant, Guido Fawkes, Robert Keyes, and Thomas tures, effected their escape to the Continent. Bates, with the single exception of Digby, who Garnet, who at some former period had been well confessed the indictment, pleaded not guilty; not, known to Cecil, was treated in the Tower with as they observed, because they denied a full par-comparative leniency; and, from an expression of ticipation in the powder plot, but because the regret used by a dignitary of the Protestantchurch,

who afterwards became a bishop, we may preTresham declared that he made the confession respecting

sume that he was never laid upon the rack. But Garnet "only to avoid ill usage" (that is, torture), and that he had not "seen Garnet for sixteen years before, nor never had

his companion Hall, or Oldcorn, another Jesuit, letter nor message from him." Father Garnet himself, his friend Mrs. Anne Vaux, and other witnesses, subsequently agreed in

2 The finding of Garnet and his friend Hall, or Oldcorn, in declaring that Garnet had been with Tresham continually in the curious old mansion-house, is one of the most romantic in Farious places until within a few days of the discovery of the cidents we are acquainted with. Mr. Jardine has given the full Gunpowder Plot.

i account. --See Criminal Trials.

who was found in the same hiding-place at Hend-, were all carried to the council, as were also the lip, Garnet's confidential servant Owen, and an answers to them; but so cautious was the Jesuit, other servant called Chambers, appear to have that there was nothing in this correspondence to been tortured without mercy, as also withoutweigh against him. Failing in this experiment, effect, for no one of them would confess anything the lieutenant of the Tower removed Hall, or of importance against Garnet or any other Jesuit Oldcorn, to a cell next to that of his friend Gar.

net, and they were both informed by the keeper, who recommended extreme calition and secrecy, that, by opening a concealed door, they might easily converse together. The temptation was irresistible, and both the Jesuits fell into the trap. Edward Forset, a man of some learning, and a magistrate, and Locherson, a secretary of Cecil's, who had tried his ears before at eaves - dropping, were placed in such a position between the two cells that they could overhear nearly every word the prisoners

uttered; and as they conHENDLIP House, as it stood in 1800.– From a print by Ross.

versed they took notes of all

that was said. Their main or priest. Owen, after undergoing the minor subject was how they should arrange their detorments, in order to escape the rack, with which fence. Garnet said that he must needs confess he was threatened on the next examination, tore that he had been at White-Webbs, in Enfield open his bowels with a blunt knife, which he had Chase, with the conspirators, but that he would obtained by a stratagem, and died true to his maintain that he had not been there since Barmaster. Whatever was the extent of Garnet's tholomew-tide. “And in truth," said he, “I am guilt, or of the moral obliquity which he derived well persuaded that I shall wind myself out from the crafty order to which he belonged, he of this matter.” On the following day the conwas indisputably a man of extraordinary learn- versation was renewed, the eaves-droppers being ing and ability: he baffled all the court lawyers at their post as before. Garnet said several things and cunningest statesmen in twenty successive which went to connect him with the conspirators; examinations. They could never get an advan- and he told Hall that, at the next visitation of tage over him, nor drive him into a contradiction the commissioners, they must both “expect either or an admission unfavourable to his case.' But to go to the rack, or to pass quietly with the rest." in the congenial atmosphere of the Tower, a cer- He also added that he had heard that one James, tain craft had attained to the highest perfection; or Johnson, had been upon the rack for three hours. and there has scarcely been a device fancied by In the third conversation, Hall, or Oldcorn, reromance writers, but was put into actual opera-lated how he had been examined, and what he tion within those horrible walls. Some of the had said. Garnet said, “If they examine me most revolting practices of the Inquisition may any more, I will urge them to bring proofs against be traced in this English state prison. Garnet's me, for they speak of three or four witnesses." keeper of a sudden pretended to be his friend - In a fourth conversation there dropped nothing to venerate him as a martyr; and he offered, at of any consequence. But the commissioners nis own great hazard, to convey any letters the thought that they had already enough to drive prisoner might choose to write to his friends. the matter home. Garnet had hitherto denied Garnet intrusted to him several letters, which all acquaintance with the first stages of the plot:

he and Oldcorn were now charged with their own "Coke, in his speech on Garnet's trial, said he was one having words; and at first they boldly denied having “many excellent gifts and endowments of nature: by birth a uttered them. Oldcorn, however, confessed to gentleman, by education a scholar, by art learned, and a good

their truth on the rack. Still Garnet held out; lingaist." The whole of this English Jesuit's history is interesting. At one time he gained his livelihood in London by cor

and, when showed Oldcorn's examination, he said recting the press for Tottel, the celebrated printer.

that his friend might accuse himself falsely, but

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that he would not accuse himself. According to I and half charmed that immense audience; but, the Catholic account, he was then led to the rack, upon the evidence of the depositions obtained in and made sundry admissions to escape torture; the Tower, and the oaths of Forset and Locherbut, according to government documents, which, son, a verdict of guilty was returned, and the we need hardly say, are in many essentials open lord chief-justice pronounced the sentence of to doubt, he began to confess from his inward hanging, drawing, and quartering. During the conviction that it would be of no use to persist whole trial they extracted nothing from the Jein denying a fact, avowed by Oldcorn, and sup- suit: they had expected great discoveries, but ported by Forset and Locherson. After much they made none. Instead, therefore, of being subtilizing and equivocating, he was driven to hurried to execution, Garnet was kept six weeks admit that, when Fawkes went over to Flanders, in prison, during which the greatest efforts were he had given him a recommendatory letter to his made to wring further avowals from him, and to brother Jesuit Baldwin; and, finally, that the lead him to a declaration of the principles of the design of blowing up the Parliament House with society to which he belonged. In the first purgunpowder had been revealed to him, as far back pose they entirely failed, but in the second they as the month of July of the preceding year, by partially succeeded; and if the declarations conGreenway, who had received it in confession from cerning equivocation were fairly obtained, and Catesby, and, as he believed, from Thomas Win- if he expressed his real feelings, the Jesuit certer also. But he added that he had earnestly tainly entertained “opinions as inconsistent with endeavoured to dissuade Catesby, and desired all good government as they were contrary to Greenway to do the same. He further stated sound morality."? It happened, however, rather that Catesby bad at one time propounded a ques- unfortunately, that King James, and his ministion to him, in general terms, as to the lawful- ters, and their predecessors, had made opinions ness of a design meant to promote the Catholic nearly allied to those of the Jesuit, the fixed religion, in the execution of which it would be rules of, at least, their political conduct. Garnet necessary to destroy a few Catholic friends to- was executed on the 3d of May, and Cecil got gether with a great many heretical enemies. And the order of the Garter as a reward for his exerhe said that, in ignorance of what Catesby's de- tions in the detection of the plot, and his “consiga really was, he had replied that, “in case the stant dealing in matters of religion." Several object was clearly good, and could be effected by other Catholics were put to death in Warwickno other means, it might be lawful among many shire and the adjoining counties; some for being nocents to destroy some innocents." Oldcorn, personally concerned, some for harbouring priests who was no longer of any use, was now sent and proclaimed traitors. There were other vicdown to Worcester, with Mr. Abington, the tims of a more elevated rank, but not one of these owner of the house at Hendlip, and a priest was punished capitally. The Earl of Northumnamed Strange, to be tried by a special commis-berland, the kinsman of the traitor Percy, was sion. Abington, whose sole offence appears to seized on the first discovery of the plot, and comhave been the concealment of the two Jesuits, mitted to the care of the Archbishop of Canterreceived the king's pardon, through his brother- | bury; and, after the capture of the conspirators in-law, Lord Mounteagle; Oldcorn and Strange, at Holbeach, the three Catholic lords, Stourton, together with several other persons, were exe- Mordaunt, and Montague, were arrested, upon the cuted.

ground that they all meant to be absent from On the third of March “Henry Garnet, supe-parliament, and therefore must have known of rior to the Jesuits in England,” was put upon the gunpowder treason. No one of them was his trial for high treason, before a special com- ever put upon a fair trial, but the Star Chamber mission in Guildhall. Coke had again a grand | arbitrarily condemned them to heavy fines, and opportunity for display, and he spoke for some to imprisonment during the king's pleasure. The hours. When the Jesuit replied, he was not per- Earl of Northumberland was removed to the mitted so much space. Coke interrupted him Tower, and closely examined many times. He continually; the commissioners on the bench in- demanded a public trial; but in the month of terrupted him; and James, who seems to have June they brought him up to the Star Chamber, felt a respect for his powers of argument and and there accused him of having sought to be the eloquence, declared that the Jesuit had not fair head of the Papists, and a “promoter of toleraplay allowed him. Garnet pleaded that he had tion;" of having admitted Percy, a Catholic, to done his best to prevent the execution of the be a gentleman pensioner, without exacting frow powder treason; and that he could not, by the him the proper oaths; and of having preferred laws of his church, reveal any secret which had

" "I was assured there was nothing that was not known before been received under the sacred seal of confession. I

by the confessions of those that were executed."--Letter of Sir He carried himself very gravely and temperately, | Allan Percy to Sir Dudley Carleton.

? Jardine.

the safety of his money to the safety of the king. this in the Star Chamber. The earl was senIt is said that James and his ministers believed tenced to pay a fine of £30,000, to be deprived of that Northumberland was the person to whom all his offices, and to be imprisoned in the Tower the conspirators had intended to offer the regency for life. Such was the closing scene of the most or protectorship; but no mention was made of terrible of English conspiracies.'

CHAPTER II.-CIVIL AND MILITARY HISTORY.-A.D. 160641613.

JAMES I.

Meeting of parliament-Severity of the penal statutes against Papists increase 1–Visit of the King of Denmark

to England-Failure of James's proposal of union between England and Scotland—Remonstrances of the House of Commons in behalf of their privilegesJames's usual mode of life-His attachment to favouritesHistory of Robert Carr-He becomes chief favourite-Connection of James with Dutch politicsJames's prodigality and want of money– Application to parliament for supplies—The application refused – Bold remonstrances of the commons against the king's arbitrary proceedings-James obliged to part with certain feudal privileges-Growing jealousy of the commons-Death of Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury-He is succeeded by Dr. Abbot-Death of Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury-Account of Lady Arabella StuartJealousy entertained of her royal descent-Her private marriage-Her imprisonment in the TowerShe is apprehended in attempting to escape-Her melancholy end-James betakes himself to polemical authorshipHis controversy with Vorstius-He burns two heretics Assassination of Henry IV. of France, Robert Carr James's favourite, obtains the chief direction of affairs—Character of Prince Henry, son of James-His studies and great endowments-His last illness and early death-Marriage of the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James, to the Count Palatine-Progress of Robert Carr, now Viscount Rochester-His intrigue with the Countess of Essex-Sir Thomas Overbury opposes their design of marriage—They cause him to be imprisoned in the Tower-He is secretly poisoned-Carr marries the Countess of Essex-He is created Earl of Somerset.

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AM HE parliament, which was to have ministrator, executor, or guardian. In all cases

been blown into the air on the 5th of marriage where the ceremony was performed of November, met for the despatch | by a Catholic priest, the husband, being a Caof business on the 21st of January, tholic, could have no claim on the property of

1606. The penal statutes had made the wife, nor the wife, if a Catholic, on that of

n a few madmen, and, as if the do- the husband. A new oath of allegiance was deminant party wished to make more, they imme- vised, in which was a formal renunciation of diately called for an increase of severity. James the temporal power of the pope, and of his right tried to moderate the fierceness of the commons, of interfering in the civil affairs of England. by which attempt he put his own orthodoxy in Such Catholics as would take this oath were question; and, as he had chosen this unlucky liable only to the penalties enumerated; but such moment for opening a matrimonial negotiation as refused the oath were to be imprisoned for for his son, Prince Henry, with the most Ca- life, and to forfeit their personal property and tholic court of Spain, the Puritans began to mur- the rents of their lands. It was expected that mur that he was little better than a Papist him- most of the Papists would take this oath, which self. Laws the most irritating, oppressive, and did not trench on any religious dogma ; but it cruel, against the whole body of Catholics, were was loaded with offensive epithets, and though carried through both houses by overwhelming some of the leaders of the Catholic clergy in majorities; and James, more from fear than from England decided in its favour, the Jesuits conany other motive, assented to them. A few of demned it, and the pope, Paul V., forbade it in these laws will give a notion of the spirit that a breve, which Blackwall, the archpriest, had the was abroad. No Catholic recusant was to ap- 'pear at court, to live in London, or within ten "Jardine, Criminal Trials. The second volume of this wortmiles of London, or to remove on any occasioni a highly valuable illustration of English history and Englisb

law-is devoted entirely to the Gunpowder Plot, and contains, more than five miles from his home, without

not only everything valuable that has boen published on the especial license, signed by four magistrates. No subject, but numerous extracts from original and unpublished recusant was to practise in surgery, physic. or MSS. in the State Paper Office, Crown Office, and other reposi

tories. The little volume is admirably complete as a contribution law; to act as judge, clerk, or officer, in any

to history, and is, at the same time, as exciting and amusing as court or corporation, or perform the office of ad-a romance.

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