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comprehensive denunciation was directed with fatory admonitions in the spirit of the prevailing especial vehemence against all who in any way system, On the whole, the work inculcatel, injured or troubled the state of holy church, by though covertly, a sort of half Protestantism. withdrawing offerings, tithes, rents, or other ec- In an exposition of the Ten Commandments, with clesiastical dues—by violating the rights of sanc- which it commenced, what we call the second tuary—by calling in the aid of the civil power in commandment was, after the common Popish matters appertaining to the ecclesiastical jurisdic- fashion, treated as part of the first, but in others tion—by retaining possession of houses, manors, of the pieces the Protestant distinction between or other property belonging to the church-or in the two was recognized. The topic of the unany one of various other ways that were specified. warrantableness of the worship of the Virgin and The king's order to the bishops was to leave out the saints is pressed with little reserve. In one in the General Sentence all such articles as tended place, indeed, the writer ventures to point out to the glory and advancement of the Bishop of the great danger of falling into idolatry by the Rome; but the effect, as has been mentioned, was practice of such worship, and comes to this bold to cause the Curse to be soon laid aside altogether. conclusion: “That it was not meet, comely, nor
As yet, however, with the exception only of fitting, that in our prayers we should make a go? the single doctrine, if it could be so called, of the or saviour of any saint in heaven; no, not of ow Papal supremacy, no alteration was made in any blessed Lady." Still, however, the Litany alpart of the ancient national profession of faith. though given in English, and prefaced by an This very year, on the petition of the convocation, argument against praying to saints, was left with Henry issued a strict proclamation against the all the old addresses to the Virgin, to the angels, importation and possession of what were called to the twelve apostles, the martyrs, confessors, heretical books. Among these, according to a and virgins, calling upon them for their interceslist published a few years before, were Tyndal's sion in behalf of the worshipper. The Matiny New Testament, and the various treatises of Even Song, and Seven Penitential Psalms, were Luther, Huss, Zwingle, and the other continental all likewise given in English. In a Devout and Reformers. In this and subsequent years many Fruitful Remembrance of Christ's Passion, an atpersons even suffered at the stake for the offence tack was made upon the superstition of thinking of importing and dispersing such books. that any benefits could accrue from carrying about
The friars, it is well known, early drew upon the person images, painted papers, or carvel themselves the determined hostility of the king crosses, designed, as was pretended, to be helps by their almost universal opposition to him, and towards beholding the passion of Christ—that by advocacy of the cause of Catherine, in the affair such means, for instance, safety could be secured of the divorce. But the best handle which they from fire, water, or any other peril. Perhaps, gave him for the execution of his designs for their however, the most daring instance of speaking destruction, arose out of the business of the Holy out occurs in the admonition prefixed to the Maid of Kent, of whose prophecies their zeal and Dirige, popularly called the Dirge, which was credulity made them very generally either the the office that used to be said for the souls of the dupes, or at least the pretended believers and dead. There is no alteration in the old form, upholders.
except that the words are translated into English, The Nun of Kent and her confederates, or but in the prefatory observations the writer says, rather those who made use of her as their instru- “Among other works of darkness and deep ignoment, were put to death in 1534. At this time, rance, wherein we have blindly wandered, followunder the ascendency of Cranmer and Cromwell, ing a sort of blind guides many days and years, and the still unimpaired influence of his young I account this not one of the least, that we have and beautiful queen Anne, Henry showed perhaps rung and sung, mumbled, murmured, and pitemore of an inclination towards Protestantisin ously puled forth a certain sort of psalms, with than at any other period of his life.
responds, versicles, and lessons to the same, for Some notiou of the mixed religion patronized the souls of our Christian brethren and sisters at this date by the authorities in England may departed out of this world.” “There is nothing," be gathered from a work entitled King Henry's it is added, “in the Dirige, taken out of the ScripPrimer; a second edition of which appeared, in ture, that makes any more mention of the souls a quarto volume, in 1535, put forth professedly departed, than doth the tale of Robin Hood." by Dr. Marshal, archdeacon of Nottingham. It In his present circumstances, threatened as he consisted of a collection of tracts on the different was with the vengeance of the emperor for his parts of Divine worship, most of which seem to treatment of Catherine, the friendship of the Prohave been published before at different es, testant princes of Germany was of the greatest but were now revised and accompanied by pre- importance to Henry; and he never, before or
after, went so far in the direction of the new
1 See vol. i. p. 794.
opinions in religiou as he now did in his endea- | proctors of the lower house, and were finally convours to secure that object. After some prelim- firmed by the king, and published, with a preface inary negotiation, in the beginning of the year in his name. 1536, the Elector of Saxony and the other chiefs The articles began with a distinct admission of of the Lutheran confederacy presented their pro- the great Protestant principle of the supremacy posals to him in a "petition and request,” con- of the Bible, qualified only by the addition—to sisting of fourteen articles, his answer to which, which few Protestants would then object-that printed by Burnet in his supplement, from the the three ancient creeds, that of the Apostles, the original in the State Paper Office, exhibits him Nicene, and the Athanasian, should be held to to us in the most Protestant character he ever be of equal authority with the Scriptures. When assumed.
particular controverted matters, however, came " This negotiation," says Burnet, “sunk to a to be spoken of, the language employed was not great degree upon Queen Anne's tragical fall; always so explicit and decisive, or at least was not and as the king thought they were no more neces- always perfectly consistent with this introducsary to him, so they saw his intractable humour, tory announcement. In regard to baptism the and had no hope of succeeding with him unless opinions of the Anabaptists and Pelagians were they would have allowed him a dictatorship in declared to be detestable heresies. Concerning matters of religion.” In another place the same penance it was affirmed that it was instituted by historian admits, in substance, that Henry now Christ, and was absolutely necessary to salvation arrogated to himself, in matters of religion, an —that it consisted of contrition, confession, and infallibility and authority as absolute as had ever amendment of life, with exterior works of chabeen claimed by the most imperious or intolerant rity—that confession to a priest is necessary, if of the popes. He thought all persons were bound it may be had—that his absolution is spoken by to regulate their belief by his dictates.
an authority given to him by Christ in the gosIn the convocation which met in June this year, pel, and must be believed as if it were spoken by and in which Cromwell occupied the chief seat God himself—that therefore none were to conas the king's vicegerent, a great deal of debate demn auricular confession, but to use it for the took place touching the new opinions in religion. comfort of their consciences. In the article Sixty-seven of these opinions, embracing the prin- touching the sacrament of the altar the dogma cipal tenets of the old Lollards and Wyckliffites, of transubstantiation was laid down in the most of the Lutherans and other Protestant Reformers unqualified terms. In another article the necesof the day, and of the fanatical Anabaptists, were sity of good works to salvation was distinctly complained of by the lower house as prevalent asserted, and so far there was a rejection of the errors that demanded correction. The representa- Lutheran doctrine of justification by faith alone; tion also noticed many extravagant and indecor- but, on the other hand, it was conceded that a ous expressions, and irreverent jests touching sinner will not be justified by God for the merit confession, praying to saints, holy water, and the or worthiness of any good work he may have other ceremonies of the church, and called for done; and it was noted with especial prominence their suppression, not without some oblique re- and emphasis that the good works necessary to flections on Cranmer and his few brethren on the salvation were not only external acts, but the inbench of the same way of thinking with himself, ward motions and graces of God's Holy Spirit. as having neglected their duty in not putting The same struggle and intermixture of opposite down such abuses. Cromwell, however, still had opinions is to be discerned in what is said on the influence enough with Henry to obtain from him subject of images; here, again, the old practice a declaration rebuking, at least by implication, being retained, but guarded, and in some degree this officious zeal of the clergy, and rather inti-corrected and checked, by the modern principle. mating a favourable disposition towards some of As for the estimation in which the saints were the denounced opinions. It was stated to be the to be held, it was laid down, with the like ingeking's pleasure that the rites and ceremonies of nious indentation and dovetailing of the two the church should be reformed by the rules of classes of opinion, first, that people were not to Scripture, and that nothing should be maintained think to obtain those things at the hands of the which did not rest on that authority. Afterwards saints which were to be obtained only of God; many of the doctrinal points in dispute between secondly, nevertheless, that it was good to pray the two parties were discussed at great length. to them to pray with and for us; and thirdly, In the end certain articles were agreed upon, that all the days appointed by the church for the which, after being in several places corrected and memories of the saints were to be kept, but yet tempered by the king's own hand, were signed by that the king might at any time lessen the numCromwell, Cranmer, and seventeen other bishops, ber of the said days, and must be obeyed if he forty abbots and priors, and fifty archdeacons and did so. Another article sanctioned as good and laudable, and as having mystical significations in noster, the Creed, and the Ten Commandments them, as well as being useful to lift up the mind in their mother tongue. to God, all the old customary ceremonies of reli- In the following year, 1537, the war of reforgious worship—the vestments of the priest, the mation began to be carried on by Cromwell and sprinkling of holy water, the distribution of holy his associates after a new fashion, by the destrucbread, the bearing of candles on Candlemas Day, tion of images, relics, and shrines, which had the giving of ashes on Ash Wednesday, the long been the objects of popular veneration-a bearing of palms on Palm Sunday, the creeping measure which was rather facilitated than origito the Cross on Good Friday, the hallowing the nally provoked by the discoveries that were made font, and other exorcisms and benedictions. The in the course of the visitation of the monasteries last of the articles related to the much contro- now commenced. One of the orders given to the verted questions of purgatory and prayers for visitors was to make a minute examination of all the dead; and here, on the whole, the Protestant the relics and images in any of these houses to notions must be considered to have prevailed, which pilgrimages were wont to be made. “In although there was still something of the usual this," says Burnet, “Dr. London did great serbalancing and compounding together of adverse vice. From Reading he writes that the chief if not absolutely contradictory views and state- relics of idolatry in the nation were there—an anments.
gel with one wing, that brought over the spear's This mongrel religion, neither Romanism nor head that pierced our Saviour's side. To which Protestantism, but an irregular patchwork or he adds a long inventory of their other relics, uncemented jumble of both, could not be ex- and says there were as many more as would fill pected, after it was manufactured and produced, four sheets of paper. He also writes from other to be perfectly acceptable to any part of the na- places that he had everywhere taken down their tion.', As soon as it was published, Burnet tells images and trinkets." Some of the images were is it “occasioned a great variety of censures;"— brought to London, and, for the purpose of exthat is, of expressions of opinion respecting it. posing the juggling impostures of the monks, On the whole, however, it was generally regarded were broken up at St. Paul's Cross in the sight of as a decided advance in a Protestant direction. all the people. The rich shrines of our Lady of
The publication of the articles was immediately Walsingham, of Ipswich, of Islington, and many followed by a royal proclamation, abolishing, in others, were now brought to London, and burned conformity with the authority given by one of by order of Cromwell. them, a considerable number of holidays, includ- The abolition of images and pilgrimages occ ing most of those in the harvest season-a mea- pied a principal place in a new set of instructions sure of policy which, however calculated to be which Cromwell issued to the clergy in 1538. ultimately beneficial, was, perhaps, not very wise At this point, however, the state of matters in the temper of the popular mind at the moment, begav to turn.” The sequel of Henry's course, and is admitted to have had as great an effect as in regard to doctrinal changes, was, with the exany of the sudden innovations that were now ception perhaps of some momentary starts of camade, in provoking the Pilgrimage of Grace and price or passion, rather a going back than a going the other serious insurrectionary movements that forward. Although he had thrown off the auook place in the close of this year. A set of in- thority of the Roman pontiff, indeed, he had no junctions to the clergy was also issued by Crom- notion that the English church should be left well as vicegerent in the king's name, “which," without a pope; his objection was not to the says Burnet, “was the first act of pure supremacy thing but to the person; and his main object in done by the king; for in all that went before he displacing the Bishop of Roine evidently was, had the concurrence of the two convocations." that, in so far at least as the religion of his own The injunctions, which are supposed to have subjects was concerned, he might mount the been penned by Cranmer, after exhorting the same seat of absolute authority himself. The clergy to see, as far as in them lay, to the observ- ancient head of the Roman church never put ance of the new articles, and of the laws and forward greater pretensions to infallibility than statutes made for the extirpation of the usurped were, if not distinctly advanced in words, yet power of the Bishop of Rome, directed that all constantly acted upon by the new head of the children and servants should be taught from their English church in his narrower empire of spiri. infancy to repeat and understand their Pater- tual despotism. The Catholics, seeing they could
1 “It is yet but a mingle-mangle, a hotch-potch,” said Lati- do no better in the state to which matters had mer, of the Reformation, in one of his sermons; “I cannot tell been brought, were now contented even to affect what; partly Popery, and partly true religion mingled together. a satisfaction with the changes that had been alThey say in my country, when they call their hogs to the swinetrough, Come to thy mingle-manglo-come, pur, come! Even ready made, in the hope of thereby preventing o do they make a mingle-mangle of the gospel."
further innovations. After the trial and con
demnation of Lambert, the Sacramentary, in No- In 1539 was passed by the parliament the famuvember, 1538, in which Henry took personally ous act for abolishing diversity in opinions (31 so conspicuous a part, “the party that opposed Henry VIII. c. 14), popularly called the Statute the Reformation,' says Burnet, “persuaded the of the Six Articles, or the Bloody Statute, conking that he had got so much reputation to him- firming the resolutions which had already been self by it, that it would effectually refute all carried in the convocation in favour of transubaspersions which had been cast on him as if he stantiation, against communion in both kinds, intended to change the faith : neither did they against the marriage of priests, and in favour of forget to set on him in his weak side, and mag- vows of chastity, of private masses, and of aurinify all that he had said, as if the oracle had ut- cular confession. The prime instigator of this tered it, by which they said it appeared he was new law was undoubtedly the Bishop of Winindeed a defender of the faith, and the supreme chester, now the king's chief counsellor. head of the church."
The six articles of the Bloody Statute remained In this spirit he now issued a long proclama- the established rule of faith of the English church, tion, prohibiting generally the importing of all upon the several points to which they related, English books printed abroad, and also the print- for the rest of Henry's reign. At this point, ing of any books at home without license, any therefore, the history of the changes in the napart of the Scripture not excepted, till it had tional religion made by Henry comes to a close, been examined and approved by the king and in so far as it forms a continuous narrative; but his council, or by the bishop of the diocese; con- there are still a few scattered incidents in the demning all the books of the Anabaptists and history of the church, and of the regulation of Sacramentaries, or deniers of the corporal pre- doctrine and worship during the last years of sence of Christ in the eacharist, and denouncing his reign, that require a short notice. punishment against all who should sell or other- Some injunctions issued by Bonner to his wise publish them; forbidding all persons to clergy of the diocese of London, in 1542—which argue against the doctrine of the real presence Burnet thinks “have a strain in them so far difunder pain of death and the loss of their goods; ferent from the rest of his life, that it is more declaring that all should be punished who es probable they were drawn by another pen, and chewed or neglected any rites or ceremonies not imposed on Bonner by an order of the king”Fet abolished; and ordering that all married contain a few things worthy of notice. Among priests should immediately be deprived, and the duties imposed upon all parsons, vicars, curthose that should afterwards marry imprisoned ates, and other parish priests, one is, that they or otherwise further punished at the king's plea- read over and diligently study, every day, one zure. Cranmer's interest at court was now, from chapter of the Bible, with the ordinary gloss, or various causes, greatly diminished. His chief that of some other approved doctor or expositor; friend and ablest supporter on the episcopal another is, that they shall instruct, teach, and bench, Fox, Bishop of Hereford, had died in bring up in learning, in the best way that they May of this year; and "for the other bishops can, all such children of their parishioners as that adhered to Cranmer," says Burnet, “they shall come to them for that purpose—at least were rather clogs than helps to him." The only teaching them to read English—for which they ally Cranmer had at court upon whom he could were to be moderately paid by such as could place any reliance was Cromwell, and he had afford it. Some of the paragraphs that follow enough to do to take care of himself; for, as the are illustrative of the manners of the time. It right reverend historian remarks, "there was is spoken of as “a detestable and abominable not a queen now in the king's bosom to favour practice, universally reigning,” that young people their motions." Cromwell conceived the scheme and others were accustomed on Sundays and of recovering his interest by bringing over Anne holidays, during the time of Divine service, to of Cleves. How disastrous this project proved resort to alehouses, and there exercise unlawful in the issue to its contriver has been already re- games, with great swearing, blasphemy, drunkenlated. But even before Henry's new marriage ness, and other enormities. It was even thought Cromwell's influence had been greatly weakened necessary to warn the clergy themselves that they by the growing ascendency of the able and crafty should not in future use any unlawful games, or Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, who at this mo- resort frequently to alehouses, taverns, or other ment professed himself precisely as much a Re- places of evil repute, or haunted by light comformer and as much a follower of the old faith pany; and they were also forbidden to array as his royal master, and in that way was easily themselves in unseemly and unpriestly habits or enabled to gnide Henry's course more and more apparel, or to have unlawful tonsures, or to carry back towards the latter, without suffering him armour and weapons about with them. Another to feel that he was either driven or drawn. injunction forbids any manner of common plays, games, or interludes to be played, set forth, or to read the English Bible aloud in any church declared, within churches or chapels. This was or open assembly, under the penalty of a month's a singular practice, which, in the shape and imprisonment, but great restrictions were laid spirit at least in which it now prevailed, had even upon the private reading of it. Any noblecome in with the Reformation. The old miracle- man or gentleman, being a householder, was still plays, indeed, seem to have originated with the permitted “to read, or cause to be read by any clergy, and were frequently exhibited in the mo- of his family or servants, in his hou orchard, nasteries, and perhaps also in the churches; but or garden, and to his own family, any text of the these were, in the main, serious and solemn per- Bible or New Testament, so the same be done formances, and were designed to excite the re- quietly and without disturbance of good order;" verential and devotional feelings of the specta- and any merchant, “being a householder, and octors, which were not at all disturbed even by cupying the seat of merchandise,” might read to the rude jocularity or buffoonery, a good deal himself privately in the sacred volume. But that of which was usually mixed up with the repre- privilege was withdrawn from all women, artisentation. But the plays and interludes now ficers, apprentices, journeymen, serving-men of acted in churches were expressly intended to the degree of yeomen or under, husbandmen, and turn thing that had heretofore been held sacred labourers; and noblewomen and gentlewomen into ridicule. Burnet tells us that, although the were only allowed to read to themselves alone, clergy complained of them as an introduction to and not to others. atheism and all sorts of impiety, and the more In 1537 had come out, under the title of The grave and learned Reformers disliked and con- Godly and Pious Institution of a Christian Man, ciemned them as unsuitable to the genius of true the first edition of an explanation of all the leadreligion, yet “the political men of that party ing doctrines of the church, compiled by a body made great use of them, encouraging them all of bishops and other divines commissioned for they could; for, they said, contempt being the that purpose by the king, whence it popularly most operative and lasting affection of the mind, received the name of the Bishops' Book. A nothing would more effectually drive out many second edition of this work, revised and put into of those abuses which yet remained, than to a new form under the direction of another conexpose them to the contempt and scorn of the mission, appeared in 1540, the title now given to people.”
it being The Necessary Doctrine and Erudition These indecent exhibitions at length attracted of a Christian Man. In this authoritative comthe attention of the government, and in 1543 an pendium there was certainly, on the whole, much act of parliament (stat. 34 and 35,c. 1, entitled, “An less of Protestantism than of the ancient faith. Act for the advancement of True Religion, and A third edition of the book, with many alterafor the abolishment of the contrary”) was passed tions and additions by another commission, came for putting them down, along with divers other out in 1543, introduced by a prefatory epistle abuses, or conceived abuses, which had sprung from Henry himself, whence it now came to be up in the fertile hot-bed of the licentious time. called The King': Book. The most remarkable For reformation of these evils the act proceeds pe ssage in this epistle related to the reading of to prohibit "all manner of books of the Old and the Scriptures, which it was admitted was necesNew Testament in English, being of the crafty, sary for those whose office it was to teach others; false, and untrue translation of Tyndal, and all “but for the other part of the church," continues other books and writings in the English tongue the king, “ordained to be taught, it ought to be teaching or comprising any matters of Christian deemed certainly that the reading of the Old religion, articles of the faith, or Holy Scripture, and New Testament is not so necessary for all or any part of them," contrary to the doctrine set those folks, that of duty they ought and be bound forth by the king since the year 1540. Another to read it, but as the prince and the policy of proviso is amusing: free liberty to use any part the realm shall think convenient so to be tolerof the Bible or Holy Scripture as they have been ated or taken from it." wont, so always it be not contrary to the doc- It is difficult to understand what Burnet means trine of 1540, is continued to the chancellor of by describing the act of 1543 as one that freed England, to captains of the wars, justices of peace, the people from the fears in which they were and others, "which heretofore have been accus- before on the subject of religion, inasmuch as it tomed to declare or teach any good, virtuous, or delivered the laity from the hazard of burning. godly exhortations in any assemblies.” But the By one of the clauses of this new act, which, most important part of this law was the new re- throughout, is one of restriction and abridgment gulations with regard to the reading of the Scrip- of former liberties, it is expressly declared that tures. Not only was it forbidden to any person the bloody statute of the Six Articles shall still not having the license of the king or the ordinary I continue in the same force, strength, and effect