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to the Irish common diet and processes of cookery. , to use, were those that grew wild, such as the we are informed by an author of the period (Mor-water-cress, and especially the shamrock: this gan): "They scum the seething-pot with a hand- last by its acid taste was particularly grateful to ful of straw, and strain their milk taken from outlawed and starving fugitives, who snatched the cow through a like handful of straw, none of it like beasts out of ditches, as they ran and the cleanest, and so cle: nse, or rather more defile were chaced to and fro.” Of the drinks used by the pot and milk. They devour great morsels of the Irish, the chief was aquavitae or whiskey, beef unsalted, and they eat commonly swine's exclusively a Celtic beverage, which was common flesh, seldom mutton; and all these pieces of flesh, from a very early period both to Irishmen and as also the entrails of beasts unwashed, they seethe Highlanders, and sometimes it was flavoured by in a hollow tree, lapped in a raw cow's hide, and the former with raisins, fennel-seed, or saffron. so set over the fire, and therewith swallow whole Sometimes sack found its way to the tables of lumps of filthy butter. Yea (which is most con the rich from Spain, and ale and beer from Engtrary to nature) they will feed on horses dying land, but these last in smaller quantities. It of themselves, not only upon small want of flesh, speaks much for the Arab-like character of the but even for pleasure.” To this account we may people, that although they denied themselves so add a few notices from Campion, who informs us, much the luxury of bread, yet they carefully that "in haste and hunger they would squeeze hoarded their scanty stores of oats for the excluout the blood of raw flesh, and ask no more sive sustenance of their horses. dressing thereto; the rest boileth in their stomachs Such was the state of Ireland at the close of the with aquavitæ, which they swill in after such a sixteenth and commencement of the seventeenth surfeit by quarts and pottles.” He also men-centuries. It is truly a sickening picture; and tions a still more loathsome and inhuman dish on considering it, we are naturally induced to which was in use among the Irish. This was wonder that so little improvement has been acprocured by bleeding their cattle, and letting the complished in the character and condition of the blood congeal, after which it was baked, larded native Irish, from that period till the present with butter, and devoured in lumps. The milk day. Are we to attribute this political phenoof their cattle was also plentifully used at Irish menon to the Asiatic tenacity and indisposition meals, warmed or curdled, by the process of to change, manifested by the whole Celtic race, dropping a stone into it that had been heated in aggravated in the case of Ireland by foreign dothe fire for the purpose; and sometimes this mination and misrule? Such a conclusion the simple posset was enriched by an admixture of whole history of that unbappy land seems too beef-broth. Whatever vegetables they chanced ( well calculated to verify

BOOK VII.

PERIOD FROM THE ACCESSION OF JAMES I. TO THE RESTORATION

OF CHARLES II.-57 YEARS.

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CHAPTER 1.-CIVIL AND MILITARY HISTORY.-A.D. 1603-1606.

JAMES 1.-ACCESSION, A.D. 1603—-DEATH, A.D. 1625.

Ndings of Queen Elizabeth's death sent to James VI. of Scotland--He is proclaimed King of England, &c.-His

journey to England-His arrival in London-Court paid to him by foreign states-Plots against him in London--Apprehension of the principal conspirators---Apprehension and trial of Sir Walter Raleigh-He and his associates respited-Petition of the Puritans for religious reform and a conference-The conference beld at Hampton Court-James's conduct as a disputant-Flattery paid to him by the bishops and courtiersMeeting of his first parliament-James's love of hunting-Disappointment of the Catholics at not receiving toleration---Conspirators of the Gunpowder Plot-Their purpose and proceedings-Detection of the plotApprehension of Fawkes-Flight of the conspirators-- Their desperate resistauce and death-Trial and execution of Fawkes – Trial and execution of others of the conspirators-Apprehension of Garnet, the Jesuit, and his associate, Hall—Their imprisonment in the Tower-Nefarious practices to make them confess their guilt - Their trial - They are executed— Arbitrary proceedings of the Star Chamber.

X LIZABETH had no sooner , secret, until the formal despatch from London o breathed her last, than Lady should reach him. Sir Robert Carey had scarcely

her: Scrope, a daughter of her rela- taken horse for the north when Cecil, Notting. 19) tive, the late Lord Hunsdon, ham, Egerton, and others, met in secret debate

communicated the intelligence at Richmond at an early hour, before the queen's 077 to her brother, Sir Robert Ca- | death was known; and these lords “knowing VID rey, who had been on the watch; above all things delays to be most dangerous," 022 and who, anticipating Cecil and the proceeded at once to London, and drew up a pro

y other lords of the council, stole out clamation in the name “ of the lords spiritual

of the palace at Richmond, where the and temporal, united and assisted with the late queen had expired at three o'clock on the morn- queen's council, other principal gentlemen, the ing of Thursday, the 24th of March, and posted lord-mayor, aldermen, and citizens of London, a down to Scotland, in order to be the first to 1 multitude of other good subjects and commons hail James Stuart as King of England. This of the realm.” This proclamation bore thirty-six tender relative arrived at Edinburgh on the signatures, the three first being those of Robert night of Saturday the 26th, four days before Sir Lee, lord-mayor of London, the Archbishop Charles Percy and Thomas Somerset, Esq., who of Canterbury, and the Lord-keeper Egerton; were despatched by the council; but it was the three last, those of Secretary Sir Robert Co agreed with James to keep the great matter a ! cil, Sir J. Fortescue, and Sir John Pophain. It

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VOL. II.

was signed and ready about five hours after was the readiness of the nation to acknowledge Elizabeth's decease; and then those who had the Scottish king, or their laudable anxiety to signed it went out of the council-chamber at avoid a disputed succession and civil war. Whitehall, with Secretary Cecil at their head, There was one person, however, whose claiin who had taken the chief direction of the busi-excited uneasiness in the cautious mind of Cecil ness, and who in the front of the palace read to this was the Lady Arabella Stuart, daughter the people the proclamation, which assured them of the Earl of Lennox, younger brother of that the queen's majesty was really dead, and James's father, Darnley, and descended equally that the right of succession was wholly in James, from the stock of Henry VII. This young lady King of Scots, now King of England, Scotland, was by birth an English woman, a circumstance France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. which had been considered by some as makin: They then went to the High Cross in Cheapside, up for her defect of primogeniture, for James.

though nearer, was a born Scotchman and alien Cecil for some time had had his eye upon the Lady Arabella, and she was now safe in his

keeping. Eight hundred dangerous or turbulent Wuuu persons, indistinctly described as "vagabonds,"

were seized in two nights in London, and sent to serve on board the Dutch fleet. No other out ward precautions were deemed necessary by the son of Burghley, who calmly waited the coming of James and his own great reward, without asking for any pledge for the privileges of parliament, the liberties of the people, or the reform of abuses which had grown with the growing prerogative of the crown. But these were things altogether overlooked, not only by Cecil and Nottingham, and those who acted with them, but also by the parties opposed to them, the most remarkable man among whom was Sir Walter Raleigh, who, like all the other courtiers of statesmen, looked entirely to his own interest o aggrandizement.

Between the independent, unyielding spirit al his clergy, the turbulent, intriguing habits of his nobles, and his own poverty, James had lei

rather a hard life in Scotland. He was eager to The Higu CROSS, CHEAPSIDE.

take possession of England, which he looked From a painting lately at Cowdray, Sussex.

upon as the very Land of Promise; but so poor where Cecil again read the proclamation, and was he that he could not begin his journey anti! when he had done, “the multitude with one con- Cecil sent him down money. He asked for the sent cried aloud – ‘God save King James !"" crown jewels of England for the queen his wife; for all parties, or rather the three great religious but the council did not think fit to comply with sects, High Clurchmen, Puritans, and Papists, this request: and, on the 6th day of April, he & all promised themselves advantages from his out for Berwick, without wife or jewels. O accession. Cecil next caused three heralds and a arriving at that ancient town he fired off. with his trumpeter to proclaim the said tidings within the own hand, a great piece of ordnance, an unusual walls of the Tower, where the heart of many a effort of ourage on his part. On the same day state-prisoner leaped for joy, and where the Earl he wrote to his "right trusty and right well of Southampton, the friend of the unfortunate beloved cousins and councillors, the lords and Essex, joined the rest in their signs of great glad- others of his privy council at London," thanking ness. Of the other thirteen or fourteen conflict-them for the money which they had sent, telling ing claims to the succession which had been them that he would hasten his journey as much reckoned up at different times during Elizabeth's

? James's claim, Lowever, was not at all through his fathss. reign, not one appears to have been publicly

pugnay Lord Darnley, but through his mother, who, as the grand mentioned, or even alluded to; and the right of daughter of James IV. by his wife Margaret, eldest danghta on James was allowed to pass unquestioned. Such | Henry VII., was, after Elizabeth, the next representative had been the able management of Cecil-such

that king. The Lady Arabella and her uncle Lord Darnley were

descended from the same Margaret Tudor, but by be som Slow: Weldon: Osborne: Memoirs of Sir Robert Carey marriage with Matthew Stuart, Earl of lennor.

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as conveniently he might—that he intended to made easy;" yet, notwithstanding their system tarry awhile at the city of York, and to make his and his own great caution, his majesty got a fall entry therein in some such solemn manner as off his horse, near Belvoir Castle. “But God bo appertained to his dignity, and that, therefore, thanked,” adds Cecil, in relating the accident to he should require that all such things as they in the ambassador in France," he hath no harm at their wisdom thought meet should be sent down all by it, and it is no more than may befall any to York. The body of Elizabeth was still above other great and extreme rider, as he is, at least round, and it would have been regular in him once every month."! As he approached the Eng. to attend her funeral in person. He assured the lish capital, hosts of courtiers and aspirants after lords that he could be well contented to do that, places hurried to meet him and pay their homage. and all other honour he might, unto “the queen Among these the great Francis Bacon was not defunct;" and he referred it to their considera- the last, who, in a letter to the Earl of Northumtion, whether it would be more honour for her berland, has left us a curious record of his first to have the funeral finished before he came, or impressions. to wait and have him present at it. Cecil and Other persons who were not, as Bacon was, his friends knew what

afraid of judging too all this meant, and has

boldly of James's charactened the funeral: there

ter and address, expresswas no rejoicing succes

ed astonishment, if not sor present; but 1500

disgust, at the very unpersons in deep mourn

royal person and bebu. ing voluntarily followed

viour of the new sove the body of Elizabeth

reign, whose legs were to Westminster Abbey.

too weak to carry his The king was a slow tra

body-whose tongue was Feller. On the 13th of

too large for his mouth April, or seven days af.

whose eyes were goggle, ter, he had got no far

rolling, and yet vacantther than Newcastle,

whose apparel was newhence he wrote another

glected and dirty-whose letter, commanding coins

whole appearance and of different denomina

bearing was slovenly and tions to be struck in gold

ungainly; while his unand silver. He gave

manly fears were betrayminute directions as to

ed by his wearing a arms, quarterings, and

thickly wadded daggermottoes. By the 15th of

proof doublet, and by April he had reached the JAMES 1.–From a portrait by Vandyke, after a miniature many other ridiculous house of Sir William

by Hilyard, 1617.

precautions. To such as Ingleby at Topcliff; and from that place he wrote hungered after the honours of knighthood, he may a curious letter, to the lord-keeper, the lord-trea- | have appeared in a more favourable light, for, as surer, the lord-admiral, the master of the horse, he went along, he profusely distributed these and the principal secretary for the time being. All honours: in fact, he appears to have bestowed bis circumlocution and care could not conceal his the honour of knighthood on nearly every person ill-humour at their not coming to meet him, and that came to him during this hey-day journey. their still delaying to send the crown jewels. It is At last, on the 3d of May, he reached Theobalds said that James, in conversing with some of his in Hertfordshire, the sumptuous seat of Secretary English counsellors about his prerogative, ex- Cecil, where, as at other gentlemen's houses at claimed joyously, “Do I make the judges? Do I which he had stayed, he was astonished at the make the bishops? Then, God's wounds! I make luxury, comparative elegance, and comfort he what likes me law and gospel!” Though he had found. He was met by all the lords of the late hardly ever had the due and proper authority of a queen's council, who knelt down and did their king in his own country, he had long indulged in homage, after which the Lord-keeper Egerton a speculative absolutism, and, as far as his cowar-made a grave oration, in the name of all, signidive and indolence allowed him, he came fully fying their assured love and allegiance. On the prepared to rule the people of England as a des morrow he made twenty-eight more knights. pot. To enliven his journey he hunted along the But it was not for these operations that Cecil road. He was a miserable horseman, but his

Sir Henry Ellis' Collection. courtiers invented for him a sort of "hunting

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? Scrinia Sacra, a snipplement to the Cahala.

had induced him to take Theobalds on his way; made more. By the time he had set foot in bis and during the four days which the king passed palace of Whitehall, he had knighted 200 indivithere, that wily statesman ingratiated himself duals of all kinds and colours, and before he had with his new master, and remodelled a cabinet been three months in England he had lavished very much (though not entirely) to his own sa- the honour on some 700;- nor was he very chary tisfaction. The chief objects of Cecil's present even of the honour of the English peerage, which jealousy were the Earl of Northumberland, Lord Elizabeth held at so high a price. He presently Grey, Lord Cobham, and the versatile, intriguing, made four earls and nine barons, among whom and ambitious Sir Walter Raleigh, who, very for- was Cecil, who became Lord Cecil, afterwards tunately for Cecil, had given grounds of offence to Viscount Cranborne, and finally Earl of Salisbury. the king before Elizabeth's demise. Northum-Several of the English promotions excited surberland, who employed the cogent advocacy and prise and derision; but these feelings gave place eloquent tongue of Bacon, was promised a share to more angry passions when he elevated his Sootin the king's favour; but Cobham and Grey were tish followers to seats in the House of Lords cut off from promotion, and Raleigh, who aspired Before he had done he added sixty-two names to to the highest posts, was deprived of the subor- the list of the peerage. dinate ones which he had held. Cecil was re- Towards the end of June, James met his queet tained, together with his friends Nottingham, and his children (with the exception of Charles, Henry and Thomas Howard, Buckhurst, Mount- his second son, who had been left behind in Scot joy, and Egerton, to whom James added four land) at Windsor Castle, where the young price Scottish lords, and his secretary, Elphinstone, a Henry was installed knight of the order of the nomination which instantly called forth jealousy Garter. On the 22d of July the court removed and discontent.

I to Westminster, where the king, in his garden, On the 7th of May the king moved towards dubbed knights all the judges, all the serjeantsLondon, and was met at Stamford Hill by the at-law,' all the doctors of civil law, all the genlord-mayor and aldermen of London, in scarlet tlemen-ushers, and “many others of divers quali robes; and about six o'clock in the evening he ties.” Splendid preparations had been made for arrived at the Charter-house, where he made the coronation of the king and queen with pagesome more knights. On the same day proclama- ants and shows of triumph; but as the plague tion was made that all the monopolies granted by was raging in the city of London and the suburbs. the late queen should be suspended till they had the people were not permitted to go to Westminbeen examined by the king and council,” that all ster to see the sight, but forbidden by proclamaroyal protections that hindered men's suits in tion, lest the infection should be further spread law should cease, and that the oppressions done for there died that week in London and the by saltpetre makers, purveyors, and cart-takers, suburbs of all diseases 1103; of the plague 857. for the use of the court, should be put down. To increase the inauspicious aspect of things, the These were valuable instalments if they had been weather was darker and more rainy than had held sacred; but a few days after, James, "being ever been known at such a season. On the 25th a prince above all others addicted to hunting," of July the coronation took place. issued another proclamation, prohibiting all man- However weak might be the personal chara ner of persons whatsoever from killing deer, and ter of James, the power of the great nation de all kinds of wild-fowl used for hunting and was called to govern was not to be despised by hawking, upon pain of the severest penalties, the contending states on the Continent. Almost

From the Charter-house James removed to the immediately on his arrival, special ambassadors Tower, where he made more knights, and from began to flock from all parts, to congratulate him the Tower he proceeded to Greenwich, where he ou his accession, and to win him each to the sepa

1 He was allowed to retain the government of the island of held £40 a-year in chivalry (whether of the crown or pot, ss it Jersey, which had been given to him by Elizabeth.—Sir Henry seems) to receive knighthood or to pay a composition. Ryse, Ellis' Letters.

xvi. 530. The object of this was, of course, to raise money from 2 Lodge (Illustrations) gives a complete list of these monopolies. those who thought the honour troublesome and expensive, but One of them gives Symon Farmer and John Crafford an ex such as chose to appear could not be refused; and this sont clusive right “to transport all manner of horns for twenty-one for his having made many hundred knights in th years." One gives Bryan Amersley the sole right of buying steel his reign.-Harris' Life of James, p. 69."-Hallam's Coast. beyond seas, and of selling the same within this realm. One Eng. note at p. 332. From The Glory of Generosity, published confines to Ede Schets the sole right of exporting ashes and old in Elizabeth's reign, we learn that an act of parliament het shoes for seven years. One gives Sir Walter Raleigh the faculty been passed to protect those who held lands by socage, INE of dispensing licenses for keeping of taverns and retailing of being compelled to become knights and taxed accorlingly. So wines throughout all England,

doubt this would make still more marked the greater Land 3 Stow; Roger Coke, Detection of the Court and State of Eng- of the knightly tenure; and probably a mixed feeling of loyalty land, &c.

and pride of rank led numbers of the gentry to crowd to the 4 Mr. Hallam tells us-"In the first part of his reign James king and claim their undoubted privilege of being knighted had availed himself of an old feudal roucre, calling on all who ! 5 Among those thus knighted was Francis Bacon. &#.

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